• First Flight was a thoroughbred horse that was transformed by scientists into a living factory to produce botulism antitoxin from the late 1970s through the 1990s. (si.edu)
  • When Paul Ehrlich demonstrated in 1891 that even vegetable poisons led to the formation of antitoxins in the organism, Behring's theory was confirmed. (wikipedia.org)
  • Merck & Co is gearing up to file its investigational antitoxin bezlotoxumab in the US, Canada and Europe this year, after late-stage data backed the drug's use in preventing the recurrence of Clostridium difficile infection. (pharmatimes.com)
  • Furthermore, we find that toxins cleave the TA mRNA in vivo, which is followed by degradation of the antitoxin-encoding fragments and selective accumulation of the toxin-encoding regions. (nih.gov)
  • All of them were admitted to the ICU and treated with polyvalent botulinum antitoxin and conservative management. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • No protection was conferred on mice by antitoxins to botulinum toxins A, B, or E. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Nearly 16,000 liters of blood were removed from First Flight during his time at Minnesota, and he became the nation's sole source of antitoxin against all seven forms of botulinum toxin. (si.edu)
  • With the start of the Gulf War in 1991, First Flight's antitoxin was shipped to Saudi Arabia to be at hand should Saddam Hussein order the use of botulinum toxin to attack U.S. troops. (si.edu)
  • Antitoxins are made within organisms, but can be injected into other organisms, including humans. (wikipedia.org)
  • An added benefit is that unlike an antibiotic, the antitoxins needn't kill the bacilli. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Results of these studies showed that a single, one-time infusion of the antitoxin bezlotoxumab given with standard of care C. difficile antibiotic treatment significantly reduced the recurrence of C. difficile infection compared to standard of care alone, and demonstrated this benefit over a 12-week period," noted Mark Wilcox, Leeds Teaching Hospitals and University of Leeds, and a lead investigator for the studies. (pharmatimes.com)
  • type III antitoxins directly bind to the toxin protein, sequestering it. (mdpi.com)
  • BARDA is seeking additional proposals for vaccines, antitoxins , and therapeutics that potentially protect against anthrax infection. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Antitoxins are produced by certain animals , plants , and bacteria . (wikipedia.org)
  • By introducing small amounts of a specific toxin into the healthy body, it is possible to stimulate the production of antitoxin so that the body's defenses are already established against invasion by the bacteria or other organisms that produce the toxin. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Here we show that YmoB, the Yersinia orthologue of TomB, and its single cysteine variant [C117S]YmoB can replace TomB as antitoxins in E. coli. (nih.gov)
  • In addition to these interactions between the antitoxin and toxin components (RNA-RNA, protein-protein, RNA-protein), TA systems interact with a variety of cellular factors, e.g., toxins target essential cellular components, antitoxins are degraded by RNAses or ATP-dependent proteases. (mdpi.com)
  • 2010). Crystal structures of Phd-Doc, HigA, and YeeU establish multiple evolutionary links between microbial growth-regulating toxin-antitoxin systems. (springer.com)
  • Goeders N, Van Melderen L. Toxin-Antitoxin Systems as Multilevel Interaction Systems. (mdpi.com)
  • Besides binding to the regulatory region of its own promoter, the antitoxin MqsA binds to the promoter regions of cspD , rpoS , spy , and mcbR . (springer.com)
  • Every effort has been made to ensure the accuracy of the C & D Antitoxin information published above. (drugs.com)
  • Prokaryotic Toxins - Antitoxins presents the first comprehensive overview of an exciting and rapidly expanding research field. (springer.com)