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  • mutation
  • Therefore, p53 is altered from overproduction to mutation during the development of hypergastrinemia-induced ECLoma and it may therefore play a role in the cell transformation. (curehunter.com)
  • used a mitotic recombination screen to identify a mutation that gave rise to a Drosophila eye phenotype associated with loss of cells derived from those that divide during the second mitotic wave of third instar eye disc development. (sciencemag.org)
  • Conclusions- Taken together, these data demonstrate that MSI is uncommon in FPAH and suggest that somatic loss of the remaining wild-type BMPR2 allele in heterozygous mutation carriers likely does not play a significant role in modulating the onset or progression of FPAH. (ahajournals.org)
  • FOXO1 mutation was associated with decreased overall survival in patients treated with rituximab, cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone ( P = .037), independent of cell of origin (COO) and the revised International Prognostic Index (R-IPI). (bloodjournal.org)
  • The DCC gene was examined for the genetic changes found with most other tumour suppressor genes, but it was found to have a comparatively low frequency of somatic mutation. (wikipedia.org)
  • The discovery of a specific function for DCC that seemed to have little to do with cell cycle control, the low somatic mutation rate and the absence of cancer predisposition in DCC heterozygotes were fairly discouraging evidence for DCC's putative tumour suppressor status. (wikipedia.org)
  • In human cancer cell lines derived from various tumor types, a high frequency of genetic and epigenetic alterations (e.g., promoter hyper-methylation, homozygous deletion or mutation) in the CDKN2A gene has been observed. (wikipedia.org)
  • For example, a mutation in a caretaker gene coding for a DNA repair pathway that leads to the inability to properly repair DNA damage could allow uncontrolled cell growth. (wikipedia.org)
  • hematopoietic cells
  • In vivo dual inactivation of Hdac1 and Hdac2 in hematopoietic cells resulted in apoptosis of megakaryocytes with concomitant anemia and thrombocytopenia, suggesting that similar toxicities observed in patients treated with HDACi are caused by on-target inhibition. (uva.nl)
  • induce
  • Furthermore, we show that a combination of activated Ras and SV40 LT fails to induce robust anchorage-independent growth in naked mole-rat cells, while it readily transforms mouse fibroblasts. (pnas.org)
  • In the absence of netrin-1, DCC signaling has been shown to induce apoptosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Heat shock is used to induce Flp recombinase marker gene expression is activated in dividing cells due to recombination. (wikipedia.org)
  • antigen
  • From Primer to the Immune Response by Tak Mak, Mary Saunders and Bradley Jett: Germinal Center Function - An antigen-activated B cell proliferates and generates centroblasts, converting the secondary follicle into a GC with dark and light zones (1). (thestreet.com)
  • We begin this section by discussing the mechanisms that B cells use to produce antibodies with an enormous diversity of antigen -binding sites. (nih.gov)
  • We then consider how a B cell can alter the tail region of the antibody it makes, while keeping the antigen- binding site unchanged. (nih.gov)
  • This ability allows the B cell to switch from making membrane -bound antibody to making secreted antibody, or from making one class of antibody to making another, all without changing the antigen-specificity of the antibody. (nih.gov)
  • There are only about 15,000 patients presently in the U.S. MCL is a subtype of B-cell lymphoma, due to CD5 positive antigen-naive pregerminal center B-cell within the mantle zone that surrounds normal germinal center follicles. (wikipedia.org)
  • Once activated by an antigen, B-cells proliferate and further differentiate into plasma cells and memory B-cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • B-cells that have not encountered an antigen are called naive B cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • When naïve B-cells encounter an antigen, one of the pathways that they can follow is through the germinal center environment. (wikipedia.org)
  • The rearranging of genes makes the cells capable of generating antibodies with a higher or lower affinity to the specified antigen. (wikipedia.org)
  • NHEJ is also used to repair DSBs generated during V(D)J recombination when gene regions are rearranged to create the unique antigen binding sites of antibodies and T-cell receptors. (wikipedia.org)
  • pathways
  • A schematic of some of the components and signalling pathways involved in apoptosis. (creation.com)
  • Activations of the hTERT or alternate lengthening of telomeres (ALT) pathways are obligate for senescence bypass and for neoplastic transformation of normal cells ( 14 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • MicroRNAs (miRNAs) participate in pathways fundamental to B cell development like B cell receptor (BCR) signalling, B cell migration/adhesion, cell-cell interactions in immune niches, and the production and class-switching of immunoglobulins. (wikipedia.org)
  • genetic
  • The African rodent mastomys exhibits a genetic predisposition to develop gastric carcinoids derived from enterochromaffin-like (ECL) cells. (curehunter.com)
  • The predominant genetic changes found in hPSC lines involve changes in chromosome number and structure (particularly of chromosomes 1, 12, 17 and 20), reminiscent of the changes observed in cancer cells. (springer.com)
  • However, the presence of genetic changes in hPSCs coupled with their increased growth rates is reminiscent of the defining features of cancer cells (Baker et al. (springer.com)
  • This has facilitated the development of potent and specific targeted therapies, based on the genetic and biochemical alterations present in the tumor, especially non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). (hindawi.com)
  • Our purpose was to investigate the potential prognostic role of the hTERT functional genetic variant in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients. (aacrjournals.org)
  • The assessment of telomerase genetic variants could supplement prognosis of survival in the course of non-small cell lung cancer and may be a promising molecular marker of treatment response in these patients. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Genetic integrity is gradually lost as telomeres progressively become shorter with each cell replication cycle ( 12 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • During the development of a B cell, a complete coding sequence for each of the two antibody chains to be synthesized is assembled by site-specific genetic recombination (discussed in Chapter 5). (nih.gov)
  • Other potential uses of embryonic stem cells include investigation of early human development, study of genetic disease and as in vitro systems for toxicology testing. (wikipedia.org)
  • regulates
  • The Notch signaling network is an evolutionarily conserved intercellular signaling pathway which regulates interactions between physically adjacent cells. (cancerindex.org)
  • FSH is synthesized and secreted by the gonadotropic cells of the anterior pituitary gland, and regulates the development, growth, pubertal maturation, and reproductive processes of the body. (wikipedia.org)
  • molecules
  • Cells are born after the division of a progenitor cell, then they increase their size about twice by the synthesis of many cells structures and molecules, including DNA, and finally they divide to give rise to two new cells. (uvigo.es)
  • Circulating cell free DNA (CCFDNA) molecules were first identified in 1948. (mdpi.com)
  • A biochemical cascade, also known as a signaling cascade or signaling pathway, is a series of chemical reactions which are initiated by a stimulus (first messenger) acting on a receptor that is transduced to the cell interior through second messengers (which amplify the initial signal) and ultimately to effector molecules, resulting in a cell response to the initial stimulus. (wikipedia.org)
  • This response is quick, as it involves regulation of molecules that are already present in the cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • pathway
  • In Drosophilia, notch interaction with its cell-bound ligands (delta, serrate) establishes an intercellular signaling pathway that plays a key role in development. (cancerindex.org)
  • Activation of the nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B-cells (NF-κB) pathway is found only in ABC DLBCLs and not GCB DLBCLs. (wikipedia.org)
  • Collectively, this type of receptor is known as a dependence receptor because the unbound pathway is usually apoptotic, meaning that cell survival depends on ligand presence. (wikipedia.org)
  • P14ARF is a central actor of the cell cycle regulation process as it participates to the ARF-MDM2-p53 pathway and the Rb-E2F-1 pathway. (wikipedia.org)
  • E2F family members play a major role during the G1/S transition in mammalian and plant cell cycle (see KEGG cell cycle pathway). (wikipedia.org)
  • If the DSB occurs after DNA replication has completed proceeding S phase of the cell cycle, the DSB repair pathway will use homologous recombination by pairing with the newly synthesized daughter strand to repair the break. (wikipedia.org)
  • cyclin
  • Cyclin E abundance (but not expression of the cyclin E transcript) was reduced in tenured mutant cells, whereas that of cyclins A and B was normal. (sciencemag.org)
  • When a cell enters the G1 phase, a protein called cyclin D increases in response to mitogenic stimuli. (springer.com)
  • Lane 1:A549 cell lysates probed with Rabbit Anti-Cyclin A1 Polyclonal Antibody, Unconjugated (ABIN714026) at 1:300 overnight at 4 °C. Followed by conjugation to secondary antibody at 1:5000 for 90 min at 37 °C. (antibodies-online.com)
  • MCL cells generally over-express cyclin D1 due to a t(11:14) chromosomal translocation in the DNA. (wikipedia.org)
  • chromosomal
  • The APC, which is activated by Fizzy-Cdc20 family proteins, is a cell cycle ubiquitin-protein ligase (E3) that degrades mitotic cyclins, chromosomal proteins that maintain cohesion of sister chromatids, and anaphase inhibitors. (wikipedia.org)
  • Somatic cells of mice deficient in ATR have a decreased frequency of homologous recombination and an increased level of chromosomal damage. (wikipedia.org)
  • Tumor cells arise from two distinct classes of genomic instability: mutational instability arising from changes in the nucleotide sequence of DNA and chromosomal instability arising from improper rearrangement of chromosomes. (wikipedia.org)
  • tumors
  • These cells become capable of forming foci and growing in soft agar and more importantly, these cells can form tumors in nude mice due to PLK1 overexpression. (wikipedia.org)
  • differentiate
  • Somatic stem cells, however, are multipotent and can only differentiate into cell types of the specific tissue or organ from which they originate. (springer.com)
  • Embryonic stem cells, derived from the blastocyst stage early mammalian embryos, are distinguished by their ability to differentiate into any cell type and by their ability to propagate. (wikipedia.org)
  • Embryonic stem cells of the inner cell mass are pluripotent, that is, they are able to differentiate to generate primitive ectoderm, which ultimately differentiates during gastrulation into all derivatives of the three primary germ layers: ectoderm, endoderm, and mesoderm. (wikipedia.org)
  • Additionally, under defined conditions, embryonic stem cells are capable of propagating themselves indefinitely in an undifferentiated state and have the capacity when provided with the appropriate signals to differentiate, presumably via the formation of precursor cells, to almost all mature cell phenotypes. (wikipedia.org)
  • According to a 2002 article in PNAS, "Human embryonic stem cells have the potential to differentiate into various cell types, and, thus, may be useful as a source of cells for transplantation or tissue engineering. (wikipedia.org)
  • BCL-6 genes are involved in several cell processes that can affect the ability of the B-cell to differentiate and proliferate. (wikipedia.org)
  • Stem cells decrease in number and tend to lose the ability to differentiate into progenies or lymphoid lineages and myeloid lineages. (wikipedia.org)
  • mechanisms
  • Gene expression profiling has revealed that diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) is composed of at least 3 different sub-groups, each having distinct oncogenic mechanisms that respond to therapies in different ways. (wikipedia.org)
  • Diseases such as Alzheimer's disease, end-stage renal failure and heart disease are caused by different mechanisms that are not related to stem cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • human
  • In most human somatic cells, telomeres become shorter with each cell division due to incomplete lagging DNA strand synthesis and oxidative damage ( 10 , 11 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • The human ova grow from primitive germ cells that are embedded in the substance of the ovaries. (wikipedia.org)
  • The ovum is one of the largest cells in the human body, typically visible to the naked eye without the aid of a microscope or other magnification device. (wikipedia.org)
  • Human embryos reach the blastocyst stage 4-5 days post fertilization, at which time they consist of 50-150 cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Human ES cells measure approximately 14 μm while mouse ES cells are closer to 8 μm. (wikipedia.org)
  • Because primordial follicles can be dormant for up to 50 years in the human, the length of the ovarian cycle does not include this time. (wikipedia.org)
  • Gorczyca W, Traganos F, Jesionowska H, Darzynkiewicz Z. Presence of DNA strand breaks and increased sensitivity of DNA in situ to denaturation in abnormal human sperm cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • There are at least several hundred distinct cell types in the adult human body. (wikipedia.org)
  • tumor cells
  • The specific variable (V)-region and constant (C)-region coding sequences that the tumor cells used were present on the same DNA restriction fragment in the tumor cells but on two different restriction fragments in the embryos. (nih.gov)
  • The tumor cells accumulate in the lymphoid system, including lymph nodes and the spleen, with non-useful cells eventually rendering the system dysfunctional. (wikipedia.org)
  • CDC5 is believed to have roles in sister-kinetochore coorientation and chromosome segregation during meiosis I. Plk1 is considered a proto-oncogene, whose overexpression is often observed in tumor cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • fragmentation
  • Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) is a method for detecting DNA fragmentation by labeling the 3′- hydroxyl termini in the double-strand DNA breaks generated during apoptosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • TUNEL is a method for detecting apoptotic DNA fragmentation, widely used to identify and quantify apoptotic cells, or to detect excessive DNA breakage in individual cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • gene
  • Consequently, all clone of cells derived from GSC are marked with a functional lacZ gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • The gene for the FSH beta subunit is located on chromosome 11p13, and is expressed in gonadotropes of the pituitary cells, controlled by GnRH, inhibited by inhibin, and enhanced by activin. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the first one, first messenger cross through the cell membrane, binding and activating intracellular receptors localized at nucleus or cytosol, which then act as transcriptional factors regulating directly gene expression. (wikipedia.org)
  • DSBs that are not efficiently repaired may result in the loss of important protein coding genes and regulatory sequences required for gene expression necessary for the life of a cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • replication
  • Any error during the replication of DNA may lead to lethal damages in the two new cells, and worse, in the organism. (uvigo.es)
  • A double-stranded gap in DNA will also prevent replication from proceeding, resulting in an incomplete copy of that specific chromosome, targeting the cell for apoptosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Rounds of cell replication allow fixation of mutated genes into the genome. (wikipedia.org)
  • adult
  • These include each of the more than 220 cell types in the adult body. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, these problems associated with histocompatibility may be solved using autologous donor adult stem cells, therapeutic cloning. (wikipedia.org)
  • Protein
  • This protein is cleaved in the trans-Golgi network, and presented on the cell surface as a heterodimer. (cancerindex.org)
  • In CDC5 depleted cells, kinetochores are bioriented during meiosis I, and Mam1, a protein essential for coorientation, fails to associate with kinetochores. (wikipedia.org)
  • DNA microarray analysis reveals unique sets of target promoters among E2F family members suggesting that each protein has a unique role in the cell cycle. (wikipedia.org)
  • Flow Cytometry
  • The fluorochrome-based TUNEL assay applicable for flow cytometry, combining the detection of DNA strand breaks with respect to the cell cycle-phase position, was originally developed by Gorczyca et al. (wikipedia.org)
  • instability
  • The viability of MMR genes including MSH2 can be tracked via microsatellite instability, a biomarker test that analyzes short sequence repeats which are very difficult for cells to replicate without a functioning mismatch repair system. (wikipedia.org)
  • granulosa cells
  • These primordial follicles contain immature oocytes surrounded by flat, squamous granulosa cells (the support cells) that are segregated from the oocyte's environment by the basal lamina. (wikipedia.org)
  • A glycoprotein polymer capsule called the zona pellucida forms around the oocyte, separating it from the surrounding granulosa cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • In females, FSH initiates follicular growth, specifically affecting granulosa cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • endothelial
  • Histologically, the disease is characterized by obstruction of the small pulmonary arteries resulting from the development of vascular plexiform and concentric lesions that in turn are defined by proliferating and migrating endothelial and smooth muscle cells. (ahajournals.org)
  • Some of the cell types that have or are currently being developed include cardiomyocytes (CM), neurons, hepatocytes, bone marrow cells, islet cells and endothelial cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • quiescent
  • After the mitotic phase, the daughter cells re-enter the G1 phase or go into the quiescent state. (springer.com)
  • In REF52 cells, overexpression of activator E2F1 is able to push quiescent cells into S phase. (wikipedia.org)
  • E2F activator levels are cyclic, with maximal expression during G1/S. In contrast, E2F repressors stay constant, especially since they are often expressed in quiescent cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • inhibit
  • The ability of encapsulated, thus growth restricted cells, to inhibit freely growing cancer cells has been shown when the encapsulated cells are murine (RENCA) or human (e.g. (aacrjournals.org)
  • In the anterior pituitary gland, the effects of somatostatin are: Inhibit the release of growth hormone (GH) (thus opposing the effects of growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH)) Inhibit the release of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) Inhibit adenylyl cyclase in parietal cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • 1998
  • In a 1998 review article, Alan Hall compiled evidence showing that not only do fibroblasts form processes upon Rho activation, but so do virtually all eukaryotic cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • humans
  • In humans, the normal physiological temperature is around 37 °C (98.6 °F). G1 phase is particularly important in the cell cycle because it determines whether a cell commits to division or to leaving the cell cycle. (wikipedia.org)
  • In early (small) antral follicles, FSH is the major survival factor that rescues the small antral follicles (2-5 mm in diameter for humans) from apoptosis (programmed death of the somatic cells of the follicle and oocyte). (wikipedia.org)
  • TUNEL
  • The fluorochrome-based TUNEL assay applicable for flow cytometry, combining the detection of DNA strand breaks with respect to the cell cycle-phase position, was originally developed by Gorczyca et al. (wikipedia.org)
  • CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link) Darzynkiewicz, Z, Galkowski, D, Zhao, H. (2008) Analysis of apoptosis by cytometry using TUNEL assay. (wikipedia.org)
  • processes
  • Some DNA damage may remain in any cell despite the action of repair processes. (wikipedia.org)
  • As a series of operational protocols used for performing research, namely a cycle composed of theory, analytic or computational modelling to propose specific testable hypotheses about a biological system, experimental validation, and then using the newly acquired quantitative description of cells or cell processes to refine the computational model or theory. (wikipedia.org)
  • DNA repair is a collection of processes by which a cell identifies and corrects damage to the DNA molecules that encode its genome. (wikipedia.org)
  • When normal repair processes fail, and when cellular apoptosis does not occur, irreparable DNA damage may occur, including double-strand breaks and DNA crosslinkages (interstrand crosslinks or ICLs). (wikipedia.org)
  • DNA damage, due to environmental factors and normal metabolic processes inside the cell, occurs at a rate of 10,000 to 1,000,000 molecular lesions per cell per day. (wikipedia.org)
  • FSH is synthesized and secreted by the gonadotropic cells of the anterior pituitary gland, and regulates the development, growth, pubertal maturation, and reproductive processes of the body. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Cancer Genome Atlas data collection Computational algorithms to extract drivers of cancer progression from existing datasets Statistical and mechanistic modeling of signaling networks Quantitative modeling of cancer evolutionary processes Mathematical modeling of cancer cell population growth Mathematical modeling of cellular responses to therapeutic intervention Mathematical modeling of cancer metabolism The practice of Cancer Systems Biology requires close physical integration between scientists with diverse backgrounds. (wikipedia.org)
  • death
  • Compared to most laboratory strains of HEK 293, Adeno-X 293 exhibits a slower growth rate and are more strongly adherent, features that lead to reduced cell death due to overconfluence, hence more efficient rescue and amplification during adenovirus production. (clontech.com)
  • Programmed cell death receptor 1 (PD-1) and PD ligand 1 (PD-L1) have become promising therapeutic targets for various malignancies, but their role in the pathogenesis and their interactions with EBV in NKTCL remains to be investigated. (biomedcentral.com)
  • 1) divides more often than it should or (2) does not die when conditions warrant cell death. (wikipedia.org)
  • This delay allows time for DNA to repair or cell death to occur if DNA damage is irreversible. (wikipedia.org)
  • checkpoint
  • The restriction point (R) in the G1 phase is different from a checkpoint because it does not determine whether cell conditions are ideal to move on to the next phase, but it changes the course of the cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • Some authors will say that the restriction point and the G1/S checkpoint are one and the same, but more recent studies have argued that there are two different points in the G1 phase that check the progression of the cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • The first restriction point is growth-factor dependent and determines whether the cell moves into the G0 phase, while the second checkpoint is nutritionally-dependent and determines whether the cell moves into the S phase. (wikipedia.org)
  • The G1/S checkpoint is the point between G1 phase and the S phase in which the cell is cleared for progression into the S phase. (wikipedia.org)
  • At the G1/S checkpoint, formation of the G1/S cyclin with Cdk to form a complex commits the cell to a new division cycle. (wikipedia.org)
  • Chk1 coordinates the DNA damage response (DDR) and cell cycle checkpoint response. (wikipedia.org)
  • Stress
  • The primary diagnostic test for Fanconi anaemia is based on the increased chromosomal breakage seen in afflicted cells after exposure to these agents - the DEB/MMC stress test. (wikipedia.org)
  • tumor
  • Our evidence for this regulatory network is derived from studies demonstrating tumor growth inhibition by agarose encapsulated cancer cells (cancer macrobeads). (aacrjournals.org)
  • Tumor cells arise from two distinct classes of genomic instability: mutational instability arising from changes in the nucleotide sequence of DNA and chromosomal instability arising from improper rearrangement of chromosomes. (wikipedia.org)
  • sustains
  • Specifically, activation of Sertoli cells by FSH sustains spermatogenesis and stimulates inhibin B secretion. (wikipedia.org)
  • Maize csmd1 exhibits pre-meiotic somatic and post-meiotic microspore defects but sustains anther growth. (wikipedia.org)
  • embryonic
  • Senescent cells affect tumour suppression, wound healing and possibly embryonic/placental development and a pathological role in age-related diseases. (wikipedia.org)
  • dormancy
  • If a cell is signaled to remain undivided, instead of moving onto the S phase, it will leave the G1 phase and move into a state of dormancy called the G0 phase. (wikipedia.org)
  • transcription
  • Therefore, canonical PRC1 complexes and PRC2 can act together to repress gene transcription and maintain this repression through cell division (i.e. the repressed state is also present in daughter cells). (wikipedia.org)
  • dynamics
  • RhoA is prevalent in regulating cell shape, polarity and locomotion via actin polymerization, actomyosin contractility, cell adhesion, and microtubule dynamics. (wikipedia.org)
  • deficient
  • Further characterization revealed that these patients were neutropenic and NK cell deficient. (jci.org)
  • migration
  • RhoA also regulates the integrity of the extracellular matrix and the loss of corresponding cell-cell adhesions (primarily adherens and tight junctions) required for the migration of epithelial. (wikipedia.org)
  • repress
  • We propose that Nanos1 functions to translationally repress RNAs that normally specify endoderm and promote apoptosis, thus preserving the germline. (biologists.org)
  • sperm cells
  • The egg cell is typically not capable of active movement, and it is much larger (visible to the naked eye) than the motile sperm cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Upon maturation, the neck opens to allow sperm cells to swim into the archegonium and fertilize the egg. (wikipedia.org)
  • Molecules
  • Tumours are characterized by genomic and epigenetic instability that alters the functions of many different molecules and networks in a single cell as well as altering the interactions with the local environment. (wikipedia.org)
  • regulation
  • The concerted action of ROCK and Dia is essential for the regulation of cell polarity and organization of microtubules. (wikipedia.org)
  • embryo
  • In flowering plants, the female gametophyte (sometimes referred to as the embryo sac) has been reduced to just eight cells inside the ovule. (wikipedia.org)
  • occur
  • citation needed] In estimates made for mice, DNA lesions occur on average 25 to 115 times per minute in each cell, or about 36,000 to 160,000 per cell per day. (wikipedia.org)
  • It can be done intentionally by laboratory personnel or by cells, or can occur spontaneously. (wikipedia.org)
  • breakage
  • Generally cells from Fanconi anaemia patients show a markedly higher frequency of spontaneous chromosomal breakage and hypersensitivity to the clastogenic effect of DNA cross-linking agents such as diepoxybutane (DEB) and mitomycin-C (MMC) when compared to normal cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Importance
  • At the end of the luteal phase, there is a slight rise in FSH that seems to be of importance to start the next ovulatory cycle. (wikipedia.org)
  • progenitor
  • Truly endothelial, BOEC are progeny of a transplantable cell that originates in bone marrow, a putative endothelial progenitor. (jci.org)
  • restriction
  • After a vertebrate cell has been in the G1 phase for about three hours, the cell enters a restriction point in which it is decided whether the cell will move forward with the G1 phase or move into the dormant G0 phase. (wikipedia.org)
  • cardiac
  • 7. The system of claim 1, wherein the controller is configured to detect paced cardiac cycles and non-paced cardiac cycles, and to control the programmed neural stimulation based on a percentage of the paced cardiac cycles over a predetermined time. (patentsencyclopedia.com)
  • The accumulation of unrepaired DNA damage is more prevalent in certain types of cells, particularly in non-replicating or slowly replicating cells, such as cells in the brain, skeletal and cardiac muscle. (wikipedia.org)