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  • germline
  • Gene regulation studies include the organization and evolution of the regulatory genome, chromatin composition and transcriptional regulation mediated by steroid hormones, epigenetic mechanisms in leukemia and stem cells, regulation of periodic splicing and mRNA translation, and gene function and epigenetic reprogramming in embryogenesis and the germline. (wikipedia.org)
  • reside
  • They reside in the stem-cell niche, which specifies stem-cell identity by sending essential signal(s). (nih.gov)
  • In the bone marrow HSCs reside either next to osteoblasts on the endosteal niche or adjacent to endothelial cells of sinusoidal vessels. (jci.org)
  • HSCs and their progeny are surrounded by stromal cells derived from MSCs, which also reside in the bone cavity. (jci.org)
  • Haematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) reside in the medulla of the bone (bone marrow) and have the unique ability to give rise to all of the different mature blood cell types and tissues. (wikipedia.org)
  • progeny
  • One daughter remains a it seems more likely that a tumor would arise from a normal stem cell and the other gives rise to differentiated progeny that stem cell. (scribd.com)
  • HSCs and their progeny are surrounded by stromal cells in BM (Figure 1 ). (jci.org)
  • Multipotency or multidifferentiative potential, which is the ability to generate progeny of several distinct cell types, (for example glial cells and neurons) as opposed to unipotency, which is the term for cells that are restricted to producing a single-cell type. (wikipedia.org)
  • Unlike GMCs, TA-GMCs divide four to eight times, each time producing another TA-GMC and a generic GMC (which goes on to produce two neurons), which is why type II neuroblasts have a larger progeny than type I. Type II neuroblasts contribute a far larger population of neurons to the Drosophlia brain. (wikipedia.org)
  • distinct
  • We suggest that a spatially restricted Wnt signal induces an oriented cell division that generates distinct cell fates at predictable positions relative to the Wnt source. (sciencemag.org)
  • Thus, mechanistic insight into how the sibling cells assume distinct identities during asymmetric stem cell division is likely to advance our knowledge in stem cell biology, developmental biology and tumor biology. (biologists.org)
  • Corbeil D, Joester A, Fargeas CA, Jaszai J, Garwood J, Hellwig A, Werner HB, Huttner WB (2009) Expression of distinct splice variants of the stem cell marker prominin-1 (CD133) in glial cells. (springer.com)
  • Population-level views of cells can offer a distorted view of the data by averaging out the properties of distinct subsets of cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • In particular in intestinal crypt, two distinct groups of SCs have been identified: the "border stem cells" located in the upper part of the niche at the interface with transit amplifying cells (TAs), and "central stem cells" located at the crypt base. (wikipedia.org)
  • bone marrow
  • In adults, osteoblasts, responsible for osteogenesis, and hematopoietic cells, responsible for hematopoiesis, are closely associated in the bone marrow, suggesting a reciprocal relationship between the two. (jci.org)
  • Sinusoidal endothelial cells in bone marrow have been revealed as an alternative HSC niche called the vascular niche. (jci.org)
  • There are three known accessible sources of autologous adult stem cells in humans: Bone marrow, which requires extraction by harvesting, that is, drilling into bone (typically the femur or iliac crest). (wikipedia.org)
  • Adult stem cells are frequently used in various medical therapies (e.g., bone marrow transplantation). (wikipedia.org)
  • For example, the defining test for bone marrow or hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) is the ability to transplant the cells and save an individual without HSCs. (wikipedia.org)
  • When bone marrow develops, it eventually assumes the task of forming most of the blood cells for the entire organism. (wikipedia.org)
  • populations
  • Single-cell analysis allows scientists to study the properties of a single cell of interest with high accuracy, revealing individual differences among populations and offering new insights in molecular biology. (wikipedia.org)
  • Moreover, MSI1 and MSI2 regulate the multiplication and maintenance of a specific group inside of neural precursors cells: CNS (central neural system) stem cells populations. (wikipedia.org)
  • embryo
  • After fertilization, events are already occurring in the one cell stage embryo to allow for the first asymmetric cell division. (wikipedia.org)
  • The centrosomes deposited by the sperm seem to be responsible for the establishment of the posterior pole within the one cell embryo. (wikipedia.org)
  • In early embryogenesis of most eutherian mammals, the inner cell mass (abbreviated ICM and also known as the embryoblast in mammals or pluriblast) is the mass of cells inside the primordial embryo that, once fertilized, will eventually give rise to the definitive structures of the fetus. (wikipedia.org)
  • citation needed] In the mouse, primordial germ cells (PGCs) arise in the posterior primitive streak of the embryo and start to migrate around 6.25 days after conception. (wikipedia.org)
  • Progenitors
  • Progenitors can go through several rounds of cell division before finally differentiating into a mature cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • Within the hematopoietic system, MSI2 is highly expressed in the most primitive progenitors, in stem cell compartments, and its overexpression has been found in myeloid leukemia cell lines. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mammalian
  • The mammalian neocortex is a sheet of cells covering the cerebrum that provides the structural basis for the perception of sensory inputs, motor output responses, cognitive function, and mental capacity of primates. (springer.com)
  • Bultje RS, Castaneda-Castellanos DR, Jan LY, Jan YN, Kriegstein AR, Shi SH (2009) Mammalian Par3 regulates progenitor cell asymmetric division via notch signaling in the developing neocortex. (springer.com)
  • I have discovered that a protein called Wnt, when coated on beads and introduced to one side of a mammalian stem cell in culture induces ACD. (royalsociety.org)
  • The physical and functional separation of the inner cell mass from the trophectoderm (TE) is a special feature of mammalian development and is the first cell lineage specification in these embryos. (wikipedia.org)
  • Beta-catenin was initially discovered in the early 1990s as a component of a mammalian cell adhesion complex: a protein responsible for cytoplasmatic anchoring of cadherins. (wikipedia.org)
  • lineage
  • Amongst the last ones, MSI2 is expressed in early stages of development, in the ventricular and subventricular zone, in cells of the astrocyte lineage. (wikipedia.org)
  • The lymphoid lineage is primarily composed of T-cells and B-cells (types of white blood cells). (wikipedia.org)
  • Furthermore, Oct4 expression is subsequently raised in these TE cells, indicating Cdx2 plays a role in suppressing Oct4 in this cell lineage. (wikipedia.org)
  • generate
  • This would generate a daughter cell lacking a copy and a daughter cell with an extra copy. (wikipedia.org)
  • Within a single human, individual cells typically have identical genomes, though there are interesting exceptions, such as B-cells, which have variation in their DNA enabling them to generate different antibodies to bind to the variety of pathogens that can attack the body. (wikipedia.org)
  • Scientific interest in adult stem cells is centered on their ability to divide or self-renew indefinitely, and generate all the cell types of the organ from which they originate, potentially regenerating the entire organ from a few cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • A variety of nontumorigenic stem cells display the ability to generate multiple cell types. (wikipedia.org)
  • There is also interspecies variation in gene expression patterns in early embryos The ICM and the TE will generate distinctly different cell types as implantation starts and embryogenesis continues. (wikipedia.org)
  • myeloid
  • As Musashi2 is involved in the generation of hematopoietic cells, it is also linked with cancer pathologies: It has been found that MSI2 plays an important role in myeloid leukemia. (wikipedia.org)
  • vivo
  • In the Research Article "Asymmetric division of clonal muscle stem cells coordinates muscle regeneration in vivo," author Dhanushika Ratnayake's given name was incorrectly listed as Dhananjani in the First Release version. (sciencemag.org)
  • Oct4 genetic knockout cells both in vivo and in culture display TE morphological characteristics. (wikipedia.org)
  • regulate
  • Osteoblasts (expressing M-CSF, RANKL, and OPG and producing IL-7) may regulate lymphoid (expressing IL-7R) and osteoclast (derived from monocytes, expressing the M-CSF ligand c-Fms and RANK) cell development. (jci.org)
  • TGFβ The TGFβ family of cytokines regulate the stemness of both normal and cancer stem cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Several factors are important to regulate stem-cell characteristics within the niche: cell-cell interactions between stem cells, as well as interactions between stem cells and neighbouring differentiated cells, interactions between stem cells and adhesion molecules, extracellular matrix components, the oxygen tension, growth factors, cytokines, and the physicochemical nature of the environment including the pH, ionic strength (e.g. (wikipedia.org)
  • Notch
  • Suppressing Notch signaling allows the daughter cells to react to the same signal in different ways, allowing them to have different neural fates. (wikipedia.org)
  • replication
  • Passing on these replication errors would allow adult stem cells to reduce their rate of accumulation of mutations that could lead to serious genetic disorders such as cancer. (wikipedia.org)
  • Developmental
  • Developmental signals such as Wnts are often presented to cells in an oriented manner. (sciencemag.org)
  • Investigation of variability within a population of cells contributes to understanding of developmental and pathological processes, A sample of cells may appear similar, but the cells can vary in their individual characteristics, such as shape and size, mRNA expression levels, genome, or individual counts of metabolites. (wikipedia.org)
  • Wnt These developmental pathways are also strongly implicated as stem cell regulators. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cell and Developmental Biology, or CDB, is built on the idea that the cell should be the primary focus of developmental biology, and that a cell ought to be understood in the context of its 'host' organism. (wikipedia.org)
  • gene
  • For example, if half the cells of a particular group are expressing high levels of a given gene, and the rest are expressing low levels, results from a population-wide analysis may appear as if all cells are expressing a medium level of the given gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • For example, early study of gene expression in individual cells in fruit fly embryos allowed scientists to discover regularized patterns or gradients of specific gene transcription during different stages of growth, allowing for a more detailed understanding of development at the level of location and time. (wikipedia.org)
  • Another phenomenon in gene expression which could only be identified at the single cell level is oscillatory gene expression, in which a gene is expressed on and off periodically. (wikipedia.org)
  • Single-cell gene expression is typically assayed using RNA-seq. (wikipedia.org)
  • This gene has also been shown to be rearranged in certain cancer cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the first one, first messenger cross through the cell membrane, binding and activating intracellular receptors localized at nucleus or cytosol, which then act as transcriptional factors regulating directly gene expression. (wikipedia.org)
  • Expression of Tis21, an antiproliferative gene, causes the neuroepithelial cell to make the switch from proliferative division to neuronic division. (wikipedia.org)
  • The germ plasm effectively turns off gene expression to render the genome of the cell inert. (wikipedia.org)
  • Biology
  • American Journal of Respiratory Cell and Molecular Biology, 24 , 662-670. (springer.com)
  • American Journal of Respiratory Cell and Molecular Biology, 47 (4), 517-527. (springer.com)
  • In cell biology, single-cell variability occurs when individual cells in an otherwise similar population differ in shape, size, position in the cell cycle, or molecular-level characteristics. (wikipedia.org)