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  • Peptide
  • The aplysia egg-laying-hormone a 36 amino acid peptide acts as a neurotransmitter on cells of the abdominal ganglion and at the same time diffuses into the hemolymph where it is dispersed through the organism and acts as a hormone facilitating the expulsion of the egg string. (acris-antibodies.com)
  • The enterins also decreased the contraction amplitude of the anterior aorta evoked either by the application of an Aplysia cardioactive peptide, NdWFamide, or by the stimulation of a nerve innervating the aorta (the vulvar nerve). (biologists.org)
  • 1955
  • Arvanitaki and Chalazonitis (1955) and simultaneously Tauc (1954) published the first reports of a distinct visually identifiable neuron in the abdominal ganglion of Aplysia , now called R15 (Cogeshall et al. (scholarpedia.org)
  • withdrawal
  • We tested reflex withdrawal of the tail-mantle and head of individual Aplysia before and after attack by lobsters. (jneurosci.org)
  • We removed subject Aplysia from their home tanks before testing and placed them in 10 gallon aquaria, freshly filled with ASW maintained at 16°C. At least 30 min later, we elicited head and tail-mantle withdrawal reflexes with test stimuli of short duration (0.8 s) jets of water (Water Pik) delivered to the head and tail, respectively. (jneurosci.org)
  • The requirement for activation of postsynaptic glutamatergic receptors indicates that homosynaptic depression, an exclusively presynaptic mechanism that has been implicated previously in habituation in Aplysia , does not play a significant role in persistent habituation of the withdrawal reflex. (jneurosci.org)
  • Although the cellular expression of LTH of the withdrawal reflex in Aplysia is attributable, at least in part, to long-term presynaptic changes, the locus of the induction of the cellular changes is uncertain. (jneurosci.org)
  • Here, we show that postsynaptic mechanisms, particularly activation of postsynaptic glutamate receptors, play a critical role in inducing long-lasting habituation of the withdrawal reflex in Aplysia . (jneurosci.org)
  • neural
  • Thus, this restricted response system provides a useful preparation for examining the neural mechanisms of operant conditioning of head-waving in Aplysia. (jneurosci.org)
  • Carew
  • Aplysia can readily exhibit operant conditioning of their head-waving response when bright light is used as aversive reinforcement (Cook and Carew, 1986). (jneurosci.org)
  • In the first paper of this series (Cook and Carew, 1989a), we showed that the electromyographic (EMG) activity of a discrete band of neck muscles, the lateral columellar muscles (LCMs) of Aplysia is significantly correlated with the component of head-waving (the horizontal component) that is modified during operant conditioning. (jneurosci.org)
  • cellular
  • The study of R15 was accelerated when Eric Kandel adopted Aplysia as his animal model for studying the cellular basis of behavior. (scholarpedia.org)
  • A cellular analog of classical conditioning in Aplysia was used to determine whether this form of invertebrate learning involves N -methyl- d -aspartate (NMDA)-type LTP. (sciencemag.org)
  • behavioral
  • These studies leave unanswered the question of what stimuli in the natural environment of Aplysia might cause sensitization, and whether sensitization induced by such stimuli could have unique behavioral and mechanistic elements undetected by studies using electric shock. (jneurosci.org)
  • species
  • Besides the algae-sucking sacoglossans, Aplysia cuts up strips of seaweed for swallowing, and a number of the more primitive species feed on algae encrusted on rocks. (britannica.com)
  • Adams
  • These works are reviewed quite comprehensively in "The generation and modulation of endogenous rhythmicity in the Aplysia bursting pacemaker neurone R15" (Adams and Benson, 1985). (scholarpedia.org)
  • distinct
  • The cloned locus, designated Apl-ras, is distinct from the Aplysia rho (ras-homologue) gene and appears to be more closely related to mammalian ras. (rupress.org)
  • sensitization
  • Considering this volume of literature on mechanisms, it is surprising that our understanding of the ecological context of sensitization in Aplysia is completely lacking. (jneurosci.org)
  • The best characterized form of learning in Aplysia is sensitization, an increase in reflex amplitude after the presentation of a strong or noxious stimulus such as tail shock. (jneurosci.org)
  • protein
  • Nucleotide sequencing revealed a putative exon that encodes amino acids sharing 68% homology with residues 5 to 54 of mammalian p21ras polypeptides, and which therefore is likely to encode a ras-like Aplysia protein. (rupress.org)
  • We used a panel of monoclonal antibodies raised against v-Ha-ras p21 to precipitate an Mr 21,000 protein from extracts of Aplysia nervous tissue, ovotestis, and, to a much lesser degree, buccal muscle. (rupress.org)
  • Regulation
  • In the present study, we examined the possibility that the enterins are involved in regulation of the arterial system of Aplysia . (biologists.org)
  • control
  • The duration of the reflex was scored from the video by an experienced observer, who was not informed of the status (attacked or control) of the subject Aplysia . (jneurosci.org)
  • large
  • Adapted from http://www.colorado.edu/intphys/iphy4480tsai/aplysiaCNS.jpg and http://www.rsmas.miami.edu/assets/images/aplysia/abdominal-2-large.jpg . (scholarpedia.org)
  • appears
  • Thus, classical conditioning in Aplysia appears to be mediated, in part, by LTP due to activation of NMDA-related receptors. (sciencemag.org)