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  • extradiol
  • Catechol dioxygenases are further classified as being "extradiol" or "intradiol," and this distinction is based on mechanistic differences in the reactions (figures 1 & 2). (wikipedia.org)
  • Extradiol members utilize ferrous iron as the active redox state, and this center is commonly coordinated octahedrally through a 2-His-1-Glu motif with labile water ligands occupying empty positions. (wikipedia.org)
  • A 1,2-dihydroxynaphthalene dioxygenase (ThnC) is responsible for the extradiol cleavage of the catechol derivative ( 1 ), followed by hydrolytic cleavage (by ThnD) of the C-C bond that is part of the alicyclic ring of the fission product, resulting in a long dicarboxylic acid with 10 carbon atoms ( 12 ). (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • cleave
  • 1,2-CTD uses Fe3+ as a cofactor to cleave the carbon-carbon bond between the phenolic hydroxyl groups of catechol, thus yielding muconic acid as its product. (wikipedia.org)
  • In contrast, 2,3-CTD utilizes Fe2+ as a cofactor to cleave the carbon-carbon bond adjacent to the phenolic hydroxyl groups of catechol, thus yielding 2-hydroxymuconaldehye as its product. (wikipedia.org)
  • The gene cluster to KT2442 confers on this strain the ability to ROBO4 grow on 3-chlorobenzoate (3-CBA) (41), and (iii) the chlorocatechol 1,2-dioxygenase TcbC possesses the ability to cleave di- and tri- as well as monochlorinated catechols (39), potentially permitting the mineralization of multiply chlorinated aromatics. (globaltechbiz.com)
  • derivatives
  • Upon mixing the enzyme with the substrate and exposure to oxygen (as when a potato or apple is cut and left out), the colorless catechol oxidizes to reddish-brown melanoid pigments, derivatives of benzoquinone. (wikipedia.org)
  • Flavan-3-ols (sometimes referred to as flavanols) are derivatives of flavans that use the 2-phenyl-3,4-dihydro-2H-chromen-3-ol skeleton. (wikipedia.org)
  • methyl
  • Its methyl ether derivative, guaiacol, converts to catechol via hydrolysis of the CH3-O bond as promoted by hydriodic acid. (wikipedia.org)
  • strain
  • The 16S rDNA analysis revealed 99% nucleotide similarity to that of the type strain of R.rhodochrous (Fig. 2) ( 10 ). (kenyon.edu)
  • The Sphingomonas macrogolitabida strain TFA is a gram-negative bacterium that is able to grow on tetralin (1,2,3,4-tetrahydronaphthalene) as the only carbon and energy source ( 14 ). (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • metabolic
  • In 2010, the Lethbridge iGEM team confirmed that xylE when introduce to E. coli hydrolyzes catechol to 2-HMS demonstrating and that this critical step can successfully be performed to convert toxic chemicals to metabolic intermediates 7 . (igem.org)
  • oxidation
  • The dioxygenases (EC 1.13.11) catalyze the oxidation of a substrate without the reduction of one oxygen atom from dioxygen into a water molecule. (wikipedia.org)
  • For instance, carbon-carbon bond cleavage, fatty acid hydroperoxidation, carbon-sulfur bond cleavage, and thiol oxidation are all reactions catalyzed by mononuclear iron dioxygenases. (wikipedia.org)
  • Diagram
  • The single-molecule (monomer) catechin, or isomer epicatechin (see diagram), adds four hydroxyls to flavan-3-ol, making building blocks for concatenated polymers (proanthocyanidins) and higher order polymers (anthocyanidins). (wikipedia.org)
  • acids
  • ii) Hemicellulose is a composite compound with a mixture of pentoses, hexoses and sugar acids [ 3 - 6 ]. (ijbs.com)
  • For protein detection, it is advantageous to use fluorescent labels containing chromophores which have longer excitation wavelength and emission wavelength than the aromatic amino acids. (wikipedia.org)
  • hydroxylation
  • Catechol is produced industrially by the hydroxylation of phenol using hydrogen peroxide. (wikipedia.org)
  • C6H5OH + H2O2 → C6H4(OH)2 + H2O Previously, it was produced by hydroxylation of salicylaldehyde using hydrogen peroxide, as well as the hydrolysis of 2-substituted phenols, especially 2-chlorophenol, with hot aqueous solutions containing alkali metal hydroxides. (wikipedia.org)
  • widely
  • hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine is widely used for military and commercial purposes due to its high explosive properties. (brenda-enzymes.org)
  • Catechol is the conjugate acid of a chelating agent used widely in coordination chemistry. (wikipedia.org)
  • Catechol moieties are also found widely within the natural world. (wikipedia.org)
  • In recent years, 2-D electrophoresis has been widely accepted as a standard procedure to separate complex protein mixtures in proteome studies (Proteomics). (wikipedia.org)
  • skeleton
  • Catecholamines are biochemically significant hormones/neurotransmitters that are phenethylamines in which the phenyl group has a catechol skeleton structure. (wikipedia.org)
  • typically
  • Three lithologic units along basement Hole U1383C were found, which typically hosted ∼10 4 cells cm -3 of basaltic rock, with higher cell densities occurring between 115 and 145 m below seafloor. (frontiersin.org)
  • compound
  • Lignin is a complex polyphenyl aromatic compound which exists in tight associations with cellulose and hemicellulose to form plant primary and secondary cell wall. (ijbs.com)
  • Tetrasodium tris(bathophenanthroline disulfonate)ruthenium(II) (Na4Ru(bps)3) is a coordination compound containing a ruthenium center. (wikipedia.org)
  • Abstract
  • Following the abstract, about 3 to 10 key words that will provide indexing references to should be listed. (cjasr.com)
  • coordination
  • At the center this barrel structure is a metal ion, most commonly ferrous iron, whose coordination environment is frequently provided by residues in two partially conserved structural motifs: G(X)5HXH(X)3-4E(X)6G and G(X)5-7PXG(X)2H(X)3N. (wikipedia.org)
  • catechin
  • Catechol was first isolated in 1839 by Edgar Hugo Emil Reinsch (1809 - 1884) by distilling it from the solid tannic preparation catechin, which is the residuum of catechu, the boiled or concentrated juice of Mimosa catechu (Acacia catechu L.f). (wikipedia.org)
  • Pathways
  • Constitutive expression of selected genes from the pentose phosphate and aromatic pathways increases the shikimic acid yield in high-glucose batch cultures of an Escherichia coli strain lacking PTS and pykF Microbial Cell Factories, 12, 86. (unam.mx)
  • Oxygenation
  • Oxygenation and spontaneous deamination of 2-aminobenzenesulphonic acid in Alcaligenes sp. (genome.jp)
  • Despite this common oxygenation event, the mononuclear iron dioxygenases are diverse in how dioxygen activation is used to promote certain chemical reactions. (wikipedia.org)
  • strains
  • Following initial reconstruction from genome annotation and the literature, we iteratively refined the model by comparing its predictions with the results of large-scale experiments: (1) high-throughput growth phenotypes of the wild-type strain on 190 distinct environments, (2) genome-wide gene essentialities from a knockout mutant library, and (3) large-scale growth phenotypes of all mutant strains on 8 minimal media. (biomedcentral.com)
  • gene
  • Examples of recent gene duplication events in signaling as well as dioxygenase clusters are present, indicating selective gene family expansion as a relatively recent event in D. aromatica 's evolutionary history. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The predictions of the final version of the model, which included three rounds of refinements, are consistent with the experimental results for (1) 91% of the wild-type growth phenotypes, (2) 94% of the gene essentiality results, and (3) 94% of the mutant growth phenotypes. (biomedcentral.com)
  • carbon
  • Collectively these fungi are major inhabitants of forest biomass thus, playing a major role in carbon cycling and recycling of nutrients [ 1 , 2 ]. (ijbs.com)
  • The second catechol hydroxyl group on carbon 3 (C3) is coordinated to Fe3+ after its deprotonation by the Tyr200 ligand. (wikipedia.org)
  • reduction
  • The dioxygenases (EC 1.13.11) catalyze the oxidation of a substrate without the reduction of one oxygen atom from dioxygen into a water molecule. (wikipedia.org)
  • Molecular
  • Molecular structure of ochratoxins naturally produced by filamentous fungi [ 2 , 5 , 6 ]. (mdpi.com)
  • iron
  • Iron-containing dioxygenases can be subdivided into three classes on the basis of how iron is incorporated into the active site: those employing a mononuclear iron center, those containing a Rieske [2Fe-2S] cluster, and those utilizing a heme prosthetic group. (wikipedia.org)
  • The mononuclear iron dioxygenases, or non-heme iron-dependent dioxygenases as they are also termed, all utilize a single catalytic iron to incorporate either one or both atoms of dioxygen into a substrate. (wikipedia.org)
  • Most mononculear iron dioxygenases are members of the cupin superfamily in which the overall domain structure is described as a six-stranded β-barrel fold (or jelly roll motif). (wikipedia.org)
  • Two important groups of mononuclear, non-heme iron dioxygenases are catechol dioxygenases and 2-oxoglutarate (2OG)-dependent dioxygenases. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the 2OG-dependent dioxygenases, ferrous iron (Fe(II)) is also coordinated by a (His)2(Glu/Asp)1 "facial triad" motif. (wikipedia.org)
  • compared a combination
  • We compared a combination of 2 mg perindopril/0.625 mg indapamide with enalapril monotherapy on albumin excretion rate (AER) in patients with type 2 diabetes, albuminuria, and hypertension in a 12-month, randomized, double-blind, parallel-group international multicenter study. (uliege.be)
  • acid
  • Its methyl ether derivative, guaiacol, converts to catechol via hydrolysis of the CH3-O bond as promoted by hydriodic acid. (wikipedia.org)