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  • LCMV
  • LCMV infects Mus musculus , the common mouse, which explains why this virus is the only arenavirus with a worldwide distribution. (mdpi.com)
  • novel arenavirus
  • Intensive laboratory investigation attributed the outbreak to a novel arenavirus , dubbed 'Lujo' (i. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • A detailed genetic analysis of this novel arenavirus, named Lujo virus, after the sites of the outbreak (Lusaka, Zambia, and Johannesburg, South Africa) is published online in PLoS Pathogens ( http://dx.plos.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.1000455 ). (bio-medicine.org)
  • Simultaneously to the MCV discovery, this approach was used to implicate a novel arenavirus as cause of fatality in a case where three patients died of similar illnesses shortly following organ transplantations from a single donor. (wikipedia.org)
  • pathogenic mechanisms
  • In this article, we present the current knowledge about the hematological alterations present in VHF induced by arenaviruses, including new aspects on the underlying pathogenic mechanisms. (mdpi.com)
  • Recent studies have revealed several potential pathogenic mechanisms of arenaviruses, including factors that increase viral replication capacity and suppress host innate immunity, which leads to high viremia and generalized immune suppression as the hallmarks of severe and lethal arenaviral HF diseases. (nih.gov)
  • targets
  • It is expressed ubiquitously and is expressed at high levels on activated or rapidly dividing cells, including macrophages and activated lymphocytes, which are major targets of arenaviruses in vivo ( 30 - 33 ). (pnas.org)
  • Africa
  • Arenaviruses can be divided into two serogroups, which differ genetically and by geographical distribution: When the virus is classified "Old World" this means it was found in the Eastern Hemisphere in places such as Europe, Asia, and Africa. (wikipedia.org)
  • More recently, new arenaviruses have been associated with HF, such as Chapare virus in Bolivia [ 2 ] or Lujo virus (LUJV) in Southern Africa [ 3 ]. (mdpi.com)
  • It is the first new hemorrhagic fever-associated arenavirus from Africa identified in nearly four decades. (bio-medicine.org)
  • These findings extend knowledge of the distribution and diversity of arenaviruses in Africa. (cdc.gov)
  • VHFs
  • The goal of this article is to review the recent advances in developing laboratory diagnostic assays based on recombinant viral proteins for the diagnosis of VHFs and epidemiological studies on the VHFs caused by arenaviruses. (mdpi.com)
  • glycoproteins
  • Entry of arenaviruses into their target cells is facilitated by the two noncovalently linked surface glycoproteins GP1 and GP2. (pnas.org)
  • The organisation of the genome is typical of arenaviruses but their glycoproteins resemble those of filoviruses. (wikipedia.org)
  • We recently developed arenavirus neutralization assays using vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV)-based pseudotypes bearing arenavirus recombinant glycoproteins. (mdpi.com)
  • antibodies
  • In addition to the recognized arenavirus hosts, other Texas rodent genera (Onychomys, Baiomys, Peromyscus, Dipodomys, and Chaetodipus) have tested positive for arenavirus antibodies (Milazzo et al. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Sandwich antigen-capture (Ag-capture) ELISAs using these mAbs as capture antibodies were developed and confirmed to be sensitive and specific for detecting the respective arenavirus NPs. (mdpi.com)
  • hosts
  • Specific members of the order Rodentia are the principal hosts of the arenaviruses, for which natural host relationships have been well characterized. (cdc.gov)
  • WWAV
  • Although it is unclear if WWAV can be transmitted nosocomially, other arenaviruses have been transmitted through contact with an infected patient's blood, urine, or pharyngeal secretions. (wikipedia.org)
  • virion
  • Genomic sense RNA packaged into the arenavirus virion is designated negative-sense RNA, and must first be copied into a positive-sense mRNA in order to produce viral protein. (wikipedia.org)
  • zoonotic
  • The ability of newly emerging arenaviruses to hijack human SKI-1/S1P is a key factor for zoonotic transmission and human disease potential. (springer.com)
  • genome
  • Focusing on arenaviruses, these genome-wide surveys will reveal host factors indicative of virus entry tactics never observed before. (europa.eu)
  • Sequencing and phylogenetic investigation of partial genome sequencing indicated that this virus was not Lassavirus and likely a previously unreported arenavirus. (wikipedia.org)
  • Sequencing of the viral genome has shown that this virus belongs to the Old World arenavirus group. (wikipedia.org)
  • Comparisons with other viral genome sequences showed that this virus is equidistant from other Old World and New World arenaviruses. (wikipedia.org)
  • Chapare
  • Un gruppo dei servizi sanitari Boliviani, degli esperti in salubrità della Marina di Stati Uniti basati a Lima, del Perù e del Centri Per Il Controllo E La Prevenzione Delle Malattie degli Stati Uniti ha caratterizzato "l'arenavirus di Chapare,„ un arenavirus precedentemente non riconosciuto, scoperto nei campioni del siero da un paziente in Bolivia rurale che finalmente è morto dell'infezione. (news-medical.net)
  • mammalian
  • The Flexal mammarenavirus (also known as the Flexal virus or FLEV, and previously known by the laboratory code BeAn 293022) is a mammarenavirus: an arenavirus with a mammalian host. (wikipedia.org)
  • pathogenesis
  • In addition to other chapters in this volume, many reviews have been published in recent years about arenaviruses and their pathogenesis [ 1 , 5 , 6 , 7 , 8 , 9 ]. (mdpi.com)
  • This review summarizes current knowledge of the roles of each of the four viral proteins and some known cellular factors in the pathogenesis of arenaviral HF as well as of some human primary cell-culture and animal models that lend themselves to studying arenavirus-induced HF disease pathogenesis. (nih.gov)