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  • risk
  • The cell-signaling protein tumor necrosis factor (TNF) - which is produced in the human body - is also a cardiovascular risk factor that promotes atherosclerosis via Angpt1 and Angpt2. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Both environmental and heritable risk factors modulate atherosclerosis development. (els.net)
  • The association between inflammation over time and atherosclerosis was assessed by regression models adjusted for age, sex and cardiovascular risk factors. (bmj.com)
  • Pulmonary function and left ventricular mass in African Americans: The Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) study. (cdc.gov)
  • Methods: Participants were African American women (n = 1,069) and men (n = 555) aged 49-73 years, from the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities study. (cdc.gov)
  • Eligibility criteria for study selection Studies describing the development or external validation of a multivariable model for predicting CVD risk in the general population. (bmj.com)
  • The prediction horizon was not specified for 49 models (13%), and for 92 (25%) crucial information was missing to enable the model to be used for individual risk prediction. (bmj.com)
  • Rather than developing yet another similar CVD risk prediction model, in this era of large datasets, future research should focus on externally validating and comparing head-to-head promising CVD risk models that already exist, on tailoring or even combining these models to local settings, and investigating whether these models can be extended by addition of new predictors. (bmj.com)
  • Over the past two decades, numerous prediction models have been developed, which mathematically combine multiple predictors to estimate the risk of developing CVD-for example, the Framingham, 3 4 5 SCORE, 6 and QRISK 7 8 9 models. (bmj.com)
  • Increased circulating levels of biomarkers of systemic inflammation including hsCRP correlate with a higher cardiovascular risk. (eas-society.org)
  • Most notably, treatment with the monoclonal antibody canakinumab, which directly targets and neutralizes IL-1β, was recently shown to be associated with reduced risk of adverse cardiovascular events compared to placebo in a randomized, placebo-controlled trial. (eas-society.org)
  • Several other therapies including colchicine, methotrexate and leukotriene inhibitors show a potential for lowering cardiovascular risk through immunomodulation. (eas-society.org)
  • lesion
  • Studies in mice to date have suggested that properly coupled macrophage apoptosis and efferocytosis in early atherosclerosis limits lesion size. (eurekaselect.com)
  • More importantly, NLS peptide inhibited lesion development in mice either at the onset of atherosclerosis (early treatment) or after the development of advanced plaques (delayed treatment), without affecting serum cholesterol levels. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • mechanisms
  • Future insight into these critically important processes will require additional insight into the molecular and cellular mechanisms that lead to lesional cell apoptosis and efferocytosis as well as new mouse models of plaque disruption and thrombosis. (eurekaselect.com)
  • Mice
  • To do this, we exposed SMC lineage tracing ( Myh11 -ER T2 Cre YFP + ) mice to lethal radiation (1,200 cGy) followed by bone marrow transplantation prior to atherosclerosis development or vessel injury. (jci.org)
  • Research
  • Mouse research has also highlighted a promising future treatment for atherosclerosis - a molecule that lowers cholesterol levels in the blood and dissolves artery-clogging plaques by mimicking the body's "good" cholesterol . (nabr.org)
  • discuss the current literature on the role of inflammation in atherosclerosis and the development of targeted immunotherapies, an evolving area of research becoming clinically relevant for the 21st century cardiac patient. (eas-society.org)
  • human
  • Representation of the major features found in human atherosclerotic plaque versus animal models. (els.net)
  • 2013) Familial hypercholesterolemia and atherosclerosis in cloned minipigs created by DNA transposition of a human PCSK9 gain‐of‐function mutant. (els.net)
  • We generated four different knock-in lines carrying distinct human cardiovascular-disorder-causing missense mutations in their zebrafish orthologous genes by combining CRISPR/Cas9 with a short template oligonucleotide. (biologists.org)
  • organism
  • The zebrafish ( Danio rerio ) has become a popular vertebrate model organism to study organ formation and function due to its optical clarity and rapid embryonic development. (biologists.org)
  • results
  • Results 9965 references were screened, of which 212 articles were included in the review, describing the development of 363 prediction models and 473 external validations. (bmj.com)
  • Diabetes
  • Much of our understanding of type 1 and 2 diabetes comes from rodent models . (nabr.org)
  • For example, one mouse model helped point the medical world to the realization that environmental factors may strongly influence the development of type 1 diabetes . (nabr.org)
  • investigators
  • Only 132 developed models (36%) were externally validated and only 70 (19%) by independent investigators. (bmj.com)
  • Investigators at the Stanford University School of Medicine have learned the signal that tumor cells display on their surfaces to protect themselves from being devoured by the immune system also plays a role in enabling atherosclerosis , the process underlying heart attacks and strokes . (medicalnewstoday.com)