• There is a great need to identify women with PAD and those who are at risk for it, especially African-American women, so that we can help lower cardiovascular ischemic event rates," says Dr. Hirsch, who was the chair of AHA writing group that developed the call-to-action statement. (physiciansweekly.com)
  • Men and women ages 50-80 years and free of cardiovascular disease were recruited from general practice registers in Lanarkshire, Glasgow, and Edinburgh in Scotland and had an ABI screening test. (acc.org)
  • Commenting on the results (and on the use of ABI as a screening method), Professor Fowkes said: "Although the AAA trial was not of screening per se, the results would suggest that using the ABI as a tool to screen individuals free of cardiovascular disease in the community is unlikely to be beneficial if aspirin is the intervention to be used in those found to be at higher risk. (eurekalert.org)
  • We studied 1775 adults aged 46-88 (21% African-American, 25% Hispanic, 13% Chinese, and 40% Caucasian) without CVD in the Multiethnic Study of Atherosclerosis who had measures of CAC, AAC, CIMT (average of maximum common and internal CIMT), and ABI available with mean follow-up of 4.74 years for CVD events (nonfatal and fatal coronary heart disease and stroke) following Exam 2-3. (ahajournals.org)
  • PAD is typically diagnosed by finding an ankle-brachial index (ABI) less than 0.90, which is the systolic blood pressure at the ankle divided by the systolic blood pressure of the arm. (wikipedia.org)
  • We used the Community Periodontal Index of Treatment Needs (CPITN) score, average probing depth and gingival bleeding index (rate of bleeding gums) to assess the severity of periodontal disease. (biomedcentral.com)
  • 1 2 Reduced levels of cognitive performance in older age have been associated with the presence of cardiovascular disease, 3 4 possibly mediated through multiple small cerebral infarcts from microatheroma or thromboses in the brain. (bmj.com)
  • Lower levels of the ABI are also associated with higher rates of concomitant coronary and cerebrovascular disease and with the presence of cardiovascular risk factors. (eurekalert.org)
  • However, over this same time interval, there has been recognition of diabetes as a cardiovascular disease (CVD) equivalent, clear demonstration that medical interventions should provide primary and secondary CVD risk reduction in diabetic populations, and suggestive evidence that percutaneous coronary revascularization may not provide additive survival benefit to intensive medical management in patients with stable CAD. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • This additional evidence raises the question of whether documenting asymptomatic atherosclerosis or ischemia in people with diabetes is warranted. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Until then, for patients with type 2 diabetes who are asymptomatic for CAD, we recommend that testing for atherosclerosis or ischemia, perhaps with cardiac CT as the initial test, be reserved for those in whom medical treatment goals cannot be met and for selected individuals in whom there is strong clinical suspicion of very-high-risk CAD. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • In addition to providing a semi-quantitative and objective measure of the severity of symptomatic PAD, the index also allows for identification of asymptomatic PAD ( Box 3 ). (mja.com.au)
  • The efficacy of aspirin for secondary prevention following a cardiovascular event has been well established in several large-scale trials, as well as in a patient-level meta-analysis by the Antithrombotic Trialists' Collaboration. (acc.org)
  • A lack of standards for measuring and calculating the ABI can lead to discrepancies that can significantly impact both prevention and treatment of cardiovascular disease," he says. (physiciansweekly.com)
  • Prevention of atherosclerosis involves improving risk factors through: healthy eating, exercise, avoidance of tobacco smoke and limiting alcohol intake. (wikipedia.org)
  • however, many important cardiovascular risk factors are modifiable by lifestyle change, social change, drug treatment (for example prevention of hypertension, hyperlipidemia, and diabetes). (wikipedia.org)