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  • Proteins
  • Antigenic variation refers to the mechanism by which an infectious agent such as a protozoan, bacterium or virus alters its surface proteins in order to evade a host immune response. (wikipedia.org)
  • Vaccines
  • Goal 2: Create New Vaccines Grand Challenge #4: Devise Reliable Tests in Model Systems to Evaluate Live-attenuated Vaccines The priority areas for this challenge are viruses refractory to vaccine development, pathogenic bacteria, and complex pathogens such as protozoa and fungi. (wikipedia.org)
  • Unlike traditional vaccines, in which attenuated or killed virus/bacteria is used to generate an immune response, viral immunotherapy uses genetically engineered viruses to present a specific antigen to the immune system. (wikipedia.org)
  • protein
  • The Neisseria species mentioned variate their pili (protein polymers made up of subunits called pilin which play a critical role in bacterial adhesion, they are antigens which stimulate a vigorous host immune response) and the Streptococci variate their M-protein. (wikipedia.org)
  • surface
  • The Duffy antigen is located on the surface of red blood cells, and is named after the patient in which it was discovered. (wikipedia.org)
  • Variety generated of the surface lipoprotein antigen allows the bacterium to evade the host humoral immune system. (wikipedia.org)
  • This family of surface antigens is found in other apicomplexans. (wikipedia.org)
  • Basophils, upon the cross-linking of their surface IgE by antigens, release type 2 cytokines like interleukin-4 (IL-4) and interleukin-13 (IL-13) and other inflammatory mediators. (wikipedia.org)
  • bacteria
  • Dr. Cohn's experiments," reported the Times in his obituary, "threw light on the functions of T-cells, made in the bone marrow, and macrophages, large cells that can surround and digest foreign substances like protozoa and bacteria. (wikipedia.org)
  • immune
  • The T. brucei parasite has evolved an elegant mechanism to display a completely new coat of VSG antigen, rendering it once again invisible to the host's immune system. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cells
  • Although KCs have been extensively studied in vitro, little is known of their in vivo response to infection and their capacity to directly interact with antigen-specific CD8(+) T cells. (nih.gov)
  • Binding of antigens to IgE already bound by the FcεRI on mast cells causes cross-linking of the bound IgE and the aggregation of the underlying FcεRI, leading to the degranulation and the release of mediators from the cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • resistance
  • The Duffy antigen gene was the fourth gene associated with the resistance after the genes responsible for sickle cell anaemia, thalassemia and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase. (wikipedia.org)
  • parasite
  • Detection of the pLDH antigen seems to be an adequate screening tool in endemic areas, for this antigen indicates parasite presence. (nih.gov)
  • gene
  • The gene was first localised to chromosome 1 in 1968, and was the first blood system antigen to be localised. (wikipedia.org)
  • several
  • Introduction of PFG electrophoresis for the separation of chromosome-sized DNA molecules of several protozoa (20) (21). (wikipedia.org)
  • blood
  • It carries the antigenic determinants of the Duffy blood group system which consist of four codominant alleles-FY*A and FY*B-coding for the Fy-a and Fy-b antigens respectively, FY*X and FY*Fy, five phenotypes (Fy-a, Fy-b, Fy-o, Fy-x and Fy-y) and five antigens. (wikipedia.org)
  • diagnosis
  • Recombinant Leishmania (Leishmania) infantum Ecto-nucleoside triphosphate Diphosphohydrolase NTPDase-2 as a new antigen in canine visceral leishmaniasis diagnosis. (springer.com)
  • response
  • A weaning event which results in excessive regulatory or effector functions can result in a long term inability to mount an appropriate response to mucosal antigens (Kelly and King 2001). (biomin.net)