• We found that treatment of PC12 cells with arecoline induced the down-regulation of cells viability and up-regulation of apoptosis and the activity of caspase-3, indicating the neurotoxic role of arecoline to PC12 cells. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Notably, the level of H2S in the culture supernatant and the expressions of cystathionine β-synthase and 3-mercaptopyruvate sulfurtransferase (two major enzymes for endogenous H2S generation in PC12 cells) were also reduced by arecoline treatment. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Arecoline, a major alkaloid of the areca nut, causes neurotoxicity through enhancement of oxidative stress and suppression of the antioxidant protective system. (semanticscholar.org)
  • These results indicate that arecoline-caused neurotoxicity to PC12 cells is involved in ER stress and disturbance of endogenous H2S generation and suggest that the modulation of ER stress and endogenous H2S generation may be potential therapeutic approach in treatment of arecoline-caused neurotoxicity. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Here, the purpose of present study was to verify whether ER stress and the disturbance of endogenous H2S generation are also involved in arecoline-caused neurotoxicity. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Background and Objective: Oral submucous fibrosis, a disease of collagen disorder, has been attributed to arecoline present in the saliva of betel quid chewers. (iisc.ac.in)
  • Arecoline is known to be a partial agonist of muscarinic acetylcholine M1, M2, M3 receptors and M4, which is believed to be the primary cause of its parasympathetic effects (such as pupillary constriction, bronchial constriction, etc. (wikipedia.org)
  • Conclusion: Taken together, our data highlight the importance of arecoline-induced epithelial changes in the pathogenesis of oral submucous fibrosis. (iisc.ac.in)
  • In the present study, we aimed to investigate the role of microRNAs (miRNAs) in arecoline-induced EMT in HaCaT cells. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • Material and Methods: Human keratinocytes (HaCaT cells) and primary human gingival fibroblasts were treated with arecoline in combination with various pathway inhibitors, and the expression of transforming growth factor-beta isoform genes and of collagen isoforms was assessed using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction analysis. (iisc.ac.in)
  • Results: We observed the induction of transforming growth factor-beta2 by arecoline in HaCaT cells and this induction was found to be caused by activation of the M-3 muscarinic acid receptor via the induction of calcium and the protein kinase C pathway. (iisc.ac.in)
  • Here, the purpose of present study was to verify whether ER stress and the disturbance of endogenous H2S generation are also involved in arecoline-caused neurotoxicity. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Notably, the level of H2S in the culture supernatant and the expressions of cystathionine β-synthase and 3-mercaptopyruvate sulfurtransferase (two major enzymes for endogenous H2S generation in PC12 cells) were also reduced by arecoline treatment. (semanticscholar.org)
  • These results indicate that arecoline-caused neurotoxicity to PC12 cells is involved in ER stress and disturbance of endogenous H2S generation and suggest that the modulation of ER stress and endogenous H2S generation may be potential therapeutic approach in treatment of arecoline-caused neurotoxicity. (semanticscholar.org)
  • To a solution of 166ml of 1M 4-chlorophenylmagnesium bromide in 700ml ether was added 12.9g of arecoline freebase in 300ml ether at -10°C. The mix was stirred at -10°C for 30 min, poured onto ice and treated with 200ml of 10% HCl. (designer-drug.com)
  • Treatment of this intermediate with sodium borohydride reduces it to 3-cyano-N-methyl-1,2,5,6-tetrahydropyridine (3) in which the position of the double bond mimics that in arecoline. (wikipedia.org)
  • It was also reported that arecoline depleted cellular glutathione (GTH) levels, and subsequently induced various genotoxic and cytotoxic stimulation in oral mucosal fibroblasts ( 7 ). (spandidos-publications.com)
  • Recently, a study found that arecoline induced expression changes in miRNAs in normal mucosal cells ( 11 ). (spandidos-publications.com)
  • We found that treatment of PC12 cells with arecoline induced the down-regulation of cells viability and up-regulation of apoptosis and the activity of caspase-3, indicating the neurotoxic role of arecoline to PC12 cells. (semanticscholar.org)
  • This hypothesis was confirmed by the dose-dependent ability of arecoline to cause hypothalamic CRH secretion in vitro, an effect antagonized by atropine, and its failure to elicit ACTH and corticosterone secretion by dispersed anterior pituicytes and adrenocortical cells in culture, respectively. (euc.ac.cy)
  • Arecoline has the effect of inhibiting the pineal gland, thereby stimulating testicular function by releasing the restraints of melatonin (3) and subsequently increasing testosterone levels (4). (anabolicminds.com)
  • In addition, arecoline also increased the expression of Bax (pro-apoptotic protein) and attenuated the expression of Bcl-2 (anti-apoptotic protein) in PC12 cells. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Simultaneously, arecoline caused excessive ER stress in PC12 cells, as evidenced by the up-regulations of Glucose-regulated protein 78 (GRP78), CCAAT/enhancer binding protein homologous protein (CHOP), and Cleaved caspase-12 expressions. (semanticscholar.org)
  • However, the molecular basis of the action of arecoline in the pathogenesis of oral submucous fibrosis is poorly understood. (iisc.ac.in)
  • When influenced by slaked lime, arecoline is hydrolyzed to arecadine, which has pronounced effects on fibroblasts ( 5 ). (spandidos-publications.com)
  • To examine the site on the HPA axis that is stimulated by cholinergic agents, we evaluated the in vivo and in vitro effects of the muscarinic cholinergic agonist arecoline in intact and pituitary stalk-transected rats as well as on isolated rat hypothalami, dispersed anterior pituicytes, and adrenocortical cells in culture. (euc.ac.cy)
  • Research suggests this is probably at least partly because of arecoline itself, although it could also be from the other constituents of the nut as well, some of which are precursors to nitrosamines that form in the mouth during chewing. (wikipedia.org)
  • The basic aim of our study was to elucidate the mechanism underlying the action of arecoline on the expression of genes in oral fibroblasts. (iisc.ac.in)
  • Arecoline, injected iv to catheterized, freely moving male Sprague-Dawley rats, stimulated plasma ACTH and corticosterone release in a dose-dependent fashion. (euc.ac.cy)
  • Pituitary stalk transection led to diminished plasma ACTH and corticosterone responses to arecoline. (euc.ac.cy)