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  • neuroscience
  • Such discoveries have made astrocytes an important area of research within the field of neuroscience . (wikipedia.org)
  • It turns out that astrocytes, which are 10 times as plentiful as neurons, had been pushed to the boundaries of neuroscience because of a gap in the tools used to study the brain. (innovations-report.com)
  • Dogma is slow to change, and one of the dogmas of neuroscience is that astrocytes are support cells that don't do much themselves," said Oberheim. (innovations-report.com)
  • Only 5 percent of astrocytes become infected with HIV, according to Eliseo Eugenin, PhD, assistant professor of pathology at the Albert Einstein College of Medicine of Yeshiva University in New York, who was the lead researcher on the study published June 29 in The Journal of Neuroscience . (lww.com)
  • On the surface of our numerous star-shaped brain cells called astrocytes, they have found the molecule LRP4 is important in ensuring healthy levels of a brain chemical that enables learning and memory, said Dr. Lin Mei, chairman of the Department of Neuroscience and Regenerative Medicine at the Medical College of Georgia at Augusta University and Georgia Research Alliance Eminent Scholar in Neuroscience. (neurosciencenews.com)
  • cells
  • The blue material shows DNA visualized with DAPI stain, and reveals the nuclei of the astrocyte and other cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Astrocytes are macroglial cells in the central nervous system. (wikipedia.org)
  • Astrocytes are derived from heterogeneous populations of progenitor cells in the neuroepithelium of the developing central nervous system. (wikipedia.org)
  • A , two-photon fluorescence images of cells in layer 2 of rat neocortex, stained using the cell-permeant green fluorescent calcium indicator Oregon Green 488 BAPTA-1 acetoxymethyl ester (OGB-1-AM) (left) and the red fluorescent astrocyte marker Sulforhodamine 101 (SR101) (center). (nih.gov)
  • Astrocytes had long been considered passive support cells, a means to hold the rest of the brain cells together, like glue. (innovations-report.com)
  • So Nedergaard devised a new way to "listen" for astrocyte activity, developing a sophisticated laser system to look at their activity by measuring the amount of calcium inside the cells. (innovations-report.com)
  • Astrocytes, once thought little more than passive, structurally supportive brain cells, are increasingly recognized as having a range of important properties and functions, such as the ability to release chemical messengers and signal to other cells. (ucl.ac.uk)
  • First author Matthew Boisvert in Allen's group instead used a ribosomal tag expressed only in astrocytes to selectively isolate these cells' RNA from the brains of 4-month-old and 2-year-old mice. (alzforum.org)
  • Because astrocytes are known to express CB1 receptors and inactivate endocannabinoids, our finding strongly suggests the existence of a functional endocannabinoid signaling system in these cells. (nih.gov)
  • The FGF signaling pathway is an important extracellular regulator in the fate of neural stem cells switching from neurons to astrocytes in the cerebral cortex. (neurosciencenews.com)
  • The finding spotlights a group of cells that, until recently, were thought to be "uninteresting" for understanding neuroAIDS, since so few astrocytes are infected with the virus. (lww.com)
  • In cell culture, Dr. Eugenin showed, infection of only a small percentage of astrocytes caused a disruption of the blood-brain barrier, increasing its permeability to molecules normally excluded, including large proteins, and leading to apoptosis of endothelial cells. (lww.com)
  • Mice lacking IκB only in neurons had a normal amount of the protein, suggesting that astrocytes are the cells that make C3 in the brain, and that this is regulated by NFκB. (alzforum.org)
  • The SCN is composed of a heterogeneous population of cells, including astrocytes and multiple neuropeptidergic classes of neurons ( Abrahamson and Moore, 2001 ). (jneurosci.org)
  • The present paper, for the first time, provides evidence that Glioblastoma and Astrocyte cells release microvesicles, which carry mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA). (springer.com)
  • Thus, the important finding has been obtained that bonafide exosomes, constitutively released by Glioblastoma cells and Astrocytes, can carry mtDNA, which can be, therefore, transferred between cells. (springer.com)
  • Although astrocytes are often broadly categorized as one cell type, a lot of diversity exists in the functions carried out by these cells," said co-senior author Dr. Chad Creighton, associate professor of medicine and member of the Dan L Duncan Comprehensive Cancer Center Division of Biostatistics at Baylor. (medindia.net)
  • The researchers took populations of mouse astrocytes, which until now have been considered to be a cell type with little diversity, and used molecular markers expressed on the cells' surface to divide the cells into subpopulations according to the cell surface markers expressed. (medindia.net)
  • One of the interests of the Deneen lab is identifying mechanisms that regulate astrocyte development and how these cells contribute to neurological diseases, in particular human glioblastoma multiforme, the most aggressive and deadly type of brain tumor. (medindia.net)
  • In these type of cancer, about 80 percent of the tumor comprises transformed astrocyte-like cells, and, just as in the case of normal brain tissue, the diversity of these tumor cell subpopulations and functions in brain tumors had not been studied in detail. (medindia.net)
  • I examined the expression of molecular markers of astrocytes as a measure of the integrity of these cells in schizophrenia. (umich.edu)
  • In fact, astrocytes account for about half of all the cells in the brain, Mei said. (neurosciencenews.com)
  • Surprisingly, although multiple critical roles now have been assigned to astrocytes, few CNS defects have been attributed specifically to faulty functioning of these cells. (jneurosci.org)
  • Using the microspectrofluorimetric technique with fura-2, as calcium indicator, brief applications of OT on single astrocytes induced a transient and reversible dose-dependent increase of intracellular calcium concentration ([Ca2+]i) in most of the cells tested. (nih.gov)
  • populations
  • Studies carried out by Hochstim and colleagues have demonstrated that three distinct populations of astrocytes arise from the p1, p2 and p3 domains. (wikipedia.org)
  • hypothalamic
  • A recent study demonstrated oxytocin (OT) receptors on hypothalamic cultured astrocytes (Di Scala-Guenot and Strosser, 1992). (nih.gov)
  • radial
  • Several forms of astrocytes exist in the central nervous system including fibrous (in white matter), protoplasmic (in grey matter), and radial . (wikipedia.org)
  • cytokines
  • Astrocyte expression of mRNA encoding cytokines IP-10 and JE/MCP-1 in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis," FASEB Journal , vol. 7, no. 6, pp. 592-600, 1993. (hindawi.com)
  • In addition, after injury to the CNS, astrocytes are activated to proliferate, hypertrophy, and secrete cytokines and growth factors. (jneurosci.org)
  • intercellular
  • Research since the mid-1990s has shown that astrocytes propagate intercellular Ca 2+ waves over long distances in response to stimulation, and, similar to neurons, release transmitters (called gliotransmitters ) in a Ca 2+ -dependent manner. (wikipedia.org)
  • tumor
  • Shiga toxin 1-induced inflammatory response in lipopolysaccharide-sensitized astrocytes is mediated by endogenous tumor necrosis factor alpha," Infection and Immunity , vol. 78, no. 3, pp. 1193-1201, 2010. (hindawi.com)
  • inflammatory
  • Similarly, in the January 2 Cell Reports, researchers led by Nicola Allen at the Salk Institute for Biological Studies in La Jolla, California, documented an uptick in expression of inflammatory and synaptic pruning genes in aged astrocytes. (alzforum.org)
  • abundant
  • Astrocytes are the most abundant cell type in the vertebrate CNS, yet their versatility and importance are only beginning to be appreciated. (jneurosci.org)
  • researchers
  • Researchers believe astrocytes may be used to develop targeted treatments for behavioral deficits associated with a range of mental illnesses. (neurosciencenews.com)
  • The researchers suspected the C3a receptor, and indeed, adding a C3aR antagonist to the co-cultures prevented spine loss and C3aR-deficient neurons thrived among IκB-negative astrocytes. (alzforum.org)
  • Alzforum
  • These are very important first steps in understanding how astrocytes evolve and how this evolution may facilitate the onset of aging-related disorders," Benjamin Deneen at Baylor College of Medicine in Houston wrote to Alzforum (see full comment below). (alzforum.org)
  • Neurological
  • Given that we found diverse astrocyte subpopulations, we wondered whether these subpopulations could also explain astrocyte contributions to a host of different neurological diseases," Deneen said. (medindia.net)