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  • protein
  • In addition, ircinin-1 suppressed the phosphorylation of pRb protein and increased the co-association of pRb or proliferating cell nuclear antigen with p21WAF1/CIP1 in these cells. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Ircinin-1 also induced cytochrome c release, cleavage activations of caspase-3 and caspase-9, and up-regulation Fas and Fas-L. Even though the inhibitor of apoptosis protein (IAPs) was expressed in ircinin-1-untreated or -treated SK-MEL-2 cells, only cIAP-1, but not XIAP or cIAP-2, was cleaved during ircinin-1-induced apoptosis at Western blot and RT-PCR studies. (aacrjournals.org)
  • However, the mechanism of cell or organ damage is still poorly understood with respect to early signaling cascades including mitogen activated protein (MAP) kinases. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Shortly after DPS injection, significant cell cycle arrest was observed in CECs at both G1/S and G2/M checkpoints, which was accompanied by the activation of cell cycle inhibitors p21 and growth arrest and DNA-damage-inducible protein 45 alpha (GADD45A). (osti.gov)
  • In all eukaryotic cells, ATR and ATM are protein kinases that detect DNA damage. (wikipedia.org)
  • If the plasmid is not inherited, long-lived FlmA mRNA and protein will be highly toxic to the cell, possibly to the point of causing cell death. (wikipedia.org)
  • This protein is cleaved in the trans-Golgi network, and presented on the cell surface as a heterodimer. (wikipedia.org)
  • tumors
  • Purpose: It was recently reported that the organic arsenic compound darinaparsin (DPS) is a cytotoxin and radiosensitizer of tumor cells in vitro and in subcutaneous xenograft tumors. (osti.gov)
  • The extent to which viruses infect targeted cells determines the efficacy of this approach but many tumors down-regulate the Coxsackievirus and Adenovirus Receptor (CAR), rendering them less susceptible to infection. (nih.gov)
  • ASPP2 importance in human malignancies is emphasized by studies that show that downregulation of ASPP2 is commonly found in tumors and carcinoma cells expressing wild type p53, and to a lesser extent mutant p53. (wikipedia.org)
  • elicit
  • Further, numerous studies from several different herpesvirus systems have provided unifying evidence that these viruses encode factors that elicit a cell cycle block, thereby actively preventing entry into S phase. (asm.org)
  • Therefore, it appears that although herpesviruses elicit cell cycle arrest, their complex interactions with the cell cycle regulatory machinery likely evolved to poise the cell in a precise cell cycle position which most favors viral replication. (asm.org)
  • pathways
  • It has been clear for a number of years that small DNA tumor viruses such as simian virus 40 (SV40) and papillomavirus interact with cell cycle control pathways during lytic replication in a way that promotes entry into the S phase of the cell cycle. (asm.org)
  • These cell cycle-promoting functions also appear to be important since inhibition of these pathways inhibits viral replication. (asm.org)
  • Although a scattering of publications prior to 1995 provided hints into the interaction between herpesviruses and cell cycle control pathways, accumulating interest from several different laboratories over the past 5 or 6 years has begun to provide general underlying themes into this issue as well as elucidate some of the details of these interactions. (asm.org)
  • As the expression of reprimo is controlled by p53, which is in turn controlled by a wide array of convergent signal pathways pertaining to DNA damage or nutrient depravity, its presence is expected within cells which would cause damage should they be freely allowed to replicate. (wikipedia.org)
  • phase
  • Telomere shortening with decreased telomerase activity was observed in senescent HDFs while the levels of damaged DNA and number of cells in G 0 /G 1 phase were increased and S phase cells were decreased. (hindawi.com)
  • Incubation with TRF reversed the morphology of senescent HDFs to resemble that of young cells with decreased activity of SA- β -gal, damaged DNA, and cells in G 0 /G 1 phase while cells in the S phase were increased. (hindawi.com)
  • MEK inhibition, however, interferes with adenovirus replication due to resulting G1-phase cell cycle arrest. (nih.gov)
  • C) Cell cycle phase was measured 1-3 days post treatment with CI1040 or DMSO through PI staining. (nih.gov)
  • During S phase the cell is more vulnerable to DNA damage than any other part of the cell cycle. (wikipedia.org)
  • Pursuant to this, reprimo's expression during the G2 phase of the cell cycle ultimately results in the reduction of Cdc2 expression, and in the inhibition of the nuclear translocation of cyclin B1 which is necessary to its function. (wikipedia.org)
  • Thus p57KIP2 causes arrest of the cell cycle in G1 phase. (wikipedia.org)
  • vitro
  • Comparison of in vitro activities of camptothecin and nitidine derivatives against fungal and cancer cells. (springer.com)
  • Both in vitro and in vivo studies have shown the increase in percentage of cells positive for SA- β -gal with cumulative population doublings (CPDs) and age [ 7 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Purified CdtB had DNase activity, i.e. caused DNA double strand damage, in vitro and in vivo prior to cell arrest and apoptosis. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • inhibits
  • Wang Z, Jiang W, Zhang Z, Qian M, Du B. Nitidine chloride inhibits LPS-induced inflammatory cytokines production via MAPK and NF-kappab pathway in raw 264.7 cells. (springer.com)
  • Nitidine chloride inhibits renal cancer cell metastasis via suppressing akt signaling pathway. (springer.com)
  • It inhibits activation of T cells and B cells by reducing the production of interleukin-2 (IL-2). (wikipedia.org)
  • anterior-posterior axis
  • They are involved in a multitude of cellular functions including osteogenesis, cell differentiation, anterior/posterior axis specification, growth, and homeostasis. (wikipedia.org)
  • signaling pathway
  • The transforming growth factor beta (TGFB) signaling pathway is involved in many cellular processes in both the adult organism and the developing embryo including cell growth, cell differentiation, apoptosis, cellular homeostasis and other cellular functions. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Notch signaling network is an evolutionarily conserved intercellular signaling pathway that regulates interactions between physically adjacent cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • In Drosophilia, notch interaction with its cell-bound ligands (delta, serrate) establishes an intercellular signaling pathway that plays a key role in development. (wikipedia.org)
  • induction
  • Apoptosis induction by NC treatment was confirmed by JC-1 mitochondrial membrane potential, annexin V-positive cell, and TUNEL staining. (springer.com)
  • Together these studies indicate that induction of G2 arrest, but not necessarily continued arrest in G2, was required for Vpr-induced apoptosis to occur. (asm.org)
  • interactions
  • As discussed here, regulation of the cell cycle during herpesvirus DNA replication has evolved as a complex series of interactions involving multiple viral factors, further implying an important role for this function in the life cycle of the virus. (asm.org)
  • The purpose of this review is to bridge the current understanding of virus-cell cycle interactions for these three herpesvirus lytic replication systems. (asm.org)
  • Predictive understanding of how to attain and enhance therapeutic efficacy of combinatorial treatment is difficult since the effects of MEK inhibitors, in conjunction with adenovirus/cell interactions, are complex nonlinear dynamic processes. (nih.gov)
  • ASPP2 plays a central role in regulation of apoptosis and cell growth via its interactions. (wikipedia.org)
  • Alternatively, Brx may also be activated through changes in its interactions with possible osmosensor molecules at the cell membrane. (wikipedia.org)
  • accumulate
  • Senescent cells have been shown to accumulate with age in human tissues and, thus, have been suggested to contribute to organismal ageing [ 3 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Ageing cells accumulate DNA damage which may consequently lead to an irreversible growth arrest [ 9 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Un-repaired DNA damages accumulate in non-replicating cells, such as cells in the brains or muscles of adult mammals and can cause aging. (wikipedia.org)
  • These methylation events commonly cause aberrant DNA splicing which may cause one of many potential errors within the resulting mutant reprimo that ultimately undermine its ability to be expressed, have its intended effects, or to accumulate in sufficient quantities to produce the expected arrest reaction. (wikipedia.org)
  • toxin
  • Haemophilus parasuis cytolethal distending toxin induces cell cycle arrest and p53-dependent apoptosis. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Chromosomal toxin-antitoxin systems also exist, some of which perform cell functions such as responding to stresses, causing cell cycle arrest and bringing about programmed cell death. (wikipedia.org)
  • Toxin-antitoxin systems have several biotechnological applications, such as a method of maintaining plasmids in cell lines, targets for antibiotics, and as positive selection vectors. (wikipedia.org)
  • Thus, the toxin-antitoxin system confers an advantage to the host DNA by eliminating competing plasmids in cell progeny. (wikipedia.org)
  • MazEF, a toxin-antitoxin locus found in E. coli and other bacteria, induces programmed cell death in response to starvation, specifically a lack of amino acids. (wikipedia.org)
  • If a daughter cell does not inherit the par locus, the unstable RNAII will quickly degrade leaving the long-lived fst toxin to damage or kill the daughter cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • undergo
  • Upon entering the state of senescence, cells undergo dramatic changes in morphology. (hindawi.com)
  • These regulatory actions help to render the afflicted cell into an arrested state which is less immediately threatening to the whole organism due to the inability of afflicted cells to replicate with damaged DNA, among other potential circumstances, giving the cell an opportunity to undergo DNA repair or apoptosis as the level of damage will dictate. (wikipedia.org)
  • growth
  • MicroRNA-140-5p suppresses retinoblastoma cell growth via inhibiting c-Met/AKT/mTOR pathway. (bioportfolio.com)
  • In addition, NC exhibited a synergistic effect with doxorubicin on the growth inhibition of the human breast cancer cell lines MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231. (springer.com)
  • Nevertheless, the mechanisms that are responsible for the continuous cell growth and increased in SA- β -gal expression in senescent cells have not been well elucidated [ 8 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Approximately 10 years later, Dargan and Subak-Sharpe ( 14 ) showed that infection of cells with L particles (naturally produced HSV virions that do not contain any viral DNA) blocks cell growth without inducing apoptosis. (asm.org)
  • Chemotherapy
  • The term chemotherapy has come to connote non-specific usage of intracellular poisons to inhibit mitosis, or cell division. (wikipedia.org)
  • To a large extent, chemotherapy can be thought of as a way to damage or stress cells, which may then lead to cell death if apoptosis is initiated. (wikipedia.org)
  • Many of the side effects of chemotherapy can be traced to damage to normal cells that divide rapidly and are thus sensitive to anti-mitotic drugs: cells in the bone marrow, digestive tract and hair follicles. (wikipedia.org)
  • This results in the most common side-effects of chemotherapy: myelosuppression (decreased production of blood cells, hence also immunosuppression), mucositis (inflammation of the lining of the digestive tract), and alopecia (hair loss). (wikipedia.org)
  • Because of the effect on immune cells (especially lymphocytes), chemotherapy drugs often find use in a host of diseases that result from harmful overactivity of the immune system against self (so-called autoimmunity). (wikipedia.org)
  • These micrometastases can be treated with adjuvant chemotherapy and can reduce relapse rates caused by these disseminated cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • mitosis
  • Traditional chemotherapeutic agents are cytotoxic by means of interfering with cell division (mitosis) but cancer cells vary widely in their susceptibility to these agents. (wikipedia.org)
  • cellular
  • These findings confirmed the ability of tocotrienol-rich fraction in preventing HDFs cellular ageing by restoring telomere length and telomerase activity, reducing damaged DNA, and reversing cell cycle arrest associated with senescence. (hindawi.com)
  • Normally after about 50 cell divisions, HDFs enter a state of irreversible proliferative arrest, termed as replicative senescence or cellular senescence [ 1 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • The cell size or volume is increased with accumulation of cellular debris and intracellular vesicles, many of which are lysosomes. (hindawi.com)
  • Therefore
  • Therefore, we hypothesized that changes in the early signaling cascades are critically important in ethanol-mediated cell death. (aacrjournals.org)
  • kidney
  • MKP-4 is another MKP that belongs to Type I and, is distinct from other MKPs in this subgoup because it is only found in placenta, kidney and embryonic liver cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • MKP-5 is only located in the heart, lung, liver, kidney and skeletal muscle cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • death
  • Ethanol-induced cell death was accompanied by increased cytochrome C release and caspase 3 activity observed at 12 h in a successive manner. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Taken together, these results strongly indicate that ethanol causes apoptosis of SK-N-SH neuroblastoma cells by stimulating p53-related cell cycle arrest and apoptosis possibly mediated through activation of the JNK-related cell death pathway. (aacrjournals.org)
  • DPS decreased post-IR DNA damage and cell death, suggesting that the radioprotective effect was mediated by enhanced DNA damage repair. (osti.gov)
  • Further analysis revealed that a CAR-independent mechanism may be responsible for amplified virus production and cell death. (nih.gov)
  • This releases the cell's contents for absorption by neighbouring cells, potentially preventing the death of close relatives, and thereby increasing the inclusive fitness of the cell that perished. (wikipedia.org)
  • 50,000
  • Naturally occurring oxidative DNA damages arise at least 10,000 times per cell per day in humans and 50,000 times or more per cell per day in rats, as documented below. (wikipedia.org)
  • When nutrients become limiting in this swarming bacteria, a group of 50,000 cells converge into a fruiting body structure. (wikipedia.org)
  • binds
  • MKP-5 is a type III MKP that binds specifically to p38 and SPK/JNK and is found both in the cytoplasmic and nuclear regions of a cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • plasma membrane
  • Although the precise mechanism by which osmotic stress is sensed by the cell is unclear, it has been suggested that Brx, a guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF) localized near the plasma membrane, is activated by osmotic stress through changes in the cytoskeleton structure. (wikipedia.org)
  • replication
  • Since these viruses do not code for their own DNA polymerase or other accessory factors that support DNA replication, this strategy is a means of subverting the cell cycle control machinery to support viral DNA replication. (asm.org)
  • At the end of this review, I have commented on some of the common strategies utilized by these viruses to achieve efficient cell synchronization during lytic replication. (asm.org)
  • In replicating cells, such as cells lining the colon, errors occur upon replication of past damages in the template strand of DNA or during repair of DNA damages. (wikipedia.org)
  • enzymes
  • Cells can alternatively synthesize enzymes and transporters that increase intracellular concentration of organic osmolytes, which are less toxic than excess ions but which also aid in water retention. (wikipedia.org)
  • tumor
  • Exogenous PUFA and a TRPC3 antagonist regularly attenuated breasts cancer tumor cell proliferation and migration, recommending a mechanism where PUFA restrains the breasts cancer partially via its inhibition of TRPC stations. (cancercurehere.com)
  • Additionally, our outcomes also claim that TRPC3 shows up as a fresh mediator of breasts cancer tumor cell migration/invasion and represents a potential focus on for a fresh course of anticancer agent. (cancercurehere.com)
  • Within this research, we discovered the functional appearance of TRPC3 in individual MCF-7 breasts cancer tumor cell-mediated Ca2+ entrance. (cancercurehere.com)
  • Ca2+ entrance via turned on TRPC was improved when PUFA had been absent, recommending a double-gating system for Danshensu TRPC which may be involved with MCF breasts cancer tumor cell proliferation and invasion. (cancercurehere.com)
  • P53 is at the core of the tumor suppression mechanism and an important protein for regulating cell life, according to a paper she co-authored in the September 2016 edition of the journal Oncogene. (utexas.edu)
  • As a result, DNA damage accumulates in cells, which can allow them to grow and divide in an uncontrolled way to form a cancerous tumor. (utexas.edu)
  • Cardiac arrest Cytokine release syndrome Tumor lysis syndrome, causing acute renal failure Infections Hepatitis B reactivation Other viral infections Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) Immune toxicity, with depletion of B cells in 70% to 80% of lymphoma patients Pulmonary toxicity Bowel obstruction and perforation Two patients with systemic lupus erythematosus died of progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) after being treated with rituximab. (wikipedia.org)
  • Tumor cells arise from two distinct classes of genomic instability: mutational instability arising from changes in the nucleotide sequence of DNA and chromosomal instability arising from improper rearrangement of chromosomes. (wikipedia.org)
  • senescent cells
  • Although senescent cells can no longer replicate, they remain metabolically active and commonly adopt an immunogenic phenotype consisting of a pro-inflammatory secretome, the up-regulation of immune ligands, a pro-survival response, promiscuous gene expression (pGE) and stain positive for senescence-associated β-galactosidase activity. (wikipedia.org)
  • The nucleus of senescent cells is characterized by senescence-associated heterochromatin foci (SAHF) and DNA segments with chromatin alterations reinforcing senescence (DNA-SCARS). (wikipedia.org)
  • Senescent cells affect tumour suppression, wound healing and possibly embryonic/placental development and a pathological role in age-related diseases. (wikipedia.org)
  • The experimental elimination of senescent cells from transgenic progeroid mice and non-progeroid, naturally-aged mice led to greater resistance against aging-associated diseases. (wikipedia.org)
  • The word "post-mitotic" is sometimes used to refer to both quiescent and senescent cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • 2000
  • Cells had been transfected with hCOX2 by Lipofectamine 2000. (cancercurehere.com)
  • The initial work, published in the JCI in 2000, described the method enabling successful attainment of blood outgrowth endothelial cells (BOEC). (jci.org)
  • Gene
  • In contrast to the pacemaker neurons, in which the circadian oscillations of clock gene expression what time should you take spironolactone self-sustained for many days in DD, oscillations in the peripheral clocks decline after several cycles in DD. (luxbar-starway.ru)
  • For example, a mutation in a caretaker gene coding for a DNA repair pathway that leads to the inability to properly repair DNA damage could allow uncontrolled cell growth. (wikipedia.org)
  • compounds
  • The modification of isoCA-4 by introduction of difluoromethoxy group at the para-position (3i) and substitution of the two protons of the linker by two fluorine atoms (3m), produced the most active compounds in the series, with IC50 values of 0.15-2.2 nM (3i) and 0.1-2 nM (3m) respectively, against a panel of six cancer cell lines. (deepdyve.com)
  • Evaluation of cytotoxicity in Human noncancer cells indicated that the compounds 3i and 3m were practically ineffective in quiescent peripheral blood lymphocytes, and may have a selective antiproliferative activity against cancer cells. (deepdyve.com)
  • peripheral
  • In the mid-1990s, my research group began to devise a method to establish endothelial cell cultures from human peripheral blood, with an ultimate goal of examining interindividual heterogeneity of endothelial biology. (jci.org)
  • neurons
  • Non-proliferative (non-dividing) cells in multicellular eukaryotes generally enter the quiescent G0 state from G1 and may remain quiescent for long periods of time, possibly indefinitely (as is often the case for neurons). (wikipedia.org)
  • divides
  • M phase is itself composed of two tightly coupled processes: karyokinesis, in which the cell's chromosomes are divided, and cytokinesis, in which the cell's cytoplasm divides forming two daughter cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • 1) divides more often than it should or (2) does not die when conditions warrant cell death. (wikipedia.org)
  • inhibit
  • In the anterior pituitary gland, the effects of somatostatin are: Inhibit the release of growth hormone (GH) (thus opposing the effects of growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH)) Inhibit the release of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) Inhibit adenylyl cyclase in parietal cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • genome
  • Multiplicity reactivation (MR) is the process by which two or more virus genomes, each containing inactivating genome damage, can interact within an infected cell to form a viable virus genome. (wikipedia.org)
  • Changes in the genome that allow uncontrolled cell proliferation or cell immortality are responsible for cancer. (wikipedia.org)
  • variants
  • Altered DNA methylation at various CpG sites was associated with exposure to mercury, lead or BPA, providing candidates to be investigated using a larger study sample, as the results may reflect an independently associated predictor (e.g. socioeconomic status, diet, genetic variants, altered blood cell composition). (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • deficient
  • Further characterization revealed that these patients were neutropenic and NK cell deficient. (jci.org)
  • Human
  • We used human glioma lines containing BRAF V600E (adult high-grade: AM-38, DBTRG, PLGG: BT40), or wild-type BRAF (pediatric high-grade: SF188, SF9427, SF8628) and isogenic systems of KIAA1549:BRAF -expressing NIH/3T3 cells and BRAF V600E -expressing murine brain cells. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Enzyme
  • This is because vinca alkaloids are rapidly deactivated in myeloid cells by their enzyme myeloperoxidase. (wikipedia.org)
  • metabolically
  • Effect of metabolic inhibitors on the cytotoxicity of MSE and MIT in metabolically competent MCL-5 cells Discussion Genotoxic potential of MSE and MIT Introduction Materials and methods 3. (kratomextractworld.com)
  • duration
  • The duration of each phase, including the G1 phase, is different in many different types of cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • The duration of G1 is highly variable, even among different cells of the same species. (wikipedia.org)
  • For cell synchronization experiments, nocodazole is usually used at a concentration of 40-100 ng/mL of culture medium for a duration of 12-18 hours. (wikipedia.org)
  • tissues
  • This deterioration is due to the death of the muscle cells and muscle tissues and leads to ongoing muscle wasting and muscle weakness. (blogspot.com)
  • phases
  • Within the cell cycle, there is a stringent set of regulations known as the cell cycle control system that controls the timing and coordination of the phases to ensure a correct order of events. (wikipedia.org)
  • Complexes of cyclin that are active during other phases of the cell cycle are kept inactivated to prevent any cell-cycle events from occurring out of order. (wikipedia.org)
  • cancer
  • MAJOR CANCER BREAKTHROUGH: Scientists Find Plant That Kills 98% Of Cancer Cells In Just 16 Hours! (unews.top)
  • The shorter 1.8 kb transcript seems to be the major transcript in EB1 colon cancer cells. (abcam.com)
  • activation
  • Cells can also be induced to senesce via DNA damage in response to elevated reactive oxygen species (ROS), activation of oncogenes and cell-cell fusion, independent of telomere length. (wikipedia.org)
  • experiments
  • As nocodazole affects the cytoskeleton, it is often used in cell biology experiments as a control: for example, some dominant negative Rho small GTPases cause a similar effect as nocodazole, and constitutively activated mutants often reverse or negate the effect. (wikipedia.org)
  • citation needed
  • citation needed] In estimates made for mice, DNA lesions occur on average 25 to 115 times per minute in each cell, or about 36,000 to 160,000 per cell per day. (wikipedia.org)
  • damage
  • This stops the damage where it is in the cell cycle. (utexas.edu)
  • Some DNA damage may remain in any cell despite the action of repair processes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Given these properties of DNA damage and mutation, it can be seen that DNA damages are a special problem in non-dividing or slowly dividing cells, where unrepaired damages will tend to accumulate over time. (wikipedia.org)
  • So the vinca alkaloids do much more damage to the lymphoid cell lines (including the T-cell lines responsible for antileukemic immunity) than to the myeloid cell lines. (wikipedia.org)
  • normal
  • Rituximab destroys both normal and malignant B cells that have CD20 on their surfaces and is therefore used to treat diseases which are characterized by having too many B cells, overactive B cells, or dysfunctional B cells. (wikipedia.org)