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  • pathogen
  • Respiratory droplets(M12) Hand contact with nasal discharge and skin contact with impetigo lesions The pathogen can also be found in its carrier state (anus, vagina, skin, pharynx) Can also be spread from cattle to humans through raw milk and contaminated foods (salads, milk, eggs) In 1928, Rebecca Lancefield published a method for serotyping S. pyogenes based on its M protein, a virulence factor displayed on its surface. (wikipedia.org)
  • They contain DNA that codes for specific proteins (antigens) from a pathogen. (wikipedia.org)
  • immune responses
  • It aims to study the complex protein-protein interactions and networks and allows a better understanding of immune responses and their role during normal, diseased and reconstitution states. (wikipedia.org)
  • Because these proteins are recognised as foreign, when they are processed by the host cells and displayed on their surface, the immune system is alerted, which then triggers immune responses. (wikipedia.org)
  • bind
  • Although CSPs share no sequence similarity with OBPs, these two groups of carrier proteins are characterized structurally by a hydrophilic surface and a hydrophobic core, respectively, to make them soluble in the sensillar lymph and to enable them to bind and carry olfactory ligands. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • At the molecular level, an antigen can be characterized by its ability to bind to an antibody's variable Fab region. (wikipedia.org)
  • vesicle
  • The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the vesicle-associated membrane protein (VAMP)/synaptobrevin family. (antibodies-online.com)
  • A virosome is a drug or vaccine delivery mechanism consisting of unilamellar phospholipid membrane (either a mono- or bi-layer) vesicle incorporating virus derived proteins to allow the virosomes to fuse with target cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Type 2 RIPs consist of an A chain that is functionally equivalent to a type 1 RIP, covalently connected by a single disulfide bond to a B chain that is catalytically inactive, but serves to mediate transport of the A-B protein complex from the cell surface, via vesicle carriers, to the lumen of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). (wikipedia.org)
  • vaccine
  • In regards to future plans for the HGP-30 AIDS vaccine, Sarin said: "We plan to optimize conditions for linking HGP-30 to carrier proteins and to evaluate various adjuvants, so as to be able to obtain T-cell proliferative and CTL responses in all the immunized volunteers. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • 4 Although no routine Canadian recommendations for offering this vaccine to asplenic adults are available, some experts recommend that clinicians consider using a protein-conjugated pneumococcal vaccine as the initial dose, followed by the polysaccharide vaccine, as this may theoretically improve antibody response and immunologic memory. (cmaj.ca)
  • The vaccine has also been shown to be immunogenic in patients at high risk of invasive disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • If this capsid protein is included in the DNA, the resulting vaccine can combine the potency of a live vaccine without reversion risks. (wikipedia.org)
  • specific
  • 2. A membrane protein for facilitated diffusion of a specific substance into a cell. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Generally, administration of adjuvants is used both in experimental immunology and in clinical settings to ensure a high quality/quantity memory-enhanced antibody response, where antigens must be prepared and delivered in a fashion that maximizes production of a specific immune response. (wikipedia.org)
  • Hemocyanin
  • The best carrier protein in our experience has been keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH) and the best immunologic adjuvant has been a saponin such as QS21 ( 10 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • Keyhole Limpet Hemocyanin (KLH) It is copper-containing respiratory protein, isolated from keyhole limpets (Megathura crenulata). (wikipedia.org)
  • Concholepas Concholepas Hemocyanin (CCH) (also Blue Carrier Immunogenic Protein) It is alternative to KLH isolated from Concholepas concholepas.It has the similar immunogenic properties as KLH but better solubility and therefore better flexibility. (wikipedia.org)
  • There are two keyhole limpet hemocyanin genes, termed KLH1 and KLH2 which share around 60% identity at the protein level. (wikipedia.org)
  • adjuvant
  • It has been shown that a physical association between the virosome and the antigen of interest is necessary for the full adjuvant effect of virosomes. (wikipedia.org)
  • cells
  • The immune system usually does not react to self-antigens under normal homeostatic conditions due to negative selection of T cells in the thymus and is supposed to identify and attack "non-self" invaders from the outside world or modified/harmful substances present in the body under distressed conditions. (wikipedia.org)
  • This problem was due to recognition of the PRP antigen by B cells, but not T cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • The mechanisms of absence of immune response may vary and involve complex immunological mechanisms, but can include absent or insufficient co-stimulatory signals from antigen-presenting cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • The number of antigen-forming cells was increased by the injections of tuftsin T-dependent antigen. (wikipedia.org)
  • In addition, the capsule and several factors embedded in the cell wall, including M protein, lipoteichoic acid, and protein F (SfbI) facilitate attachment to various host cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • DNA vaccination is a technique for protecting against disease by injection with genetically engineered DNA so cells directly produce an antigen, producing a protective immunological response. (wikipedia.org)
  • The DNA is injected into cells, whose "inner machinery" uses the DNA to synthesize the proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • One way of enhancing protein expression is by optimising the codon usage of pathogenic mRNAs for eukaryotic cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • amino acid
  • The ricin precursor protein is 576 amino acid residues in length and contains a signal peptide (residues 1-35), the ricin A chain (36-302), a linker peptide (303-314), and the ricin B chain (315-576). (wikipedia.org)
  • ELISA
  • Serologic responses by ELISA were largely IgM against each antigen with the exception of Tn-MUC1 where both IgM and IgG responses were induced. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Purification
  • If the protein becomes denatured or if the copper ions are lost in the purification process, the opalescent blue color disappears and the solution becomes a dull grayish color. (wikipedia.org)
  • structural
  • This viral protein not only confers structural stability and homogeneity to virosome-based formulations, but it significantly contributes to the immunological properties of virosomes, which are clearly distinct from other liposomal and proteoliposomal carrier systems. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Structural Database of Allergen Proteins (SDAP) stores information of allergenic proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • carbohydrate
  • The terms CCD or CCDs describe protein-linked carbohydrate structures responsible for the phenomenon of cross-reactivity of sera from allergic patients towards a wide range of allergens from plants and insects. (wikipedia.org)
  • possesses
  • This change possesses a greater number of possible conjugated antigens to the protein. (wikipedia.org)
  • Whereas type 1 RIPs are composed of a single protein chain that possesses catalytic activity, type 2 RIPs, also known as holotoxins, are composed of two different protein chains that form a heterodimeric complex. (wikipedia.org)
  • Serologic
  • Later, in 1946, Lancefield described the serologic classification of S. pyogenes isolates based on their surface T-antigen. (wikipedia.org)
  • gene
  • The protein encoded by this gene mediates calcium entry, and this entry is potentiated by calcium store depletion. (antibodies-online.com)
  • PCSK9 gene expression can be regulated by sterol-response element binding proteins (SREBP-1/2), which also controls LDLR expression. (wikipedia.org)
  • This system was based on the theory that a separate gene controls the product of each corresponding antigen (e.g., a "D gene" produces D antigen, and so on). (wikipedia.org)
  • This system was based on the theory that there was one gene at a single locus on each chromosome, each contributing to production of multiple antigens. (wikipedia.org)
  • In this theory, a gene R1 is supposed to give rise to the "blood factors" Rh0, rh′, and rh″ (corresponding to modern nomenclature of the D, C and E antigens) and the gene r to produce hr′ and hr″ (corresponding to modern nomenclature of the c and e antigens). (wikipedia.org)
  • viral
  • However, the classical vaccination approaches that have been successful in the control of various viral diseases by priming the adaptive immunity to recognize the viral envelope proteins have failed in the case of HIV-1. (wikipedia.org)
  • subunit
  • A synthetic peptide from the c-terminal region of human CACNB4 (CACB4, Voltage dependent L-type calcium channel subunit beta-4) conjugated to an immunogenic carrier protein was used as the antigen. (antibodies-online.com)
  • Function: The beta subunit of voltage-dependent calcium channels contributes to the function of the calcium channel by increasing peak calcium current, shifting the voltage dependencies of activation and inactivation, modulating G protein inhibition and controlling the alpha-1 subunit membrane targeting. (antibodies-online.com)
  • Serum
  • The antigen that induced this immunization was designated by them as Rh factor to indicate that rhesus blood had been used for the production of the serum. (wikipedia.org)
  • cell
  • Autophagy is the process by which endogenous proteins and damaged organelles are destroyed intracellularly.autophagy is postulated to be essential for cell homeostasis and cell remodeling during differentiation, metamorphosis, non-apoptotic cell death, and aging. (antibodies-online.com)
  • An immunogen is any antigen that is capable of inducing humoral and/or cell-mediated immune response rather than immunological tolerance. (wikipedia.org)
  • Tuftsin enhanced the antigen-dependent cell-mediated immunity. (wikipedia.org)
  • For example, plants that contain only protein chain A, such as barley, are not toxic because without the link to protein chain B, protein chain A cannot enter the cell and do damage to ribosomes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Alternatively, the DNA may be encapsulated in protein to facilitate cell entry. (wikipedia.org)
  • surface
  • Antigens can be incorporated into virosomes, adsorbed to the virosome surface, or integrated into the lipid membrane, either via hydrophobic domains or lipid moieties cross-linked to the antigen. (wikipedia.org)
  • bound
  • A diverse array of protein degradation fragments appear to accumulate in plasma, bound to carrier proteins such as albumin (18-20). (thefreedictionary.com)
  • 6) This is a significant number on its own, but the situation may be even worse when accounting for the fact that the majority of the hormone is bound to carrier proteins including sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) and albumin and, as such, may not be available for tissues to use. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • immune system
  • Because these proteins are recognised as foreign, when they are processed by the host cells and displayed on their surface, the immune system is alerted, which then triggers immune responses. (wikipedia.org)
  • It was expanded to refer to any molecule or a linear molecular fragment that can be recognized by highly variable antigen receptors (B-cell receptor or T-cell receptor) of the adaptive immune system. (wikipedia.org)
  • The immune system usually does not react to self-antigens under normal homeostatic conditions due to negative selection of T cells in the thymus and is supposed to identify and attack "non-self" invaders from the outside world or modified/harmful substances present in the body under distressed conditions. (wikipedia.org)
  • The T cell/T lymphocyte (a subtype of white blood cell), of the adaptive immune system, selectively recognize the antigens. (wikipedia.org)
  • bacterial
  • These clones were prepared by synthesizing cDNA from an mRNA mix containing mRNA coding for the desired HLA antigen, inserting the cDNA into a vector, transforming a bacterial host and isolating transformant clones that contain the desired DNA segment by probing with an oligonucleotide probe that is specific for the desired DNA sequence. (google.com)
  • amino
  • Many studies have correlated characteristics of amino acids with crystallization propensity, as part of the effort to determine the factors that affect the propensity of protein crystallization. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Both encode large glycosylated proteins consisting of around 3400 amino acids and a molecular weight of around 390,000 Daltons, excluding the glycosylation. (wikipedia.org)
  • The ricin precursor protein is 576 amino acid residues in length and contains a signal peptide (residues 1-35), the ricin A chain (36-302), a linker peptide (303-314), and the ricin B chain (315-576). (wikipedia.org)
  • immunological
  • This viral protein not only confers structural stability and homogeneity to virosome-based formulations, but it significantly contributes to the immunological properties of virosomes, which are clearly distinct from other liposomal and proteoliposomal carrier systems. (wikipedia.org)
  • covalently
  • PRP covalently linked to a protein carrier was found to elicit a greater immune response than the polysaccharide form of the vaccine. (wikipedia.org)
  • Type 2 RIPs consist of an A chain that is functionally equivalent to a type 1 RIP, covalently connected by a single disulfide bond to a B chain that is catalytically inactive, but serves to mediate transport of the A-B protein complex from the cell surface, via vesicle carriers, to the lumen of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). (wikipedia.org)
  • The propolypeptide is cleaved within protein bodies by an endopeptidase to produce the mature ricin protein that is composed of a 267 residue A chain and a 262 residue B chain that are covalently linked by a single disulfide bond. (wikipedia.org)
  • hemocyanin
  • There are two keyhole limpet hemocyanin genes, termed KLH1 and KLH2 which share around 60% identity at the protein level. (wikipedia.org)
  • Keyhole Limpet Hemocyanin (KLH) It is copper-containing respiratory protein, isolated from keyhole limpets (Megathura crenulata). (wikipedia.org)
  • Concholepas Concholepas Hemocyanin (CCH) (also Blue Carrier Immunogenic Protein) It is alternative to KLH isolated from Concholepas concholepas.It has the similar immunogenic properties as KLH but better solubility and therefore better flexibility. (wikipedia.org)
  • genes
  • Such probes have been used to detect the presence of genes coding for antigens responsible for graft rejection, such as cell anemia. (google.com)
  • Adaptive Immunity
  • However, the classical vaccination approaches that have been successful in the control of various viral diseases by priming the adaptive immunity to recognize the viral envelope proteins have failed in the case of HIV-1. (wikipedia.org)
  • enhances
  • HOCl enhances the T cell responses to the model Ag OVA, facilitating the processing and presentation of this protein via the class II MHC pathway. (jimmunol.org)
  • HOCl modification also enhances cross-presentation of the tumor Ag tyrosinase-related protein 2 via class I MHC. (jimmunol.org)
  • vaccine formulation
  • Our data show that combining these different antigens did not result in a more effective vaccine formulation when compared to each component administered individually, and further suggest that immune interference resulting from immunizations with antigenically distinct vaccine targets may be an important consideration in the development of multicomponent vaccine preparations. (biomedcentral.com)
  • significance
  • The present invention is useful in the determination of proteins of analytical significance, such as the glucosylated form of hemoglobin known as Hb Alc. (google.com)
  • Tissues
  • Elevated Post-Translational Modification of Proteins by O-Linked N-Acetylglucosamine in Various Tissues of Diabetic Goto-Kakizaki Rats Accompanied by Diabetic Complications", Acta Histochem. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • Several leptospiral outer membrane proteins have been shown to attach to the host extracellular matrix and to factor H. These proteins may be important for adhesion of Leptospira to host tissues and in resisting complement, respectively. (wikipedia.org)
  • form
  • The protein oligomerises to form a barrel shaped didecameric complex which is composed of 20 monomers. (wikipedia.org)
  • Whereas type 1 RIPs are composed of a single protein chain that possesses catalytic activity, type 2 RIPs, also known as holotoxins, are composed of two different protein chains that form a heterodimeric complex. (wikipedia.org)
  • species
  • It is the predominant species harboring the Lancefield group A antigen, and is often called group A streptococcus (GAS). (wikipedia.org)
  • and B. andersonii (U.S.). Some of these species are carried by ticks not currently recognized as carriers of Lyme disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • different
  • The genome of different strains were sequenced (genome size is 1.8-1.9 Mbp) encoding about 1700-1900 proteins (1700 in strain NZ131, 1865 in strain MGAS5005). (wikipedia.org)
  • expression
  • Join us in February 2019, as SMi's RNA Therapeutics Conference brings together industry experts from leading RNA therapeutics companies to discuss the challenges for clinical translation of RNA-based therapeutics, with an emphasis on recent advances in delivery technologies , and present an overview of the applications of RNA-based drugs for modulation of gene and protein expression, and genome editing. (smi-online.co.uk)
  • Elevated Expression of O-G1cNAc-Modified Proteins and O-GlcNAc Transferase in Corneas of Diabetic Goto-Kakizaki Rats", Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science, 44(9):3802-3809, 2003. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • mechanisms
  • This lack of success is conceivably due to poor tumor antigen presentation combined with immuno-suppressive mechanisms exploited by the tumor itself. (jove.com)
  • 1993, pp. 395-399, Claud Ceuvray, et al, "Characterization of a Plasmodium Falciparum Herozolte Surface Antigen Targeted by Defense Mechanisms Developed in Immune Individuals. (patentgenius.com)