• Immunogenicity of antigens was increased with parasite prevalence as well. (uni-kiel.de)
  • Responsiveness of fish host immunity to helminth antigens may therefore vary depending on the degree of host-parasite counter-adaptation. (uni-kiel.de)
  • Here, we test these hypotheses by in vitro exposure of head kidney leukocytes from three-spined sticklebacks (Gasterosteus aculeatus) to antigens from parasites with a broad fish host range (Diplostomum pseudospathaceum, Triaenophorus nodulosus), a specific fish parasite of cyprinids (Ligula intestinalis) and parasites highly specific only to a single fish species as second intermediate host (Schistocephalus pungitii, which does not infect G. aculeatus, and Schistocephalus solidus, infecting G. aculeatus). (uni-kiel.de)
  • To unambiguously identify and localize Th2 cells and IL-4 production in the reactive lymph nodes in vivo, we infected IL-4 dual reporter mice ( 20 ), in which cells that express IL-4 are marked by GFP and IL-4-producing subsets additionally display surface huCD2, with the mouse gastrointestinal helminth parasite Heligmosomoides polygyrus . (rupress.org)
  • Other helminth proteins promote parasite survival in other ways, particularly since parasites must depend on hosts for the supply of essential nutrients. (wikipedia.org)
  • The effects of parasitic worms, or helminths, on the immune system is a recently emerging topic of study among immunologists and other biologists. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the academic journal EMBO Reports, Dr. Rook says that such helminths "are all either things that really do us no harm, or things where the immune system is forced to give in and avoid a fight because it's just a waste of time. (wikipedia.org)
  • The immune system extends this response to its treatments of self-antigens, softening reactions against allergens, the body, and digestive microorganisms. (wikipedia.org)
  • The major functions of the adaptive immune system include: Recognition of specific "non-self" antigens in the presence of "self", during the process of antigen presentation. (wikipedia.org)
  • It results in a chronic inflammatory disorder, in which the body's immune system attacks the gastrointestinal tract possibly directed at microbial antigens. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Fc region of immunoglobulin E (IgE) becomes bound to mast cells and basophils and when IgE's paratopes bind to an antigen, it causes the cells to release histamine and other inflammatory mediators. (wikipedia.org)
  • IgG titers against the endemic helminth Ascaris lumbricoides increased from baseline to QFT re-testing in all infants. (frontiersin.org)
  • With the assistance of a phosphatase present on the intracellular section of CD45 (common leukocyte antigen), these molecules activate major Th cell intracellular pathways. (wikipedia.org)
  • Helminth parasites such as the nematode Heligmosomoides polygyrus strongly inhibit T helper type 2 (Th2) allergy, as well as colitis and autoimmunity. (nih.gov)
  • This result supports the possibility of eventually using helminth products to treat type I diabetes in humans as well. (wikipedia.org)
  • I. The generation of functionally distinct T‐cell subclasses is a differentiative process independent of antigen. (els.net)
  • Injection immunotherapy ("intralesional" or "intratumoral") uses mumps, candida, the HPV vaccine or trichophytin antigen injections to treat warts (HPV induced tumors). (wikipedia.org)