• This balance is achieved, in part, through the precise regulation of apoptosis, which involves complex molecular events that ultimately activate, or prevent the activation of caspases (cysteine‐aspartic acid proteases). (els.net)
  • Apoptosis is a genetically programmed process for the elimination of damaged or redundant cells by activation of caspases (aspartate-specific cysteine proteases). (genome.jp)
  • Targets such as PARP and lamin A/C are cleaved by executioner caspases and serve as markers of apoptosis. (cellsignal.com)
  • Apoptosis, or programmed cell death, results in controlled cell shrinkage and nuclear fragmentation via the action of caspases, as well as an anti-inflammatory cytokine release. (qiagen.com)
  • Several members of the IAP family block apoptosis by directly interacting with initiator and effector caspases and preventing their proteolytic processing and enzymatic activity. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Caspase-8 can transmit the apoptosis signal directly by cleaving other caspases such as caspase-3 ( Ashkenazi, 2008b ). (frontiersin.org)
  • Apoptosis is a programmed form of cell death involving the degradation of cellular constituents by a group of cysteine proteases called caspases. (wikipedia.org)
  • The hope now is to interfere with apoptosis regulation in these systems and to develop new therapeutic concepts. (pnas.org)
  • 4 - 6 Thus it is possible to delineate the biology of individual tumours at the molecular and biochemical level by examining apoptosis and its control and regulation and to exploit these to clinical advantage. (bmj.com)
  • Defects in the regulation of apoptosis result in serious diseases such as cancer, autoimmunity, AIDS and neurodegeneration. (springer.com)
  • These results suggest that an increase in apoptosis, with abnormal regulation of islet number and β cell mass, represents a key mechanism whereby partial PDX1 deficiency leads to an organ-level defect in insulin secretion and diabetes. (jci.org)
  • both intrinsic and extrinsic factors contribute to the regulation of apoptosis in a cell. (els.net)
  • 1. To increase the understanding of ubiquitin-mediated regulation of apoptosis signaling. (uva.nl)
  • We are confident that this compendium will contribute to the exploration of cellular suicide, not only from a basic scientist's viewpoint but also with regard to the possible clinical implications of apoptosis (dys)regulation. (adlibris.com)
  • For example, tissue remodeling activates apoptosis, whereas energy metabolism and growth regulation responses rely on autophagy. (qiagen.com)
  • When we examined CD138(+) plasma cells from patients with MM, resveratrol inhibited constitutive activation of both NF-kappaB and STAT3, leading to down-regulation of cell proliferation and potentiation of apoptosis induced by bortezomib and thalidomide. (greenmedinfo.com)
  • Apoptosis is an intrinsic cell‐suicide programme, which ensures tissue homeostasis and safeguards the organism by eliminating unnecessary and unwanted cells, or cells that may constitute some form of danger to the organism, for example, tumour cells. (els.net)
  • For many years, the terms "apoptosis" and "programmed cell death" were not highly cited. (wikipedia.org)
  • Apoptosis is an international peer-reviewed journal devoted to the rapid publication of innovative basic and clinically-oriented investigations into programmed cell death. (springer.com)
  • Apoptosis , also called programmed cell death , in biology , a mechanism that allows cells to self-destruct when stimulated by the appropriate trigger. (britannica.com)
  • As a morphologically distinct form of programmed cell death , apoptosis is different from the other major process of cell death known as necrosis . (britannica.com)
  • Many cells undergo programmed cell death, or apoptosis , during fetal development. (britannica.com)
  • Apoptosis, also called programmed cell death, has attracted great attention in recent years. (pnas.org)
  • It's sometimes referred to as programmed cell death , and indeed, the process of apoptosis follows a controlled, predictable routine. (howstuffworks.com)
  • Scientists are trying to learn how they can modulate apoptosis, so that they can control which cells live and which undergo programmed cell death. (howstuffworks.com)
  • This investigation looked at how spaceflight influences immune cell function, including the role of programmed cell death (apoptosis) in loss of T-lymphocytes, a type of white blood cell. (nasa.gov)
  • Apoptosis may be the best characterized form of programmed cell death-but it isn't in isolation, said Joan W. Miller, MD. (modernmedicine.com)
  • The result was that the cells became less likely to destroy themselves through a process called apoptosis (programmed cell death), which organisms often use as a kind of quality control system for eliminating defective tissue. (merriam-webster.com)
  • Apoptosis * ('programmed cell death') is a biologically ubiquitous phenomenon that deserves to be much more widely known among non-biologists and laypeople. (creation.com)
  • In any movement of their life, immune cells, especially T and B lymphocytes, are confronted with an essential choice: to continue their existence or to commit a sort of metabolic suicide that is referred to as apoptosis or programmed cell death. (adlibris.com)
  • The Human Apoptosis RT² Profiler PCR Array profiles the expression of 84 key genes involved in programmed cell death. (qiagen.com)
  • This orderly pattern of events is called programmed cell death, also known as apoptosis. (wikibooks.org)
  • We used ApopTag (Oncor ® , Gaithersburg, MD) with the peroxidase/DAB procedure to correlate apoptosis with earlier reports of patterns of cell death in stage HH17-25 embryos, and our results suggest that the cell death inferred with supravital staining and appearance of cells in morphogenesis of the tail bud is programmed cell death called apoptosis. (hamilton.edu)
  • Cells of the remnant of the primitive streak (Hensen's Node) mark for apoptosis, suggesting that programmed cell death is a stop signal for axial organization at the caudal terminus. (hamilton.edu)
  • For many years, neither "apoptosis" nor "programmed cell death" was a highly cited term. (wikipedia.org)
  • The fifth Annual Pezcoller Symposium entitled, Apoptosis, was held in Trento, Italy, June 9-1I, 1993 and was focused on the specific phenomena leading to Programmed Cell Death (PCD) or Apoptosis, and the mechanisms involved. (springer.com)
  • Apoptosis: An International Journal on Programmed Cell Death, 10, 687-705. (scirp.org)
  • In humans, the mechanism of normal programmed cell death (" apoptosis " is the medical term) of inflammatory cells is disrupted, which leads to all sorts of bad things like tumors, autoimmune disease, and chronic pulmonary obstructive disease (COPD). (fbresearch.org)
  • The inhibition of apoptosis by ZEA was correlated with altered expression levels of the apoptosis-related modulators bax and bcl-2. (scribd.com)
  • Diseases associated with increased rates of apoptosis include neurodegenerative disorders (Alzheimer's Disease and Parkinson's Disease), AIDS, myelodysplastic syndromes, and ischemic injury (stroke and myocardial infarction), whereas those associated with inhibition of apoptosis include autoimmune diseases and cancer. (mdanderson.org)
  • Developmental processes often activate apoptosis, while bodily injuries or infection more commonly induce necrosis. (qiagen.com)
  • If a cell detects that it has damaged DNA, it can activate apoptosis to remove itself from the population. (scientificamerican.com)
  • It aims to stimulate research on the basis of mechanisms of apoptosis and on its role in various human disease processes including: cancer, autoimmune disease, viral infection, AIDS, cardiovascular disease, neurodegenerative disorders, osteoporosis and ageing. (springer.com)
  • Anti-cancer drugs and radiation, for example, work by triggering apoptosis in diseased cells. (howstuffworks.com)
  • Many diseases and disorders are linked with the life and death of cells -- increased apoptosis is a characteristic of AIDS , Alzheimer's and Parkinson's disease, while decreased apoptosis can signal lupus or cancer . (howstuffworks.com)
  • Hassan M, Watari H, AbuAlmaaty A, Ohba Y, Sakuragi N (2014) Apoptosis and molecular targeting therapy in cancer. (springer.com)
  • Here we summarise and integrate the data on apoptosis and its role in the development, prognosis, and treatment of breast cancer. (bmj.com)
  • The new 'apoptosis chip' opens up new possibilities in the diagnosis and treatment of cancer. (medgadget.com)
  • Floor Wolbers has done on-chip research of the process called apoptosis, both of healthy cells and breast cancer cells. (medgadget.com)
  • Breast cancer cells under the influence of the same substance start showing apoptosis but when they do move away, they don't necessarily die: there is no anoikis. (medgadget.com)
  • Additionally, a dysregulation of apoptosis is underlying in numerous pathological situations such as Parkinson, Alzheimer s disease and cancer. (novapublishers.com)
  • Apoptosis is important in many biological contexts and deregulation of apoptosis may cause diseases, either in the case of insufficient apoptosis, which may contribute to excessive cell proliferation and cancer, or excessive apoptosis, which may cause degenerative and other disorders. (els.net)
  • Quanta Magazine , "A Zombie Gene Protects Elephants From Cancer," 7 Nov. 2017 If the damage is sufficiently critical, the cell will respond by committing an orderly sort of suicide called apoptosis , which keeps it from causing any further problems. (merriam-webster.com)
  • In fact, defective apoptosis is a hallmark of cancer and a major cause of resistance during cancer therapy. (mdanderson.org)
  • Studies have shown that nucleolar stress is positively correlated with apoptosis in breast, prostate and lung cancer cells. (ingentaconnect.com)
  • Unlike VDAC1 removal, loss of VDAC2 or replacing its membrane-facing glutamate with glutamine renders human colon cancer cells largely resistant to ceramide-induced apoptosis. (rug.nl)
  • Van Lancker's book introduces readers to the molecules involved in apoptosis and genomic integrity and considers the gain or loss of the functions that lead to cancer. (ovid.com)
  • As cell and tissue homeostasis are mediated by the balance between proliferation and apoptosis, controlling this balance is important for cancer chemoprevention. (scirp.org)
  • Sun, S.Y., Hail, N. Jr. and Lotan, R. (2004) Apoptosis as a novel target for cancer chemoprevention. (scirp.org)
  • Indeed, this acquired resistance to apoptosis is characteristic of all types of cancer. (scientificamerican.com)
  • The major factors driving the growth of this market include the rising incidence and prevalence of chronic and infectious diseases, growing funding for cancer research, growing cell-based research, and development of apoptosis-modulating drugs. (marketsandmarkets.com)
  • Antagonist binding to an apoptosis inhibitor releases inhibition by promoting dimerization required for autoubiquitination. (sciencemag.org)
  • Dual PI3K/mTOR inhibitor NVP-BEZ235-induced apoptosis of hepatoce. (ingentaconnect.com)
  • These findings revealed that RIPK1 inhibits RIPK3-mediated necroptosis in keratinocytes in vivo and identified necroptosis as a more potent trigger of inflammation compared with apoptosis. (nature.com)
  • tBid inhibits the function of the antiapoptotic members of the Bcl‐2 family (Bcl‐2 and Bcl‐x L ), which normally prevent the oligomerization of Bax and Bak, inhibiting MOMP and apoptosis. (els.net)
  • The balance between proliferation and apoptosis is crucial in determining the overall growth or regression of the tumour 2 3 in response to chemotherapy, radiotherapy and, more recently, hormonal treatments. (bmj.com)
  • Apoptosis also removes cells that are normal but no longer needed, such as cells that produce antibodies after the need for the antibody has passed. (britannica.com)
  • Anti-SIVA1 apoptosis inducing factor antibodies are available from several suppliers. (biocompare.com)
  • Your search returned 130 SIVA1 apoptosis inducing factor Antibodies across 24 suppliers. (biocompare.com)
  • The genes were identified by studies in the nematode C. elegans and homologues of these genes function in humans to regulate apoptosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Many of these genes have mammalian homologs that, like their worm counterparts, seem to regulate mammalian apoptosis. (pnas.org)
  • Understanding how to regulate apoptosis could be the first step to treating these conditions. (howstuffworks.com)
  • Here we show that kinase-independent scaffolding RIPK1 functions regulate homeostasis and prevent inflammation in barrier tissues by inhibiting epithelial cell apoptosis and necroptosis. (nature.com)
  • In order to regulate these proteases, CSP-3 was discovered to block CED-3 autoactivation and ultimately, to decrease signs of apoptosis during the developmental stages of roundworms. (wikibooks.org)
  • Harmonious survival of the entire organism depends on the rigorous preservation of the controls that regulate the balance between the cell's replication and apoptosis. (ovid.com)
  • While studying tissues using electron microscopy, John Foxton Ross Kerr at University of Queensland was able to distinguish apoptosis from traumatic cell death. (wikipedia.org)
  • Kerr had initially used the term programmed cell necrosis, but in the article, the process of natural cell death was called apoptosis . (wikipedia.org)
  • First, studies with the small nematode Caenorhabditis elegans have identified a number of apoptosis regulating genes-the first evidence that cell death is an active process under genetic control. (pnas.org)
  • The conservation in both sequence and function between nematode and mammalian cell death genes indicates that apoptosis is of ancient evolutionary origin, and it suggests that worms and humans use similar conserved mechanisms to get rid of cells. (pnas.org)
  • ROle of Apoptosis in Lymphocyte Depression (ROALD) will determine the role of programmed apoptosis (cell death) in loss of T-lymphocyte (white blood cells originating in the thymus) activity in microgravity. (nasa.gov)
  • Apoptosis is the regulated form of cell death. (novapublishers.com)
  • Apoptosis was studied in roundworms and in the final stages of its cell death, there discovery of the death-inducing protease CED-3 activation became the cause of the apoptosis. (wikibooks.org)
  • In particular, apoptosis has received much attention owing to the tightly regulated biochemical nature of this form of cell death and the realization of potential therapeutic opportunities. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Tail bud mesenchyme marks for apoptosis most frequently in the ventrum of older stages, where cell death has been reported. (hamilton.edu)
  • A limited investigation of pharyngeal membranes and midgut, where cell death has not been reported as important in morphogenesis, did not show apoptosis markers in those tissues (Miller and Briglin, 1994). (hamilton.edu)
  • therefore, we investigated the possibility that non-necrotic cell death (ie, apoptosis) (3, 4) occurs in such lesions. (ajnr.org)
  • Kerr had originally used the term "programmed cell necrosis" to describe the phenomenon but in the 1972 article this process of natural cell death was called apoptosis . (wikidoc.org)
  • A simple, non-lytic assay that allows real-time monitoring of apoptosis progression, without the need for multiple plates or complicated processing. (fishersci.com)
  • The nucleolus is a stress sensor associated with cell cycle progression and apoptosis. (ingentaconnect.com)
  • Tipping this balance can contribute to either tumor formation or inappropriate tissue loss via too little or too much apoptosis ( Fulda, 2009b ). (frontiersin.org)
  • Molecular indices of apoptosis af. (mendeley.com)
  • Research in the field of cardiac health at the molecular level suggests that apoptosis is a major contributor in the occurrence of cardiovascular diseases [ 5 , 6 , 7 ]. (mdpi.com)
  • So how does apoptosis work at the molecular level? (scientificamerican.com)
  • The editors intend to encourage the development of clinical therapies against apoptosis-related diseases. (springer.com)
  • The Editor-In-Chief recognises the need to encourage the development of clinical therapies against apoptosis-related diseases. (springer.com)
  • The second section focuses on organ-specific apoptosis-related diseases. (platekompaniet.no)
  • Detection of apoptosis in cardiovascular diseases. (biomedsearch.com)
  • The rising incidence and prevalence of chronic and infectious diseases, a large number of life science research studies conducted in the region, favorable government support in the form of research investments, and presence of high-quality infrastructure for clinical and laboratory research are the major factors responsible for the large share of the North American apoptosis assays market. (marketsandmarkets.com)
  • Its rediscovery in the second half of this century, and the coining of the term apoptosis in 1972 by Kerr, Wyllie, and Currie, ignited an unparalleled interest in this field of science. (pnas.org)
  • The authors tested whether ablation of Puma could rescue the dilated cardiomyopathy phenotype in mdm4 knockout mice, and indeed were able to demonstrate that ablation of Puma in mdm4 gene deletion mice restores fractional shortening to nearly normal levels, decreases the rate of wall thinning associated with dilated cardiomyopathy, and decreases myocardial apoptosis as measured by TUNEL assays. (ahajournals.org)
  • In this report, we characterized the myocardial protective of levosimendan in preventing cardiomyocyte apoptosis and post-operative stunning in an experimental ischemia-reperfusion model. (frontiersin.org)
  • Ginsenoside Rb1 attenuates cardiomyocyte apoptosis induced by myocardial ischemia reperfusion injury. (greenmedinfo.com)
  • Next, the authors demonstrated that in Puma −/− mice the number of cells undergoing apoptosis by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick-end labeling (TUNEL) and caspase-3 assays was significantly less than in wild-type mice, suggesting that Puma ablation suppresses apoptosis induced by pressure overload. (ahajournals.org)
  • Gathering of investigators from around the world providing a venue for presenting and discussing research that employ yeasts as model organisms for the study of apoptosis and its role in aging, development, and stress responses. (botw.org)
  • A thin slice was taken from the face of each of the three blocks for standard (10%) formalin fixation for study of apoptosis. (ajnr.org)
  • The DARC (Detection of Apoptosing Retinal Cells) project has developed a minimally invasive method using fluorescent annexin A5 to detect rates of apoptosis in retinal ganglion cells, the key pathological process in glaucoma. (mdpi.com)
  • Mesenchyme in proximal and ventral tail bud adjacent to cloacal plate shows frequent markers of apoptosis. (hamilton.edu)
  • In the worm three genes- ced-3 , ced-4 , and ced-9 -are directly involved in controlling the execution of apoptosis during development ( 1 ). (pnas.org)
  • This book, with contributions from experts in the field, provides a timely compilation of reviews of mechanisms of apoptosis. (platekompaniet.no)
  • Lack of markers in neural tube of tail bud formed by secondary neurulation suggests that apoptosis is not involved in cavitation of medullary cord, but further investigation is necessary. (hamilton.edu)
  • Apoptosis also may occur when a cell becomes damaged or deregulated, as is the case during tumour development and other pathological processes. (britannica.com)
  • Apoptosis, the programmed death of a cell, is one of the most amazingly organized intracellular processes. (medgadget.com)
  • Apoptosis plays a critical role in normal biological processes requiring cell. (qiagen.com)
  • Apoptosis is a vital and regular part of overall organism function and is the programmed death of cells via the cells' own chemical processes. (reference.com)
  • This large share can be attributed to the repeated consumption of assay kits as consumables in various apoptosis testing processes. (marketsandmarkets.com)
  • Defective apoptosis can result in abnormal development and pathogenesis. (cellsignal.com)
  • After activity deprivation, CGNs underwent apoptosis, which was augmented in those prepared from mice defective in the paternal Ndn allele (Ndn +m/−p ). (jneurosci.org)
  • however, the ratio of Bcl-2/Bax related to anti-apoptosis was decreased. (greenmedinfo.com)
  • Kerr, Wyllie and Currie credited James Cormack, a professor of Greek language at University of Aberdeen , with suggesting the term apoptosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • The 2002 Nobel Prize in Medicine was awarded to Sydney Brenner , Horvitz and John E. Sulston for their work identifying genes that control apoptosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • The current chapter describes a few of the more widely used protocols for detecting and quantifying apoptosis in cardiovascular tissues. (biomedsearch.com)
  • After its discovery by Carl Vogt in 1842, apoptosis research was dormant for more than a century. (pnas.org)
  • Apoptosis was discovered by German scientist Carl Vogt who first detailed the events of apoptosis. (wikibooks.org)
  • The German scientist Carl Vogt was first to describe the principle of apoptosis in 1842. (wikidoc.org)
  • Based on application, the apoptosis assays market is segmented into drug discovery & development, clinical & diagnostic applications, basic research, and stem cell research. (marketsandmarkets.com)
  • In 2018, the drug discovery & development application segment is expected to account for the largest share of the global apoptosis assays market. (marketsandmarkets.com)
  • On the basis of end user, the apoptosis assays market is segmented into pharmaceutical and biotechnology companies, hospital and diagnostic laboratories, and academic and research institutes. (marketsandmarkets.com)
  • North America is expected to account for the largest share of the apoptosis assays market in 2018, followed by Europe and Asia Pacific. (marketsandmarkets.com)
  • In vivo, increased apoptosis was associated with abnormal islet architecture, positive TUNEL, active caspase-3, and lymphocyte infiltration. (jci.org)
  • CONCLUSIONS: iC-BCP is superior to the other cardioplegic solutions in increasing the phosphorylation of Bad, inhibiting the activation of caspase 3, and preventing apoptosis. (mendeley.com)
  • The hearts were dissected, sectioned and stained with cresyl violet or immunohistochemically for caspase-3, a putative marker for apoptosis. (mdpi.com)
  • Apoptosis levels were assessed from the left ventricle using the terminal transferase mediated dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) assay and immunocytochemical detection of Caspase-3. (frontiersin.org)
  • Resveratrol induced apoptosis as indicated by accumulation of sub-G(1) population, increase in Bax release, and activation of caspase-3. (greenmedinfo.com)
  • p. 286 , published online 20 June) found that mice deficient for the proapoptotic Sept4 /ARTS gene have elevated numbers of apoptosis-resistant hair follicle SCs and display dramatic improvement in wound healing and regeneration. (sciencemag.org)
  • We found that mice deficient for the proapoptotic Sept4/ ARTS gene have elevated numbers of hair follicle stem cells (HFSCs) that are protected against apoptosis. (sciencemag.org)
  • Here, we show that paternally expressed necdin represses E2F1-dependent cdc2 gene transcription and attenuates apoptosis of postmitotic neurons. (jneurosci.org)
  • Research on apoptosis has increased substantially since the early 1990s. (wikipedia.org)
  • John E. Sulston won the Nobel Prize in Medicine in 2002, for his pioneering research on apoptosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • This realization has generated a massive research effort focused on apoptosis. (britannica.com)
  • Current research is focused on a greater understanding of the response and resistance to treatment, including the role of apoptosis. (bmj.com)
  • This is only a partial list of reagents Sigma offers for apoptosis research. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Not surprisingly, this is a hot research area, the 1990s seeing a literally exponential rise in new publications about apoptosis. (creation.com)
  • For a decade, the average number of research papers about apoptosis published per year barely reached double figures. (creation.com)
  • Monitoring real-time apoptosis in-vivo is an unmet need of neurodegeneration science, both in clinical and research settings. (mdpi.com)
  • Given this range of critical situations in which apoptosis occurs or is required, the possibility for therapeutic intervention is extraordinary. (britannica.com)
  • The remaining chapters deal with the pathophysiologi- cal aspects of lymphocyte apoptosis, namely, as a host contribution to HIV-induced lymphopenia, and therapeutic strategies for the avoidance of lymphocyte death. (adlibris.com)
  • Further studies revealed that Yizhijiannao granule may exert its therapeutic effect by inhibiting neural cell apoptosis, reducing tau phos-phorylation and relieving neuroinflammation. (eurekalert.org)
  • Bertaux F, Stoma S, Drasdo D, Batt G (2014) Modeling dynamics of cell-to-cell variability in TRAIL-induced apoptosis explains fractional killing and predicts reversible resistance. (springer.com)
  • The combination of p53 activation and Bcl-2 inhibition reciprocally overcomes apoptosis resistance and leads to synergistic efficacy in acute myeloid leukemia. (sciencemag.org)