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  • senescent cells
  • Although senescent cells can no longer replicate, they remain metabolically active and commonly adopt an immunogenic phenotype consisting of a pro-inflammatory secretome, the up-regulation of immune ligands, a pro-survival response, promiscuous gene expression (pGE) and stain positive for senescence-associated β-galactosidase activity. (wikipedia.org)
  • The nucleus of senescent cells is characterized by senescence-associated heterochromatin foci (SAHF) and DNA segments with chromatin alterations reinforcing senescence (DNA-SCARS). (wikipedia.org)
  • Senescent cells affect tumour suppression, wound healing and possibly embryonic/placental development and a pathological role in age-related diseases. (wikipedia.org)
  • The experimental elimination of senescent cells from transgenic progeroid mice and non-progeroid, naturally-aged mice led to greater resistance against aging-associated diseases. (wikipedia.org)
  • The word "post-mitotic" is sometimes used to refer to both quiescent and senescent cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Tumor
  • Cardiac arrest Cytokine release syndrome Tumor lysis syndrome, causing acute renal failure Infections Hepatitis B reactivation Other viral infections Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) Immune toxicity, with depletion of B cells in 70% to 80% of lymphoma patients Pulmonary toxicity Bowel obstruction and perforation Two patients with systemic lupus erythematosus died of progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) after being treated with rituximab. (wikipedia.org)
  • Tumor cells arise from two distinct classes of genomic instability: mutational instability arising from changes in the nucleotide sequence of DNA and chromosomal instability arising from improper rearrangement of chromosomes. (wikipedia.org)
  • genes
  • Inactivation of caretaker genes is environmentally equivalent to exposing the cell to mutagens incessantly. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mutations must occur in the remaining normal caretaker allele in addition to both alleles of gatekeeper genes within that cell for the said cell to turn to neoplasia. (wikipedia.org)
  • In many cases, gatekeeper genes encode a system of checks and balances that monitor cell division and death. (wikipedia.org)
  • When tissue damage occurs, for example, products of gatekeeper genes ensure that balance of cell growth over cellular death remains in check. (wikipedia.org)
  • Each cell type has only one, or at least only very few, gatekeeper genes. (wikipedia.org)
  • protein
  • In order for the cell to continue through the G1-pm, there must be a high amount of growth factors and a steady rate of protein synthesis, otherwise the cell will move into G0 phase. (wikipedia.org)
  • Rituximab is a chimeric monoclonal antibody against the protein CD20, which is primarily found on the surface of immune system B cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the stomach, somatostatin acts directly on the acid-producing parietal cells via a G-protein coupled receptor (which inhibits adenylate cyclase, thus effectively antagonising the stimulatory effect of histamine) to reduce acid secretion. (wikipedia.org)
  • neurons
  • Non-proliferative (non-dividing) cells in multicellular eukaryotes generally enter the quiescent G0 state from G1 and may remain quiescent for long periods of time, possibly indefinitely (as is often the case for neurons). (wikipedia.org)
  • checkpoint
  • The restriction point (R) in the G1 phase is different from a checkpoint because it does not determine whether cell conditions are ideal to move on to the next phase, but it changes the course of the cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • Some authors will say that the restriction point and the G1/S checkpoint are one and the same, but more recent studies have argued that there are two different points in the G1 phase that check the progression of the cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • The first restriction point is growth-factor dependent and determines whether the cell moves into the G0 phase, while the second checkpoint is nutritionally-dependent and determines whether the cell moves into the S phase. (wikipedia.org)
  • The G1/S checkpoint is the point between G1 phase and the S phase in which the cell is cleared for progression into the S phase. (wikipedia.org)
  • At the G1/S checkpoint, formation of the G1/S cyclin with Cdk to form a complex commits the cell to a new division cycle. (wikipedia.org)
  • The absence of microtubule attachment to kinetochores activates the spindle assembly checkpoint, causing the cell to arrest in prometaphase. (wikipedia.org)
  • genome
  • Multiplicity reactivation (MR) is the process by which two or more virus genomes, each containing inactivating genome damage, can interact within an infected cell to form a viable virus genome. (wikipedia.org)
  • proteins
  • Once the required proteins and growth are complete, the cell enters the next phase of the cell cycle, S phase. (wikipedia.org)
  • The T4 phage initiates an Escherichia coli infection by binding OmpC porin proteins and Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) on the surface of E. coli cells with its long tail fibers (LTF). (wikipedia.org)
  • experiments
  • As nocodazole affects the cytoskeleton, it is often used in cell biology experiments as a control: for example, some dominant negative Rho small GTPases cause a similar effect as nocodazole, and constitutively activated mutants often reverse or negate the effect. (wikipedia.org)
  • tissue
  • Thus, in a population of cells comprising a tissue with replicating cells, mutant cells will tend to be lost. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, infrequent mutations that provide a survival advantage will tend to clonally expand at the expense of neighboring cells in the tissue. (wikipedia.org)
  • citation needed
  • citation needed] In estimates made for mice, DNA lesions occur on average 25 to 115 times per minute in each cell, or about 36,000 to 160,000 per cell per day. (wikipedia.org)
  • activation
  • Cells can also be induced to senesce via DNA damage in response to elevated reactive oxygen species (ROS), activation of oncogenes and cell-cell fusion, independent of telomere length. (wikipedia.org)
  • Thus
  • In the anterior pituitary gland, the effects of somatostatin are: Inhibit the release of growth hormone (GH) (thus opposing the effects of growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH)) Inhibit the release of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) Inhibit adenylyl cyclase in parietal cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • life cycle
  • Organisms of some taxonomic groups, including some animals, experience chronological decrease in mortality, for all or part of their life cycle. (wikipedia.org)
  • Once the zoospore reaches its host, it forms a cyst underneath the surface of the skin, and initiates the reproductive portion of its life cycle. (wikipedia.org)
  • cancer cells
  • Interestingly, nocodazole has been shown to decrease the oncogenic potential of cancer cells via another microtubules-independent mechanisms. (wikipedia.org)
  • growth
  • G1 phase and the other subphases of the cell cycle may be affected by limiting growth factors such as nutrient supply, temperature, and room for growth. (wikipedia.org)
  • Physiological temperatures are optimal for cell growth. (wikipedia.org)
  • Reasons the cell would not move into the S phase include insufficient cell growth, damaged DNA, or other preparations have not been completed. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is also thought to suppress p53-induced growth arrest. (wikipedia.org)
  • Somatostatin is then carried to the anterior pituitary gland, where it inhibits the secretion of growth hormone from somatotrope cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • phase
  • If a cell is signaled to remain undivided, instead of moving onto the S phase, it will leave the G1 phase and move into a state of dormancy called the G0 phase. (wikipedia.org)
  • After a vertebrate cell has been in the G1 phase for about three hours, the cell enters a restriction point in which it is decided whether the cell will move forward with the G1 phase or move into the dormant G0 phase. (wikipedia.org)
  • After R and before S, the cell is known as being in G1-ps, or the pre S phase interval of the G1 phase. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cells that have temporarily or reversibly stopped dividing are said to have entered a state of quiescence called G0 phase. (wikipedia.org)
  • G0 is a resting phase where the cell has left the cycle and has stopped dividing. (wikipedia.org)
  • The cell cycle starts with this phase. (wikipedia.org)
  • During this phase, the biosynthetic activities of the cell, which are considerably slowed down during M phase, resume at a high rate. (wikipedia.org)
  • In G1 phase, a cell has three options. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cells treated with nocodazole arrest with a G2- or M-phase DNA content when analyzed by flow cytometry. (wikipedia.org)
  • Moreover, vinca alkaloids in the context of AML cause AML cells to undergo a cell cycle arrest in the phase that renders those cells less sensitive to cytarabine and anthracyclines. (wikipedia.org)
  • decrease
  • In a population of cells, mutant cells will increase or decrease in frequency according to the effects of the mutation on the ability of the cell to survive and reproduce. (wikipedia.org)
  • damage
  • Given these properties of DNA damage and mutation, it can be seen that DNA damages are a special problem in non-dividing or slowly dividing cells, where unrepaired damages will tend to accumulate over time. (wikipedia.org)
  • So the vinca alkaloids do much more damage to the lymphoid cell lines (including the T-cell lines responsible for antileukemic immunity) than to the myeloid cell lines. (wikipedia.org)
  • normal
  • Rituximab destroys both normal and malignant B cells that have CD20 on their surfaces and is therefore used to treat diseases which are characterized by having too many B cells, overactive B cells, or dysfunctional B cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • important
  • The tail fibres are also important in recognizing host cell surface receptors, so they determine if a bacterium is within the phage's host range. (wikipedia.org)
  • remain
  • These functional Golgi ministacks remain distributed about the cell, unable to track forward to form a perinuclear Golgi since nocodazole has depolymerized the microtubules. (wikipedia.org)
  • changes
  • The baseplate changes conformation and the tail sheath contracts, causing GP5 at the end of the tail tube to puncture the outer membrane of the cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • tumors
  • Purpose: It was recently reported that the organic arsenic compound darinaparsin (DPS) is a cytotoxin and radiosensitizer of tumor cells in vitro and in subcutaneous xenograft tumors. (osti.gov)
  • The extent to which viruses infect targeted cells determines the efficacy of this approach but many tumors down-regulate the Coxsackievirus and Adenovirus Receptor (CAR), rendering them less susceptible to infection. (nih.gov)
  • ASPP2 importance in human malignancies is emphasized by studies that show that downregulation of ASPP2 is commonly found in tumors and carcinoma cells expressing wild type p53, and to a lesser extent mutant p53. (wikipedia.org)
  • inhibits
  • Wang Z, Jiang W, Zhang Z, Qian M, Du B. Nitidine chloride inhibits LPS-induced inflammatory cytokines production via MAPK and NF-kappab pathway in raw 264.7 cells. (springer.com)
  • Nitidine chloride inhibits renal cancer cell metastasis via suppressing akt signaling pathway. (springer.com)
  • It inhibits activation of T cells and B cells by reducing the production of interleukin-2 (IL-2). (wikipedia.org)
  • anterior-posterior axis
  • They are involved in a multitude of cellular functions including osteogenesis, cell differentiation, anterior/posterior axis specification, growth, and homeostasis. (wikipedia.org)
  • signaling pathway
  • The transforming growth factor beta (TGFB) signaling pathway is involved in many cellular processes in both the adult organism and the developing embryo including cell growth, cell differentiation, apoptosis, cellular homeostasis and other cellular functions. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Notch signaling network is an evolutionarily conserved intercellular signaling pathway that regulates interactions between physically adjacent cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • In Drosophilia, notch interaction with its cell-bound ligands (delta, serrate) establishes an intercellular signaling pathway that plays a key role in development. (wikipedia.org)
  • induction
  • Apoptosis induction by NC treatment was confirmed by JC-1 mitochondrial membrane potential, annexin V-positive cell, and TUNEL staining. (springer.com)
  • Together these studies indicate that induction of G2 arrest, but not necessarily continued arrest in G2, was required for Vpr-induced apoptosis to occur. (asm.org)
  • inhibitors
  • Predictive understanding of how to attain and enhance therapeutic efficacy of combinatorial treatment is difficult since the effects of MEK inhibitors, in conjunction with adenovirus/cell interactions, are complex nonlinear dynamic processes. (nih.gov)
  • accumulate
  • Senescent cells have been shown to accumulate with age in human tissues and, thus, have been suggested to contribute to organismal ageing [ 3 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Ageing cells accumulate DNA damage which may consequently lead to an irreversible growth arrest [ 9 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Un-repaired DNA damages accumulate in non-replicating cells, such as cells in the brains or muscles of adult mammals and can cause aging. (wikipedia.org)
  • These methylation events commonly cause aberrant DNA splicing which may cause one of many potential errors within the resulting mutant reprimo that ultimately undermine its ability to be expressed, have its intended effects, or to accumulate in sufficient quantities to produce the expected arrest reaction. (wikipedia.org)
  • toxin
  • Haemophilus parasuis cytolethal distending toxin induces cell cycle arrest and p53-dependent apoptosis. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Chromosomal toxin-antitoxin systems also exist, some of which perform cell functions such as responding to stresses, causing cell cycle arrest and bringing about programmed cell death. (wikipedia.org)
  • Toxin-antitoxin systems have several biotechnological applications, such as a method of maintaining plasmids in cell lines, targets for antibiotics, and as positive selection vectors. (wikipedia.org)
  • Thus, the toxin-antitoxin system confers an advantage to the host DNA by eliminating competing plasmids in cell progeny. (wikipedia.org)
  • MazEF, a toxin-antitoxin locus found in E. coli and other bacteria, induces programmed cell death in response to starvation, specifically a lack of amino acids. (wikipedia.org)
  • If a daughter cell does not inherit the par locus, the unstable RNAII will quickly degrade leaving the long-lived fst toxin to damage or kill the daughter cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • undergo
  • Upon entering the state of senescence, cells undergo dramatic changes in morphology. (hindawi.com)
  • These regulatory actions help to render the afflicted cell into an arrested state which is less immediately threatening to the whole organism due to the inability of afflicted cells to replicate with damaged DNA, among other potential circumstances, giving the cell an opportunity to undergo DNA repair or apoptosis as the level of damage will dictate. (wikipedia.org)
  • Chemotherapy
  • The term chemotherapy has come to connote non-specific usage of intracellular poisons to inhibit mitosis, or cell division. (wikipedia.org)
  • To a large extent, chemotherapy can be thought of as a way to damage or stress cells, which may then lead to cell death if apoptosis is initiated. (wikipedia.org)
  • Many of the side effects of chemotherapy can be traced to damage to normal cells that divide rapidly and are thus sensitive to anti-mitotic drugs: cells in the bone marrow, digestive tract and hair follicles. (wikipedia.org)
  • This results in the most common side-effects of chemotherapy: myelosuppression (decreased production of blood cells, hence also immunosuppression), mucositis (inflammation of the lining of the digestive tract), and alopecia (hair loss). (wikipedia.org)
  • Because of the effect on immune cells (especially lymphocytes), chemotherapy drugs often find use in a host of diseases that result from harmful overactivity of the immune system against self (so-called autoimmunity). (wikipedia.org)
  • These micrometastases can be treated with adjuvant chemotherapy and can reduce relapse rates caused by these disseminated cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • kidney
  • MKP-4 is another MKP that belongs to Type I and, is distinct from other MKPs in this subgoup because it is only found in placenta, kidney and embryonic liver cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • MKP-5 is only located in the heart, lung, liver, kidney and skeletal muscle cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • death
  • Therefore, we hypothesized that changes in the early signaling cascades are critically important in ethanol-mediated cell death. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Ethanol-induced cell death was accompanied by increased cytochrome C release and caspase 3 activity observed at 12 h in a successive manner. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Taken together, these results strongly indicate that ethanol causes apoptosis of SK-N-SH neuroblastoma cells by stimulating p53-related cell cycle arrest and apoptosis possibly mediated through activation of the JNK-related cell death pathway. (aacrjournals.org)
  • DPS decreased post-IR DNA damage and cell death, suggesting that the radioprotective effect was mediated by enhanced DNA damage repair. (osti.gov)
  • Further analysis revealed that a CAR-independent mechanism may be responsible for amplified virus production and cell death. (nih.gov)
  • This releases the cell's contents for absorption by neighbouring cells, potentially preventing the death of close relatives, and thereby increasing the inclusive fitness of the cell that perished. (wikipedia.org)
  • 50,000
  • Naturally occurring oxidative DNA damages arise at least 10,000 times per cell per day in humans and 50,000 times or more per cell per day in rats, as documented below. (wikipedia.org)
  • When nutrients become limiting in this swarming bacteria, a group of 50,000 cells converge into a fruiting body structure. (wikipedia.org)
  • binds
  • MKP-5 is a type III MKP that binds specifically to p38 and SPK/JNK and is found both in the cytoplasmic and nuclear regions of a cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • plasma membrane
  • Although the precise mechanism by which osmotic stress is sensed by the cell is unclear, it has been suggested that Brx, a guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF) localized near the plasma membrane, is activated by osmotic stress through changes in the cytoskeleton structure. (wikipedia.org)
  • pathways
  • As the expression of reprimo is controlled by p53, which is in turn controlled by a wide array of convergent signal pathways pertaining to DNA damage or nutrient depravity, its presence is expected within cells which would cause damage should they be freely allowed to replicate. (wikipedia.org)
  • interactions
  • Alternatively, Brx may also be activated through changes in its interactions with possible osmosensor molecules at the cell membrane. (wikipedia.org)
  • enzymes
  • Cells can alternatively synthesize enzymes and transporters that increase intracellular concentration of organic osmolytes, which are less toxic than excess ions but which also aid in water retention. (wikipedia.org)
  • DAMAGES
  • In replicating cells, such as cells lining the colon, errors occur upon replication of past damages in the template strand of DNA or during repair of DNA damages. (wikipedia.org)