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  • genes
  • B-cells within the germinal center proliferate and undergo immunoglobulin somatic hypermutation (SHM) of IgV region genes to revise their antigen receptors. (wikipedia.org)
  • The rearranging of genes makes the cells capable of generating antibodies with a higher or lower affinity to the specified antigen. (wikipedia.org)
  • BCL-6 genes are involved in several cell processes that can affect the ability of the B-cell to differentiate and proliferate. (wikipedia.org)
  • mechanisms
  • We sought to determine the mechanisms leading to a decreased cyclin D3 mRNA stability in activated T cells cultured in medium deprived of L-Arg. (jimmunol.org)
  • Several mechanisms have been identified in mammalian cells for the induction of apoptosis. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Gene expression profiling has revealed that diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) is composed of at least 3 different sub-groups, each having distinct oncogenic mechanisms that respond to therapies in different ways. (wikipedia.org)
  • ROS are produced intracellularly through multiple mechanisms and depending on the cell and tissue types, the major sources being the "professional" producers of ROS: NADPH oxidase (NOX) complexes (7 distinct isoforms) in cell membranes, mitochondria, peroxisomes, and endoplasmic reticulum. (wikipedia.org)
  • progression
  • TGF-β functions as a tumour suppressor by inhibiting the growth of untransformed epithelial, endothelial and lymphoid cells [ 4 , 5 , 6 ] and resistance to TGF-β is regarded as one of the crucial steps in malignant progression [ 2 , 7 ]. (mdpi.com)
  • In the early stages of cancer development, TGF-β signalling functions as a tumour suppressor by inhibiting cell cycle progression from G1 to S phase and inducing apoptosis, senescence and differentiation [ 2 , 5 , 8 , 9 ]. (mdpi.com)
  • Cell cycle anomalies revealed on the DNA content frequency histogram are often observed after different types of cell damage, for example such DNA damage that interrupts the cell cycle progression at certain checkpoints. (wikipedia.org)
  • Such an arrest of the cell cycle progression can lead either to an effective DNA repair, which may prevent transformation of normal into a cancer cell (carcinogenesis), or to cell death, often by the mode of apoptosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • In response to genotoxic stress, it contributes to turn off CDK1 activity by mediating the degradation of CDC25A in collaboration with Chk1, thereby preventing cell cycle progression before the completion of DNA repair. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cancer cell heterogeneity can cause disease progression when molecularly targeted therapy, fails to kill those tumor cells which do not express the marker, then divide and mutate further, creating a new heterogeneous tumour. (wikipedia.org)
  • regulates
  • However, although persin transcriptionally down-regulates estrogen receptor (ER) expression, unlike conjugated linoleic acid, it also shows efficacy in ER-negative breast cancer cells, both alone and in combination with 4-hydroxytamoxifen, whereas normal breast epithelial cells are unaffected, suggesting it may act via a distinct, ER-independent mechanism. (aacrjournals.org)
  • The activated transcription factor c-Jun regulates nuclear transcription via AP-1 to increase pro-apoptotic gene transcription. (wikipedia.org)
  • TCTP interacts with F-actin and mitotic spindle and regulates cell shape by interacting with the cytoskeleton. (wikipedia.org)
  • vitro
  • The RBP HuR binds to the cyclin D3 mRNA in vitro and endogenously in activated T cells cultured with L-Arg, but not in L-Arg-deprived T cells. (jimmunol.org)
  • We have previously described a novel plant toxin, persin, derived from avocado leaves, which has unique in vivo actions in the mammary epithelium and Bim-dependent, cytotoxic effects in human breast cancer cells in vitro . (aacrjournals.org)
  • In addition, pTpT, a molecular mimic of CPD was tested in vitro and in vivo for the ability to induce cell death and cell cycle alterations. (biomedcentral.com)
  • To confirm the effects observed with CPD lesions, the molecular mimic of CPD, pTpT, was also tested in vitro and in vivo for its effect on cell cycle and apoptosis. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Inhibition of PKAI by antisense oligonucleotides targeting its RIα regulatory subunit results in cancer cell growth inhibition in vitro and in vivo . (aacrjournals.org)
  • Similar cell cycle compartments are also recognized by multiparameter analysis that includes measurement of expression of cyclin D1, cyclin E, cyclin A and cyclin B1, each in relation to DNA content Concurrent measurement of DNA content and of incorporation of DNA precursor 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU) by flow cytometry is an especially useful assay, that has been widely used in analysis of the cell cycle in vitro and in vivo. (wikipedia.org)
  • The degree of DNA fragmentation in sperm cells can predict outcomes for in vitro fertilization (IVF) and its expansion intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI). (wikipedia.org)
  • nucleus
  • During later stages, larger so-called dynamic blebs may appear, which may carry larger organelle fragments such as larger parts of the fragmented apoptotic cell nucleus. (wikipedia.org)
  • At the level of the cell, Daxx is found in the cytoplasm, interacting with Fas-receptor or other cytoplasmic molecules, as well as in the nucleus, where it is interacting with some subnuclear structures. (wikipedia.org)
  • ASK1 will be transported to the nucleus when UV-irradiation is used to treat the cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, hydrogen peroxide is actually more damaging to DNA than the hydroxyl radical, since the lower reactivity of hydrogen peroxide provides enough time for the molecule to travel into the nucleus of the cell, subsequently reacting with macromolecules such as DNA. (wikipedia.org)
  • receptor
  • Fas is a member of the tumor necrosis factor (TNF) receptor superfamily, a family of transmembrane receptors that include neurotrophin receptor (p75NTR), TNF-R1, and a variety of other cell surface receptors. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Compounds structurally similar to persin, such as the polyunsaturated fatty acid, conjugated linoleic acid, can attenuate steroid hormone receptor signaling and modulate the response of breast cancer cells to antiestrogens. (aacrjournals.org)
  • necrotic
  • However, for years there has been a debate about its accuracy, due to problems in the original assay which caused necrotic cells to be inappropriately labeled as apoptotic. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, cell organelles do not spread into necrotic blebs. (wikipedia.org)
  • undergoes
  • The cell undergoes a dramatic transformation from a polygonal shape to a cell that extends dendrites toward the mineralizing front, followed by dendrites that extend to either the vascular space or bone surface. (wikipedia.org)
  • response
  • We found that ATM is essentially nuclear in these cells and that various readouts of the ATM-mediated damage response are similar to those seen in commonly used cell lines. (jneurosci.org)
  • For a successful yet controlled immune response, cells need to specifically destabilize inflammatory mRNAs but prevent premature removal of those still used. (embopress.org)
  • Cellular senescence is a programmed response that prevents a cell from dividing after some number of cell divisions. (wikipedia.org)
  • DLBCL patients are at higher risk when they relapse early after R-CHOP chemotherapy and have a poor response to second-line rituximab-containing treatments even when these regimens involve high-dose therapy and autologous stem cell transplant. (wikipedia.org)
  • Antineoplastic drugs kill susceptible sub-populations and the tumour mass may shrink as an initial response to the drug, resistant cancer cells will survive treatment, be selected and then propagate, eventually causing a cancer relapse. (wikipedia.org)
  • chemotherapy
  • Viral infections, particularly herpes simplex virus, varicella zoster virus, and cytomegalovirus, result either due to reactivation of latent viruses or new infections as sequelae of chemotherapy and debilitated cell-mediated immunity. (aacrjournals.org)
  • While chemotherapy and IR depend primarily on cell cycle control and p21, heat shock depends primarily on Bax. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Antineoplastic resistance, often used interchangeably with chemotherapy resistance, is the multiple drug resistance of neoplastic (cancerous) cells, or the ability of cancer cells to survive and grow despite anti-cancer therapies. (wikipedia.org)
  • Antineoplastic resistance, synonymous with chemotherapy resistance, is the ability of cancer cells to survive and grow despite different anti-cancer therapies, i.e. their multiple drug resistance. (wikipedia.org)
  • functional
  • Consequently, the functional outcome of TGF-β signalling is strongly context-dependent and is influenced by various factors including cell, tissue and cancer type. (mdpi.com)
  • Frequently, cancer cells become resistant to the tumour suppressive effects of TGF-β, however functional TGF-β signalling often persists in these cells enabling TGF-β-induced tumour promoting phenotypes [ 13 , 14 , 15 , 16 ]. (mdpi.com)
  • The functional relevance of p53, p21 CIP/WAF-1 and Bax was investigated in isogeneic HCT116 cell mutants treated with 5-FU, IR and heat shock. (biomedcentral.com)
  • These functional analyses were performed in isogeneic HCT116 cell mutants. (biomedcentral.com)
  • receptors
  • All motifs contribute to the broad range of different molecular and biologic functions by enabling interaction of CTGF with a large number of cytokines, cell surface receptors or proteoglycans. (molvis.org)
  • Another significant portion of the receptors is located in the hypothalamus (supra optic and paraventricular nuclei) and external granule cell layer of the prefrontal cortex. (wikipedia.org)
  • GCB DLBCL shows amplification of the oncogenic mir-17-92 microRNA cluster and deletion of the tumor suppressor PTEN but these events have not been found in ABC DLBCL B-cells form in the bone marrow and undergo gene rearrangement in order to develop B-cell receptors (BCRs) that bind to a specific antigen. (wikipedia.org)
  • There is evidence that pancreatic beta cells express both the TrkA and p75NTR receptors of NGF. (wikipedia.org)
  • nuclear
  • Importantly, all of these responses are detected in the nuclei of granule and Purkinje cells, suggesting that nuclear ATM functions in these cells similar to other cell types. (jneurosci.org)
  • It has been associated with heterochromatin and PML-NBs (Promyelocytic Leukaemia nuclear bodies) and has been implicated in many nuclear processes including transcription and cell cycle regulation. (wikipedia.org)
  • mechanism
  • Myeloid-derived suppressor cells are a major mechanism of tumor-induced immune suppression in cancer. (jimmunol.org)
  • These data contribute to an understanding of a central mechanism by which diseases characterized by increased arginase I production may cause T cell dysfunction. (jimmunol.org)
  • A second mechanism is through the association of neurotrophic factors like nerve growth factor (NGF), brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF). (wikipedia.org)
  • immune
  • The tumor microenvironment represents a complex network, in which tumor cells not only communicate with each other but also with stromal and immune cells. (biomedcentral.com)
  • More importantly, EM011 treatment at tumor-suppressive dosages (300 mg/kg) does not suppress cell-mediated immune responses in mice experimentally challenged with acute lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus infection, in that mice mount robust virus-specific CD8 + and CD4 + T-cell immune responses while maintained on daily drug treatment. (aacrjournals.org)
  • 7 , 8 ), these agents, due to their gross effects on microtubules and nonselective action, affect all dividing cells and cause various serious toxicities including weakening of the immune system, leucocytopenias, alopecia, and gastrointestinal and neurologic toxicities ( 9 - 12 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • roles in cell
  • In a biological context, ROS are formed as a natural byproduct of the normal metabolism of oxygen and have important roles in cell signaling and homeostasis. (wikipedia.org)
  • mitotic
  • The concurrent measurement of cellular DNA and RNA content, or DNA susceptibility to denaturation at low pH using the metachromatic dye acridine orange, reveals the G1Q, G1A, and G1B cell cycle compartments and also makes it possible to discriminate between S, G2 and mitotic cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Not all cells die immediately following abnormal mitosis caused by mitotic catastrophe, but many do. (wikipedia.org)
  • transcription
  • The expression of key transcription factors in B cell development is frequently regulated by non-coding RNAs termed microRNAs. (wikipedia.org)
  • mitochondria
  • The cell also exhibits a reduced size endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi apparatus and mitochondria, and cell processes that radiate towards the mineralizing matrix. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mitochondria convert energy for the cell into a usable form, adenosine triphosphate (ATP). (wikipedia.org)
  • prevents
  • CPI-613 is an E1α pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) modulator that prevents cancer cells from metabolizing glucose for energy. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • extracellular matrix
  • The transformation from motile osteoblast to entrapped osteocyte takes about three days, and during this time, the cell produces a volume of extracellular matrix three times its own cellular volume, which results in 70% volume reduction in the mature osteocyte cell body compared to the original osteoblast volume. (wikipedia.org)
  • cancer cell
  • We have recently shown that a mixed backbone oligonucleotide targeting RIα can cooperatively inhibit human cancer cell growth when combined with selected cytotoxic drugs. (aacrjournals.org)
  • There are two general causes of antineoplastic therapy failure: Inherent genetic characteristics, giving cancer cells their resistance, which is rooted in the concept of cancer cell heterogeneity and acquired resistance after drug exposure. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cancer cell heterogeneity, or tumour heterogeneity, is the idea that tumours are made up of different populations of cancer cells that are morphologically, phenotypically and functionally different. (wikipedia.org)
  • adhesion
  • Rho-GTPases are involved in regulating cell morphology (through cytoskeletal organization) and migration (through focal adhesion formation). (wikipedia.org)