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  • domain-containi
  • Discovery of a superfamily of RGS domain-containing proteins that negatively regulate Gα-dependent signaling resolved a prior paradox that GPCR-stimulated signals are seen to terminate much faster in vivo than predicted from the slow GTP hydrolysis rates exhibited by purified Gα subunits in vitro. (wikipedia.org)
  • thus, determining the position of subsequent Gal residues on the protein backbone, similar to the activity of human galectin domain-containing proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • mRNA
  • Release from BiP activates the ribonuclease domain of Ire1 to cleave the mRNA precursor encoding the transcription factor X-box binding protein 1 (XBP1) mRNA to its mature form, the XBP1 mRNA. (pnas.org)
  • Even though they are considered introns, which are typically cut out of pre mRNA sequences, there are significant problems that arise when exitrons are spliced out of these strands, with the most obvious result being altered protein structures and functions. (wikipedia.org)
  • Exitrons are a result of alternative splicing (AS), in which introns are typically cut out of a pre mRNA sequence, while exons remain in the sequence and are translated into proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • The same sequence within a pre mRNA strand can be considered an intron or exon depending on the desired protein to be produced. (wikipedia.org)
  • As a result, different final mRNA sequences are generated and a large variety of proteins can be made from one single gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • Amino Acids
  • Reticulon proteins, which range from 200-1,200 amino acids, have been tracked in all eukaryotic organisms that have been examined. (wikipedia.org)
  • A third coding transcript (variant 3) splices out exon 7 and produces a shortened and altered carboxy terminus in exon 10, generating a protein of 287 amino acids (isoform 3). (wikipedia.org)
  • The protein backbone contains domain rich in hydroxyproline/proline (Hyp/Pro), serine (Ser), alanine (Ala) and threonine (Thr) amino acids. (wikipedia.org)
  • When a protein is being formed, amino acids are connected in a long sequence, known as a protein's primary structure. (wikipedia.org)
  • Phe215 and Phe265 are two other important amino acids that act as "gatekeepers" to block the lower protein of the opening between the CoA-binding tunnel and the active site cavity. (wikipedia.org)
  • Pathways
  • The component pathways of the UPR, which also includes ER-associated protein degradation (ERAD), enhance the capacity of the cell to promote protein folding and to dispose of misfolded proteins, but when such measures fail, the UPR activates apoptotic cell death ( 2 ). (pnas.org)
  • They may also undergo a conformational change to participate in the formation of transient multi-protein complexes with other enzymes in the various pathways diverging from the general phenylpropanoid biosynthetic pathway. (wikipedia.org)
  • kinases
  • Signal transduction is the process by which a chemical or physical signal is transmitted through a cell as a series of molecular events, most commonly protein phosphorylation catalysed by protein kinases, which ultimately results in a cellular response. (wikipedia.org)
  • Often in the bacterial kingdom, PAS domains are positioned at the amino terminus of signaling proteins such as sensor histidine kinases, cyclic-di-GMP synthases and hydrolases, and methyl-accepting chemotaxis proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • chaperone proteins
  • The transcriptional response of Gβ mutant plants to Tm is less pronounced than that of wild-type plants, as is the accumulation of BiP chaperone proteins. (pnas.org)
  • ER-QC process consists of a series of chaperone proteins that help guide the folding of the EFR polypeptide chains, preventing the aggregation of many polypeptide chains into one large group. (wikipedia.org)
  • heterotrimeric G prote
  • We present evidence that heterotrimeric G protein signaling is involved in cell death associated with the unfolded protein response (UPR) in Arabidopsis . (pnas.org)
  • Before the discovery of RGS proteins, the duration of heterotrimeric G-protein signaling was thought to be modulated by only two factors: the intrinsic GTP hydrolysis rate of the Gα subunit and acceleration of that rate by some specialized Gα effectors (i.e., phospholipase C-beta isoforms). (wikipedia.org)
  • RGS proteins are now considered key desensitizers of heterotrimeric G protein signaling and, as such, as new drug discovery targets. (wikipedia.org)
  • exons
  • The primary transcript originally described, contained 11 exons with protein coding beginning on exon 2 and ending in exon 11 (transcript variant 2), resulting in a 398 amino acid protein with two strongly predicted transmembrane domains (TMDs), coded in exons 2 and 7 (isoform 2). (wikipedia.org)
  • proteome
  • The ability of exitron splicing (EIS) to alter protein states demonstrates the effect it can have on proteome assortment. (wikipedia.org)
  • Exitron splicing has been found to be a conserved strategy for increasing proteome plasticity in both plants and animals since it affects plant and human protein features in a similar manner. (wikipedia.org)
  • regulatory
  • NAC transcription factor ORE1 and senescence-induced BIFUNCTIONAL NUCLEASE1 (BFN1) constitute a regulatory cascade in Arabidopsis. (labome.org)
  • Serine/threonine-protein phosphatase 2A 65 kDa regulatory subunit A alpha isoform is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the PPP2R1A gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • This foundational work by Siderovski on a new class of GPCR signaling regulators has been cited over 18,000 times according to Google Scholar and also resulted in Siderovski editing a two-volume set of Methods in Enzymology chapters devoted to these regulatory proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • For instance, the plant Flu regulatory protein is present both in Arabidopsis (multicellular higher plant) and Chlamydomonas (single cell green algae). (wikipedia.org)
  • interactions
  • Quantitative analysis of dynamic protein-protein interactions in planta by a floated-leaf luciferase complementation imaging (FLuCI) assay using binary Gateway vectors. (labome.org)
  • Interactions between proteins can be direct physical interactions and also indirect, which may involve intermediate molecules to facilitate interactions. (plantphysiol.org)
  • For example, an indirect interaction means that if proteins A and B, and also B and C, have direct interactions, then A and C indirectly interact. (plantphysiol.org)
  • Studies have shown that these enzymes interact via protein-protein interactions. (wikipedia.org)
  • Due to this velcro capability, the PAS domain has been shown as the key structural motif involved in protein-protein interactions of the circadian clock, and it is also a common motif found in signaling proteins, where it functions as a signaling sensor. (wikipedia.org)
  • PAS A is responsible for the protein-protein interactions with other PAS domain proteins, while PAS B has a more versatile role. (wikipedia.org)
  • transmembrane domains
  • From the following databases: UniProt, one of the largest protein databases SOURCE, convenient gene information overview Simple Modular Architecture Research Tool (SMART) SOSUI, predicts transmembrane domains PSORT, predicts protein localisation HomoloGene, compares proteins from different species gfp-cdna, protein localisation with fluorescence microscopy International Protein Index (IPI) These databases are not collected, but are crosslinked, being displayed via iframes. (wikipedia.org)
  • nucleotide
  • The tool works with standard single letter nucleotide or protein codes including ambiguities and can match Prosite patterns in protein sequences. (nih.gov)
  • UniProt
  • p>When browsing through different UniProt proteins, you can use the 'basket' to save them, so that you can back to find or analyse them later. (uniprot.org)
  • Harvesters search index is based on the IPI and UniProt protein information collection. (wikipedia.org)
  • eukaryotes
  • The family of vertebrate proteins are called reticulons, and all other located eukaryotes are called reticulon-like proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • The PAS domain was named after the three proteins in which it was first discovered: Per - period circadian protein Arnt - aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator protein Sim - single-minded protein Since the initial discovery of the PAS domain, a large quantity of PAS domain binding sites have been discovered in bacteria and eukaryotes. (wikipedia.org)
  • superfamily
  • His earliest publications, starting with a brief original report in Current Biology, chronicle his independent discovery of the RGS protein superfamily and determinations of their varied protein structures and cellular functions. (wikipedia.org)
  • Arabinogalactan-proteins (AGP) are members of the hydroxyproline (Hyp)-rich cell wall glycoprotein superfamily and are extensively glycosylated. (wikipedia.org)
  • homologs
  • Only a few homologs of proteins centrally involved in the UPR in other systems have been identified in plants: Ire1 ( 11 - 13 ), eIF2α ( 14 , 15 ), and p58 IPK ( 16 ). (pnas.org)
  • PRRs
  • We propose an additional role for PRRs in which they act upon CO protein to promote flowering, directly coupling information on light exposure to the timekeeper and allowing recognition of LDs. (labome.org)
  • Perception
  • Perception of the Arabidopsis danger signal peptide 1 involves the pattern recognition receptor AtPEPR1 and its close homologue AtPEPR2. (labome.org)
  • yellow fluores
  • These rescued double-mutant plants carry a yellow fluorescent protein ( YFP ) -MAP3Kε1 transgene under the control of the alcohol-inducible AlcA promoter from Aspergillus nidulans . (frontiersin.org)
  • transcription
  • In Arabidopsis thaliana, there are three main families of transcription factors that contain B3 domain: ARF (Auxin Response Factors) ABI3 (ABscisic acid Insensitive3) RAV (Related to ABI3/VP1) PDB: 1WID​ and PDB: 1YEL​ are only known NMR solution phase structures of the B3 DNA Binding Domain. (wikipedia.org)
  • cellular
  • Overexpression of mutated seipin proteins N88S or S90L can also activate autophagy, and substantially altering the sub-cellular distribution of the autophagosome marker GFP-LC3, which leads to a number of large vacuoles appearing in the cytoplasm. (wikipedia.org)
  • The sub-cellular location of GFP-LC3 and mutated seipin proteins highly overlap. (wikipedia.org)
  • molecular
  • Generally, the PAS domain acts as a molecular velcro, whereby small molecules and other proteins associate via binding of the PAS domain. (wikipedia.org)
  • sequences
  • A previous study had looked at alternative splicing in Rockcress (Arabidopsis) plants and pinpointed characteristics of retained introns in sequences. (wikipedia.org)
  • receptor
  • The first regulator of G protein signaling that Siderovski cloned, (RGS2) was subsequently found to be a potent GTPase-accelerating protein (GAP) for G-alpha-q in vitro and an attenuator of Gq-coupled receptor signaling in cell-based assays (e.g., ref. (wikipedia.org)
  • UV-B resistance 8 (UVR8) also known as ultraviolet-B receptor UVR8 is an UV-B - sensing protein found in plants and possibly other sources. (wikipedia.org)
  • EFR (EF-Tu receptor) is a pattern-recognition receptor (PRR) that binds to the prokaryotic protein EF-Tu (elongation factor thermo unstable) in Arabidopsis thaliana. (wikipedia.org)
  • residues
  • Geiger D, Becker D, Lacombe B, Hedrich R. Outer pore residues control the H(+) and K(+) sensitivity of the Arabidopsis potassium channel AKT3. (labome.org)
  • The AGs are O-glycosidically linked to clustered non-contiguous Hyp residues on the protein backbone (Hyp contiguity hypothesis). (wikipedia.org)
  • annotation
  • p>An evidence describes the source of an annotation, e.g. an experiment that has been published in the scientific literature, an orthologous protein, a record from another database, etc. (uniprot.org)
  • interacts
  • Following monomerization, UVR8 accumulates in the nucleus where it interacts with a protein called constitutively photomorphogenic 1 (COP1). (wikipedia.org)
  • commonly
  • section provides an exhaustive list of all names of the protein, from commonly used to obsolete, to allow unambiguous identification of a protein. (uniprot.org)
  • Genes
  • A massive reprogramming of the transcriptome was observed in rwa2 as compared to the wild type, including a coordinated up-regulation of genes involved in responses to abiotic stress, particularly detoxification of reactive oxygen species and defense against microbial pathogens (e.g., lipid transfer proteins, peroxidases). (osti.gov)
  • Gary Loake from the University of Edinburgh was involved in this Plant Cell paper, in which the mostly Chinese team identify that FRIGIDA - a scaffold protein involved in the recruitment of chromatin modifiers that cause epigenetic changes to regulate flowering genes - is degraded in a proteasome-mediated mechanism. (garnetcommunity.org.uk)
  • scaffold protein
  • It is speculated that BIK1 activation might be enhanced through transphosphorylation by BAK1 rather than by FLS2 because FLS2 more likely serves as a scaffold protein for the arrangement of the BAK1- FLS2 complex. (wikipedia.org)
  • mutants
  • We show that the Arabidopsis T-DNA insertion mutants of REDUCED WALL ACETYLATION 2 (rwa2), previously identified as having reduced O-acetylation of both pectins and hemicelluloses, exhibit pleiotrophic phenotype on the leaf surface. (osti.gov)
  • Biological
  • The Biological General Repository for Interaction Datasets (BioGRID) is a curated biological database of protein-protein interactions, genetic interactions, chemical interactions, and post-translational modifications created in 2003 (originally referred to as simply the General Repository for Interaction Datasets (GRID) by Mike Tyers, Bobby-Joe Breitkreutz, and Chris Stark at the Lunenfeld-Tanenbaum Research Institute at Mount Sinai Hospital. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Biological General Repository for Interaction Datasets (BioGRID) is an open access database that houses genetic and protein interactions curated from the primary biomedical literature for all major model organism species and humans. (wikipedia.org)
  • synthesis
  • This enzyme is an integral membrane protein localized to two subcellular domains, the matrix side of the inner mitochondrial membrane where it is thought to be involved in the synthesis of phosphatidylglycerol and cardiolipin. (wikipedia.org)
  • Embryonic
  • Among its related pathways are Regulation of retinoblastoma protein and Embryonic and Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell Differentiation Pathways and Lineage-specific Markers . (genecards.org)
  • In higher eukaryotes, the enzymes acquire one additional domain, a role in the production of PtdIns5P, a new set of interacting proteins and become essential in embryonic development. (wikipedia.org)
  • lumen
  • Retention within the lumen of the ER correlates with an additional signal located at the C terminus, represented by the sequence Lys-Asp-Glu-Leu, known to be responsible for preventing secretion of proteins from the lumen of the ER in eukaryotic cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • pathway
  • The pathway maps illustrate protein interactions and regulation to provide a comprehensive picture of signaling and disease processes. (bio-rad.com)
  • Current research regarding Botrytis-induced kinase1 aims to determine how BIK1 interacts with MAPK pathway proteins as well as with the OXI1 kinase. (wikipedia.org)
  • This autophagic pathway engulfs multivesicular bodies formed after endocytosis therefore it plays role in membrane proteins turnover. (wikipedia.org)
  • interaction
  • The encoded protein is a component of the interleukin-17 receptor signaling complex, and the interaction between this protein and IL-17R does not require the interleukin. (genecards.org)
  • Tiling arrays aid in transcriptome mapping as well as in discovering sites of DNA/protein interaction (ChIP-chip, DamID), of DNA methylation (MeDIP-chip) and of sensitivity to DNase (DNase Chip) and array CGH. (wikipedia.org)
  • The BioGRID's original focus was on curation of binary protein-protein and genetic interactions, but has expanded over several updates to incorporate curated post-translational modification data, chemical interaction data, and complex multi-gene/protein interactions. (wikipedia.org)
  • The BioGRID architecture has been improved in order to support a broader range of interaction and post-translational modification types, to allow the representation of more complex multi-gene/protein interactions, to account for cellular phenotypes through structured ontologies, to expedite curation through semi-automated text-mining approaches, and to enhance curation quality control. (wikipedia.org)
  • Receptors
  • The four histamine receptors that have been discovered in humans are designated H1 through H4, and are all '''G Protein-Coupled Receptors''' (GPCR). (openwetware.org)
  • Breakdown products of phosphoinositides are ubiquitous second messengers that function downstream of many G protein-coupled receptors and tyrosine kinases regulating cell growth, calcium metabolism, and protein kinase C activity. (wikipedia.org)
  • mice
  • A similar protein in mice plays a role in craniofacial and rib cage development during embryogenesis. (genecards.org)
  • Studies have been conducted on TLR11 as well, and it has been shown that it recognizes flagellin and profilin-like proteins in mice. (wikipedia.org)
  • mainly
  • Soybean ( Glycine max (L.) Merrill) is a globally important commercial crop, grown mainly for its protein, oil and nutraceutical contents. (intechopen.com)
  • plants
  • WIWAM xy is a robot for the high-throughput and reproducible phenotyping of seedlings and small plants, like Arabidopsis. (agriculture-xprt.com)
  • Plants lacking a BIK1 protein or that have a BIK1 protein whose functions are being inhibited may exhibit a shorter flowering period and a smaller stature for the plant overall. (wikipedia.org)
  • functional
  • Although grown worldwide for its protein and oil, high value added products such as plant functional nutraceuticals, including phospholipids, saponins, isoflavones, oligosaccharides and edible fibre, have gained importance in the last decade. (intechopen.com)
  • Nonetheless, TLR11 is only a pseudogene in humans without direct function or functional protein expression. (wikipedia.org)
  • PIKfyve is a large protein, containing a number of functional domains and expressed in several spliced forms. (wikipedia.org)
  • calcium
  • The protein encoded by this gene is a high affinity calcium ion-binding protein that is structurally and functionally similar to calmodulin and troponin C. The encoded protein is thought to be involved in muscle relaxation. (genecards.org)
  • Gene Ontology (GO) annotations related to this gene include calcium ion binding and protein heterodimerization activity . (genecards.org)
  • Size
  • Using Arabidopsis, the group studied the relationship between day length, the size of the shoot apical meristem, and the robustness of phyllotactic patterns. (garnetcommunity.org.uk)
  • Domain
  • By directly binding membrane PtdIns(3)P, the FYVE finger domain of PIKfyve is essential in localizing the protein to the cytosolic leaflet of endosomes. (wikipedia.org)
  • expression
  • WNK1 activates the serum-and glucocorticoid-inducible protein kinase SGK1, leading to increased expression of the epithelial sodium channel (ENaC), which also promotes sodium re absorption. (wikipedia.org)
  • Literature
  • Users of The BioGRID can search for their protein or publication of interest and retrieve annotation, as well as curated data as reported, by the primary literature and compiled by in house large-scale curation efforts. (wikipedia.org)
  • activation
  • Light-induced isomerization of 11-cis to all-trans retinal triggers a conformational change leading to G-protein activation and release of all-trans retinal. (genecards.org)
  • cells
  • The protein encoded by this gene is found in rod cells in the back of the eye and is essential for vision in low-light conditions. (genecards.org)