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  • protein
  • In addition, ircinin-1 suppressed the phosphorylation of pRb protein and increased the co-association of pRb or proliferating cell nuclear antigen with p21WAF1/CIP1 in these cells. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Ircinin-1 also induced cytochrome c release, cleavage activations of caspase-3 and caspase-9, and up-regulation Fas and Fas-L. Even though the inhibitor of apoptosis protein (IAPs) was expressed in ircinin-1-untreated or -treated SK-MEL-2 cells, only cIAP-1, but not XIAP or cIAP-2, was cleaved during ircinin-1-induced apoptosis at Western blot and RT-PCR studies. (aacrjournals.org)
  • However, the mechanism of cell or organ damage is still poorly understood with respect to early signaling cascades including mitogen activated protein (MAP) kinases. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Shortly after DPS injection, significant cell cycle arrest was observed in CECs at both G1/S and G2/M checkpoints, which was accompanied by the activation of cell cycle inhibitors p21 and growth arrest and DNA-damage-inducible protein 45 alpha (GADD45A). (osti.gov)
  • Our results demonstrate that G1 arrest by ribosomal protein depletion is associated with persistence of T. gondii in a model system in vitro and immunization with Δrps13 protects mice against subsequent challenge with wildtype parasites. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • In all eukaryotic cells, ATR and ATM are protein kinases that detect DNA damage. (wikipedia.org)
  • If the plasmid is not inherited, long-lived FlmA mRNA and protein will be highly toxic to the cell, possibly to the point of causing cell death. (wikipedia.org)
  • This protein is cleaved in the trans-Golgi network, and presented on the cell surface as a heterodimer. (wikipedia.org)
  • tumors
  • Purpose: It was recently reported that the organic arsenic compound darinaparsin (DPS) is a cytotoxin and radiosensitizer of tumor cells in vitro and in subcutaneous xenograft tumors. (osti.gov)
  • The extent to which viruses infect targeted cells determines the efficacy of this approach but many tumors down-regulate the Coxsackievirus and Adenovirus Receptor (CAR), rendering them less susceptible to infection. (nih.gov)
  • ASPP2 importance in human malignancies is emphasized by studies that show that downregulation of ASPP2 is commonly found in tumors and carcinoma cells expressing wild type p53, and to a lesser extent mutant p53. (wikipedia.org)
  • inhibitors
  • Predictive understanding of how to attain and enhance therapeutic efficacy of combinatorial treatment is difficult since the effects of MEK inhibitors, in conjunction with adenovirus/cell interactions, are complex nonlinear dynamic processes. (nih.gov)
  • vitro
  • Comparison of in vitro activities of camptothecin and nitidine derivatives against fungal and cancer cells. (springer.com)
  • Both in vitro and in vivo studies have shown the increase in percentage of cells positive for SA- β -gal with cumulative population doublings (CPDs) and age [ 7 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Purified CdtB had DNase activity, i.e. caused DNA double strand damage, in vitro and in vivo prior to cell arrest and apoptosis. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • inhibits
  • Wang Z, Jiang W, Zhang Z, Qian M, Du B. Nitidine chloride inhibits LPS-induced inflammatory cytokines production via MAPK and NF-kappab pathway in raw 264.7 cells. (springer.com)
  • Nitidine chloride inhibits renal cancer cell metastasis via suppressing akt signaling pathway. (springer.com)
  • It inhibits activation of T cells and B cells by reducing the production of interleukin-2 (IL-2). (wikipedia.org)
  • genome instability
  • Aneuploidy leads to genome instability, which eventually produces cell cycle-arrested cells with complex karyotypes. (jove.com)
  • Because endogenous (metabolically-caused) DNA damage is very frequent, occurring on average more than 60,000 times a day in the genomes of human cells, any reduced DNA repair is likely an important source of genome instability. (wikipedia.org)
  • The process of genome instability often leads to a situation of aneuploidy, in which the cells present a chromosomic number that is either higher or lower than the normal complement for the species. (wikipedia.org)
  • pathways
  • As the expression of reprimo is controlled by p53, which is in turn controlled by a wide array of convergent signal pathways pertaining to DNA damage or nutrient depravity, its presence is expected within cells which would cause damage should they be freely allowed to replicate. (wikipedia.org)
  • signaling pathway
  • The Notch signaling network is an evolutionarily conserved intercellular signaling pathway that regulates interactions between physically adjacent cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • In Drosophilia, notch interaction with its cell-bound ligands (delta, serrate) establishes an intercellular signaling pathway that plays a key role in development. (wikipedia.org)
  • proteins
  • Cell cycle was analyzed by flow cytometry and the cell cycle-related proteins were analyzed by quantitative PCR and Western blot. (hindawi.com)
  • The proteins in this family are expressed in nearly every tissue in the body and are known transcriptional regulators in cytokine and immune cell expression. (wikipedia.org)
  • TxpA is not similar enough to other proteins of known function to infer a related function, however it does have a suspected transmembrane region in its N-terminal, so it is possible that TxpA damages the integrity of the cell membrane, or blocks cell wall synthesis. (wikipedia.org)
  • induction
  • Apoptosis induction by NC treatment was confirmed by JC-1 mitochondrial membrane potential, annexin V-positive cell, and TUNEL staining. (springer.com)
  • Together these studies indicate that induction of G2 arrest, but not necessarily continued arrest in G2, was required for Vpr-induced apoptosis to occur. (asm.org)
  • accumulate
  • Senescent cells have been shown to accumulate with age in human tissues and, thus, have been suggested to contribute to organismal ageing [ 3 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Ageing cells accumulate DNA damage which may consequently lead to an irreversible growth arrest [ 9 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Un-repaired DNA damages accumulate in non-replicating cells, such as cells in the brains or muscles of adult mammals and can cause aging. (wikipedia.org)
  • These methylation events commonly cause aberrant DNA splicing which may cause one of many potential errors within the resulting mutant reprimo that ultimately undermine its ability to be expressed, have its intended effects, or to accumulate in sufficient quantities to produce the expected arrest reaction. (wikipedia.org)
  • toxin
  • Haemophilus parasuis cytolethal distending toxin induces cell cycle arrest and p53-dependent apoptosis. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Chromosomal toxin-antitoxin systems also exist, some of which perform cell functions such as responding to stresses, causing cell cycle arrest and bringing about programmed cell death. (wikipedia.org)
  • Toxin-antitoxin systems have several biotechnological applications, such as a method of maintaining plasmids in cell lines, targets for antibiotics, and as positive selection vectors. (wikipedia.org)
  • Thus, the toxin-antitoxin system confers an advantage to the host DNA by eliminating competing plasmids in cell progeny. (wikipedia.org)
  • MazEF, a toxin-antitoxin locus found in E. coli and other bacteria, induces programmed cell death in response to starvation, specifically a lack of amino acids. (wikipedia.org)
  • If a daughter cell does not inherit the par locus, the unstable RNAII will quickly degrade leaving the long-lived fst toxin to damage or kill the daughter cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • undergo
  • Upon entering the state of senescence, cells undergo dramatic changes in morphology. (hindawi.com)
  • These regulatory actions help to render the afflicted cell into an arrested state which is less immediately threatening to the whole organism due to the inability of afflicted cells to replicate with damaged DNA, among other potential circumstances, giving the cell an opportunity to undergo DNA repair or apoptosis as the level of damage will dictate. (wikipedia.org)
  • Chemotherapy
  • The term chemotherapy has come to connote non-specific usage of intracellular poisons to inhibit mitosis, or cell division. (wikipedia.org)
  • To a large extent, chemotherapy can be thought of as a way to damage or stress cells, which may then lead to cell death if apoptosis is initiated. (wikipedia.org)
  • Many of the side effects of chemotherapy can be traced to damage to normal cells that divide rapidly and are thus sensitive to anti-mitotic drugs: cells in the bone marrow, digestive tract and hair follicles. (wikipedia.org)
  • This results in the most common side-effects of chemotherapy: myelosuppression (decreased production of blood cells, hence also immunosuppression), mucositis (inflammation of the lining of the digestive tract), and alopecia (hair loss). (wikipedia.org)
  • Because of the effect on immune cells (especially lymphocytes), chemotherapy drugs often find use in a host of diseases that result from harmful overactivity of the immune system against self (so-called autoimmunity). (wikipedia.org)
  • These micrometastases can be treated with adjuvant chemotherapy and can reduce relapse rates caused by these disseminated cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • death
  • Therefore, we hypothesized that changes in the early signaling cascades are critically important in ethanol-mediated cell death. (aacrjournals.org)
  • The activation of JNK and p38 kinase was important in cell death since treatment with a respective inhibitor of JNK or p38 kinase significantly reduced the rate of ethanol-induced cell death. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Ethanol-induced cell death was accompanied by increased cytochrome C release and caspase 3 activity observed at 12 h in a successive manner. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Taken together, these results strongly indicate that ethanol causes apoptosis of SK-N-SH neuroblastoma cells by stimulating p53-related cell cycle arrest and apoptosis possibly mediated through activation of the JNK-related cell death pathway. (aacrjournals.org)
  • DPS decreased post-IR DNA damage and cell death, suggesting that the radioprotective effect was mediated by enhanced DNA damage repair. (osti.gov)
  • Further analysis revealed that a CAR-independent mechanism may be responsible for amplified virus production and cell death. (nih.gov)
  • This releases the cell's contents for absorption by neighbouring cells, potentially preventing the death of close relatives, and thereby increasing the inclusive fitness of the cell that perished. (wikipedia.org)
  • The mechanism by which TxpA induces cell lysis and death is unknown. (wikipedia.org)
  • mitosis
  • Traditional chemotherapeutic agents are cytotoxic by means of interfering with cell division (mitosis) but cancer cells vary widely in their susceptibility to these agents. (wikipedia.org)
  • kidney
  • MKP-4 is another MKP that belongs to Type I and, is distinct from other MKPs in this subgoup because it is only found in placenta, kidney and embryonic liver cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • MKP-5 is only located in the heart, lung, liver, kidney and skeletal muscle cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • DAMAGES
  • In replicating cells, such as cells lining the colon, errors occur upon replication of past damages in the template strand of DNA or during repair of DNA damages. (wikipedia.org)
  • Naturally occurring oxidative DNA damages arise at least 10,000 times per cell per day in humans and 50,000 times or more per cell per day in rats, as documented below. (wikipedia.org)
  • 50,000
  • When nutrients become limiting in this swarming bacteria, a group of 50,000 cells converge into a fruiting body structure. (wikipedia.org)
  • damage
  • In addition, numerous studies suggest that ethanol can damage various cells in culture. (aacrjournals.org)
  • In this study, we investigate the role of the MAP kinases during ethanol-induced damage to SK-N-SH neuroblastoma cells. (aacrjournals.org)
  • that DPS activated ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM), an important inducer of DNA damage repair and cell cycle arrest. (osti.gov)
  • growth
  • MicroRNA-140-5p suppresses retinoblastoma cell growth via inhibiting c-Met/AKT/mTOR pathway. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Nevertheless, the mechanisms that are responsible for the continuous cell growth and increased in SA- β -gal expression in senescent cells have not been well elucidated [ 8 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • ASPP2 plays a central role in regulation of apoptosis and cell growth via its interactions. (wikipedia.org)
  • plasma membrane
  • Although the precise mechanism by which osmotic stress is sensed by the cell is unclear, it has been suggested that Brx, a guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF) localized near the plasma membrane, is activated by osmotic stress through changes in the cytoskeleton structure. (wikipedia.org)
  • mechanism
  • Although the Brx-mediated activation of NFAT5 has only been examined in lymphocyte response to osmotic stress, it is hypothesized that this mechanism is a common one in other cell types. (wikipedia.org)
  • interactions
  • Alternatively, Brx may also be activated through changes in its interactions with possible osmosensor molecules at the cell membrane. (wikipedia.org)
  • human
  • On the other hand, silencing of ASPP2 expression by methylation was observed in several human carcinoma cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • enzymes
  • Cells can alternatively synthesize enzymes and transporters that increase intracellular concentration of organic osmolytes, which are less toxic than excess ions but which also aid in water retention. (wikipedia.org)
  • tumor
  • Exogenous PUFA and a TRPC3 antagonist regularly attenuated breasts cancer tumor cell proliferation and migration, recommending a mechanism where PUFA restrains the breasts cancer partially via its inhibition of TRPC stations. (cancercurehere.com)
  • Additionally, our outcomes also claim that TRPC3 shows up as a fresh mediator of breasts cancer tumor cell migration/invasion and represents a potential focus on for a fresh course of anticancer agent. (cancercurehere.com)
  • Within this research, we discovered the functional appearance of TRPC3 in individual MCF-7 breasts cancer tumor cell-mediated Ca2+ entrance. (cancercurehere.com)
  • Ca2+ entrance via turned on TRPC was improved when PUFA had been absent, recommending a double-gating system for Danshensu TRPC which may be involved with MCF breasts cancer tumor cell proliferation and invasion. (cancercurehere.com)
  • P53 is at the core of the tumor suppression mechanism and an important protein for regulating cell life, according to a paper she co-authored in the September 2016 edition of the journal Oncogene. (utexas.edu)
  • As a result, DNA damage accumulates in cells, which can allow them to grow and divide in an uncontrolled way to form a cancerous tumor. (utexas.edu)
  • Cardiac arrest Cytokine release syndrome Tumor lysis syndrome, causing acute renal failure Infections Hepatitis B reactivation Other viral infections Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) Immune toxicity, with depletion of B cells in 70% to 80% of lymphoma patients Pulmonary toxicity Bowel obstruction and perforation Two patients with systemic lupus erythematosus died of progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) after being treated with rituximab. (wikipedia.org)
  • Tumor cells arise from two distinct classes of genomic instability: mutational instability arising from changes in the nucleotide sequence of DNA and chromosomal instability arising from improper rearrangement of chromosomes. (wikipedia.org)
  • checkpoint
  • The restriction point (R) in the G1 phase is different from a checkpoint because it does not determine whether cell conditions are ideal to move on to the next phase, but it changes the course of the cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • Some authors will say that the restriction point and the G1/S checkpoint are one and the same, but more recent studies have argued that there are two different points in the G1 phase that check the progression of the cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • The first restriction point is growth-factor dependent and determines whether the cell moves into the G0 phase, while the second checkpoint is nutritionally-dependent and determines whether the cell moves into the S phase. (wikipedia.org)
  • The G1/S checkpoint is the point between G1 phase and the S phase in which the cell is cleared for progression into the S phase. (wikipedia.org)
  • At the G1/S checkpoint, formation of the G1/S cyclin with Cdk to form a complex commits the cell to a new division cycle. (wikipedia.org)
  • The absence of microtubule attachment to kinetochores activates the spindle assembly checkpoint, causing the cell to arrest in prometaphase. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is also associated with BRCA1 and is thought to modulate the functions of BRCA1 in transcriptional regulation, DNA repair, and/or cell cycle checkpoint control. (wikipedia.org)
  • senescent cells
  • Although senescent cells can no longer replicate, they remain metabolically active and commonly adopt an immunogenic phenotype consisting of a pro-inflammatory secretome, the up-regulation of immune ligands, a pro-survival response, promiscuous gene expression (pGE) and stain positive for senescence-associated β-galactosidase activity. (wikipedia.org)
  • The nucleus of senescent cells is characterized by senescence-associated heterochromatin foci (SAHF) and DNA segments with chromatin alterations reinforcing senescence (DNA-SCARS). (wikipedia.org)
  • Senescent cells affect tumour suppression, wound healing and possibly embryonic/placental development and a pathological role in age-related diseases. (wikipedia.org)
  • The experimental elimination of senescent cells from transgenic progeroid mice and non-progeroid, naturally-aged mice led to greater resistance against aging-associated diseases. (wikipedia.org)
  • The word "post-mitotic" is sometimes used to refer to both quiescent and senescent cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • 2000
  • Cells had been transfected with hCOX2 by Lipofectamine 2000. (cancercurehere.com)
  • The initial work, published in the JCI in 2000, described the method enabling successful attainment of blood outgrowth endothelial cells (BOEC). (jci.org)
  • Gene
  • In contrast to the pacemaker neurons, in which the circadian oscillations of clock gene expression what time should you take spironolactone self-sustained for many days in DD, oscillations in the peripheral clocks decline after several cycles in DD. (luxbar-starway.ru)
  • This gene is highly conserved during evolution and it plays a key role in the regulation of cell division. (wikipedia.org)
  • In contrast to caretaker genes, gatekeeper genes encode gene products that act to prevent growth of potential cancer cells and prevent accumulation of mutations that directly lead to increased cellular proliferation. (wikipedia.org)
  • For example, a mutation in a caretaker gene coding for a DNA repair pathway that leads to the inability to properly repair DNA damage could allow uncontrolled cell growth. (wikipedia.org)
  • compounds
  • The modification of isoCA-4 by introduction of difluoromethoxy group at the para-position (3i) and substitution of the two protons of the linker by two fluorine atoms (3m), produced the most active compounds in the series, with IC50 values of 0.15-2.2 nM (3i) and 0.1-2 nM (3m) respectively, against a panel of six cancer cell lines. (deepdyve.com)
  • Evaluation of cytotoxicity in Human noncancer cells indicated that the compounds 3i and 3m were practically ineffective in quiescent peripheral blood lymphocytes, and may have a selective antiproliferative activity against cancer cells. (deepdyve.com)
  • peripheral
  • In the mid-1990s, my research group began to devise a method to establish endothelial cell cultures from human peripheral blood, with an ultimate goal of examining interindividual heterogeneity of endothelial biology. (jci.org)
  • grows in size
  • During G1 phase, the cell grows in size and synthesizes mRNA and proteins (Known as histones) that are required for DNA synthesis. (wikipedia.org)
  • In this phase, the cell increases its supply of proteins, increases the number of organelles (such as mitochondria, ribosomes), and grows in size. (wikipedia.org)
  • Human
  • We used human glioma lines containing BRAF V600E (adult high-grade: AM-38, DBTRG, PLGG: BT40), or wild-type BRAF (pediatric high-grade: SF188, SF9427, SF8628) and isogenic systems of KIAA1549:BRAF -expressing NIH/3T3 cells and BRAF V600E -expressing murine brain cells. (aacrjournals.org)
  • neurons
  • Non-proliferative (non-dividing) cells in multicellular eukaryotes generally enter the quiescent G0 state from G1 and may remain quiescent for long periods of time, possibly indefinitely (as is often the case for neurons). (wikipedia.org)
  • chromosomes
  • During the final stage, cytokinesis, the chromosomes and cytoplasm separate into two new daughter cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • M phase is itself composed of two tightly coupled processes: karyokinesis, in which the cell's chromosomes are divided, and cytokinesis, in which the cell's cytoplasm divides forming two daughter cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Shugoshin is a crucial target of Bub1 kinase that plays a central role in the cohesion of chromosomes during cell division. (wikipedia.org)
  • inhibit
  • In the anterior pituitary gland, the effects of somatostatin are: Inhibit the release of growth hormone (GH) (thus opposing the effects of growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH)) Inhibit the release of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) Inhibit adenylyl cyclase in parietal cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • genome
  • Multiplicity reactivation (MR) is the process by which two or more virus genomes, each containing inactivating genome damage, can interact within an infected cell to form a viable virus genome. (wikipedia.org)
  • Changes in the genome that allow uncontrolled cell proliferation or cell immortality are responsible for cancer. (wikipedia.org)
  • variants
  • Altered DNA methylation at various CpG sites was associated with exposure to mercury, lead or BPA, providing candidates to be investigated using a larger study sample, as the results may reflect an independently associated predictor (e.g. socioeconomic status, diet, genetic variants, altered blood cell composition). (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • deficient
  • Further characterization revealed that these patients were neutropenic and NK cell deficient. (jci.org)
  • Enzyme
  • This is because vinca alkaloids are rapidly deactivated in myeloid cells by their enzyme myeloperoxidase. (wikipedia.org)
  • metabolically
  • Effect of metabolic inhibitors on the cytotoxicity of MSE and MIT in metabolically competent MCL-5 cells Discussion Genotoxic potential of MSE and MIT Introduction Materials and methods 3. (kratomextractworld.com)
  • duration
  • The duration of each phase, including the G1 phase, is different in many different types of cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • The duration of G1 is highly variable, even among different cells of the same species. (wikipedia.org)
  • For cell synchronization experiments, nocodazole is usually used at a concentration of 40-100 ng/mL of culture medium for a duration of 12-18 hours. (wikipedia.org)
  • tissues
  • This deterioration is due to the death of the muscle cells and muscle tissues and leads to ongoing muscle wasting and muscle weakness. (blogspot.com)
  • phases
  • Within the cell cycle, there is a stringent set of regulations known as the cell cycle control system that controls the timing and coordination of the phases to ensure a correct order of events. (wikipedia.org)
  • Complexes of cyclin that are active during other phases of the cell cycle are kept inactivated to prevent any cell-cycle events from occurring out of order. (wikipedia.org)
  • cancer
  • MAJOR CANCER BREAKTHROUGH: Scientists Find Plant That Kills 98% Of Cancer Cells In Just 16 Hours! (unews.top)
  • The shorter 1.8 kb transcript seems to be the major transcript in EB1 colon cancer cells. (abcam.com)
  • control
  • As nocodazole affects the cytoskeleton, it is often used in cell biology experiments as a control: for example, some dominant negative Rho small GTPases cause a similar effect as nocodazole, and constitutively activated mutants often reverse or negate the effect. (wikipedia.org)
  • activation
  • Cells can also be induced to senesce via DNA damage in response to elevated reactive oxygen species (ROS), activation of oncogenes and cell-cell fusion, independent of telomere length. (wikipedia.org)
  • citation needed
  • citation needed] In estimates made for mice, DNA lesions occur on average 25 to 115 times per minute in each cell, or about 36,000 to 160,000 per cell per day. (wikipedia.org)