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  • vivo
  • By generating a transgenic mouse only expressing the human XCR1 on its cross-presenting DC, we could demonstrate that targeting of Ag using human XCL1 as vector is fully effective in vivo. (jimmunol.org)
  • These findings suggest that transfection of monocyte-derived DC with OX40L mRNA represents a clinically applicable strategy that facilitates the generation of antigen-specific CD4 + T-cell responses that may be required to potentiate and maintain an effective CD8 + CTL response in vivo . (aacrjournals.org)
  • In contrast, the therapeutic potential of autologous antigen-specific T cells has yet to be established since it has been technically difficult to generate sufficient numbers of these T cells, ex vivo. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Dendritic cells as antigen presenting cells in vivo. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • These effector T cells expressed TNFα and IFNγ, eliminated SIY peptide-loaded target cells in vivo , and infiltrated prostate tumors, where they rapidly lost the ability to produce effector cytokines. (pnas.org)
  • Current immunotherapeutic strategies focus mainly on enhancing in vivo T cell priming or adoptive transfer of in vitro activated T cells. (pnas.org)
  • These data suggest that VEGF, at pathologically relevant concentrations in vivo, may exert effects on pluripotent stem cells that result in blocked DC development as well as affect many other hematopoietic lineages. (bloodjournal.org)
  • We ask in this study whether recombinant VEGF alone at relevant concentrations would cause significant alterations in DC development in vivo in otherwise healthy animals, which cell populations would be most affected, and what role other factors may play in the effects mediated by VEGF. (bloodjournal.org)
  • Dick AD, Pell M, Brew BJ, Foulcher E, Sedgwick JD (1997) Direct ex vivo flow cytometric analysis of human microglial cell CD4 expression: examination of central nervous system biopsy specimens from HIV-seropositive patients and patients with other neurological disease. (springer.com)
  • They are also used in gene therapy clinical trials both for the ex vivo modification of cells and for direct in vivo injection. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • In vivo -transduced DC also displayed a mature phenotype, produced tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), and stimulated naive CD8 + T cells. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Therefore, DC loaded ex vivo with tumor antigens have been exploited as anticancer vaccines ( 42 ), and the in situ delivery of tumor antigens to DC is being evaluated. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Here, we show that DCs arising in the absence of immunoglobulins (Ig) in vivo are impaired in cross-presentation of soluble antigen. (wur.nl)
  • In vivo and/or in vitro approaches could be harnessed to develop CD4 + T cell-based immunotherapy. (frontiersin.org)
  • histocompatibility
  • DCs can phagocytose malaria-parasitized reddish colored bloodstream cells during disease and can present malaria antigen in both the main histocompatibility complicated (MHC) course I and course II paths, triggering malaria-specific Compact disc8+ and Compact disc4+ Capital t cells, respectively, and therefore playing essential tasks in the induction of protecting defenses against disease (15, 17, 19, 20, 25, 33). (johnmaciel.com)
  • The antigens recognized on target cells by CTLs are "pepMHC" complexes, i.e., short peptides bound to protein products of class I major histocompatibility (MHC) genes. (pnas.org)
  • Streilein JW, Niederkorn JY, Shadduck JA: Systemic immune unresponsiveness induced in adult mice by anterior chamber presentation of minor histocompatibility antigens. (springer.com)
  • Major histocompatibility complex class I (MHC-I) molecules are loaded in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) with peptides derived from degradation of cytosolic proteins by the proteasome, and these MHC-I/peptide complexes are then surface expressed and presented to CD8 + T cells. (frontiersin.org)
  • The term was originally introduced to describe CD8 + T cell sensitization to minor histocompatibility antigens in transplantation situations ( Bevan, 1976 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • cytokines
  • In response to some viral infections, pDC synthesize high levels of type I IFNs - cytokines have direct antiviral effects and activate NK cells. (slideplayer.com)
  • In the effector stage, the creation of proinflammatory cytokines, such as gamma interferon (IFN-), and the cytotoxic activity of Compact disc8+ Capital t cells play essential tasks in the pathogenesis of ECM (26, 40). (johnmaciel.com)
  • Ability of early acting cytokines to directly promote survival and suppress apoptosis of human primitive CD34+CD38- bone marrow cells with multilineage potential at the single-cell level: key role of thrombopoietin. (naver.com)
  • The ability of MDP to promote DCs secreting cytokines was far below P. gingivalis- LPS but MDP could promote the functions of Th2 cell-promoting DCs induced by P. gingivalis -LPS. (alliedacademies.org)
  • Priming DCs with microbial compounds up-regulates the expression of costimulatory molecules and the production of proinflammatory cytokines, which drives T-helper (Th) cells to differentiate to Th1 or Th2 cells [ 4 ]. (alliedacademies.org)
  • Cytokines, small signaling proteins secreted primarily by immune cells, activate inter- and intracellular signaling during immune responses. (qiagen.com)
  • The antigen-specific CD4 helper T cells divide and multiply while secreting substances called cytokines, which cause inflammation and help activate other immune cells. (nih.gov)
  • The particular cytokines secreted by the CD4 helper T cells act on cells known as the CD8 "cytotoxic" T cells (because they can kill the cells that are infected by the invading organism and have the CD8 protein on their surface). (nih.gov)
  • tumor
  • Partnering with skin to outsmart cancer: following leads provided by tumor-specific T cells. (yale.edu)
  • Optimization of stability, encapsulation, release, and cross-priming of tumor antigen-containing PLGA nanoparticles. (yale.edu)
  • Polymer nanoparticles containing tumor lysates as antigen delivery vehicles for dendritic cell-based antitumor immunotherapy. (yale.edu)
  • Our model provides a system to study T cell-tumor interactions in detail and to test the efficacy of cancer immunotherapeutic strategies. (pnas.org)
  • Many tumor cells display pepMHC that are either unique or highly tissue-restricted ( 3 , 4 ), and CTL responses against them could potentially yield therapeutic benefit without causing collateral damage to normal host tissues. (pnas.org)
  • Although tumor-specific T cells have been detected in cancer patients ( 5 ), tumor regression as a result of spontaneous anti-tumor immune responses is rare. (pnas.org)
  • The lack of effective response is often due to T cells not recognizing tumor-specific antigens (ignorance) or not responding to them (tolerance) ( 6 , 7 ). (pnas.org)
  • Like most tissue pepMHC antigens, tumor antigens are cross-presented by specialized antigen-presenting cells, such as dendritic cells. (pnas.org)
  • But, presentation of tumor antigen does not generally trigger productive responses of naïve T cells, due to a lack of co-stimulatory signals ( 8 - 10 ). (pnas.org)
  • To better understand tumor-T cell interactions and thereby identify key intervention points to improve CTL-mediated immunotherapy, we modeled CTL recognition of prostate cancer in a spontaneous tumor setting. (pnas.org)
  • By introducing a nominal CD8 T cell epitope into a spontaneous mouse prostate cancer model, we investigated CTL responses to tumor antigens at different T cell functional stages. (pnas.org)
  • Tumor cells appear to have developed mechanisms to avoid immune system recognition and control, and among these is the inhibition of antitumor immune responses. (bloodjournal.org)
  • 2-6 Ineffective or adverse antigen presentation may be an important mechanism of tumor evasion from immune system surveillance. (bloodjournal.org)
  • 12 13 VEGF stimulates the proliferation of endothelial cells and plays an important role in the formation of tumor neovasculature. (bloodjournal.org)
  • Anticancer immunotherapy is based on enhancing the immune response to tumor cells. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Tumor antigens are recognized by T cells, and the latter can mediate tumor cell lysis ( 5 ). (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • CD4 + T cells also exert direct anti-tumor and anti-viral roles based on their cytolytic activity and effector cytokine secretion. (frontiersin.org)
  • cytokine
  • We analysed the blood myeloid DC (MDC) surface phenotype, inflammatory cytokine production and antigen-presenting capacity in MBL-deficient (MBL-D) individuals and MBL-sufficient (MBL-S) individuals using whole blood culture supplemented with zymosan (Zy) or MBL-opsonized zymosan (MBL-Zy) as a model of infection. (edu.au)
  • Mosmann TR, Coffman RL: Heterogeneity of cytokine secretion patterns and functions of helper T cells. (springer.com)
  • Kosiewicz MM, Alard P, Streilein JW: Alterations in cytokine production following intraocular injection of soluble protein antigen: impairment in IFN-gamma and induction of TGF-beta and IL-4 production. (springer.com)
  • T-cell proliferation and cytokine production is induced by the binding of CD28 or CTLA-4 to this receptor. (abcam.com)
  • CD4 + T cells differentiate into various T helper subsets characterized by distinct cytokine secreting profiles that confer them effector functions adapted to a variety of infectious or endogenous threats. (frontiersin.org)
  • capacity to induce
  • however, MBL-D individuals demonstrated a reduced capacity to induce effector allo-T cells. (edu.au)
  • These data indicate that MBL deficiency is associated with unique functional characteristics of pathogen-stimulated blood MDCs manifested by increased production of IL-6, combined with a poor capacity to induce effector allo-T-cell responses. (edu.au)
  • regulation
  • QIAGEN provides a broad range of assay technologies for dendritic and antigen presenting cell research that enable analysis of gene expression and regulation, epigenetic modification, genotyping, and signal transduction pathway activation. (qiagen.com)
  • however, we are beginning to appreciate the complexity of immunometabolic regulations and the delicate co-regulation between innate and adaptive immune cells. (frontiersin.org)
  • The cell cycle includes 4 main phases: Gap 1 (G1), DNA replication (S), Gap 2 (G2), and mitosis (M). Tight regulation of the transition between these phases halts cell cycle progression if a phase. (qiagen.com)
  • Dendritic cells in atherosclerosis: functions in immune regulation and beyond. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Myeloid
  • Continuous VEGF infusion, at rates as low as 50 ng/h (resulting in serum VEGF concentrations of 120 to 160 pg/mL), resulted in a dramatic inhibition of dendritic cell development, associated with an increase in the production of B cells and immature Gr-1 + myeloid cells. (bloodjournal.org)
  • We evaluated the effect of lentiviral vectors on myeloid dendritic cells (DC), the main target of lentiviral transduction following subcutaneous immunization. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Innate
  • These regulatory mechanisms in both adaptive and innate immune cells are known as immunometabolic regulations. (frontiersin.org)
  • For this Research Topic, we would like to cover immunometabolic regulations in both innate and adaptive immune cells and how these regulatory mechanisms can be exploited in immune response-related diseases and interventions. (frontiersin.org)
  • As microglia are innate immune cells implicated in age-related macular diseases, age-related microglial changes may be related to the increased vulnerability of the aged macula to immune-related neurodegeneration. (deepdyve.com)
  • differentiate
  • During embryonic development, pluripotent stem cells differentiate into 3 germ layers: ectoderm, mesoderm, and endoderm. (qiagen.com)
  • allogeneic
  • The levels of blastogenesis in allogeneic MLR containing T cells from one normal volunteer and irradiated dendritic cells from 29 patients with PBC, 17 patients with chronic hepatitis type C (CH‐C) and 22 allogeneic normal controls were compared to see if there is any role of antigenpresenting cells (APC) in the pathogenesis of PBC. (naver.com)
  • Significantly higher levels of NO were seen in the allogeneic MLR supernatants containing dendritic cells from PBC compared with the supernatants from cultures containing dendritic cells from CH‐C (P (naver.com)
  • The addition of NG‐monomethyl‐ L‐arginine monoacetate (L‐NMMA), a known inhibitor of NO in allogeneic MLR containing dendritic cells from PBC, resulted in a significant decrease of NO and increase of blastogenesis. (naver.com)
  • Rheumatoid synovial dendritic cells as stimulators in allogeneic and autologous mixed leukocyte reactions--comparison with autologous monocytes as stimulator cells. (naver.com)
  • Multiple clinical trials have shown the efficacy of adoptively transferred allogeneic antigen-specific T cells for the treatment of viral infections and relapsed hematologic malignancies. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • tissues
  • Dendritic cells, one major class of professional APC, reside in tissues exposed to the external environment and represent the first line of defense against invading pathogenic organisms. (qiagen.com)
  • In this study, we identified a population of dendritic cells (DC) that exists throughout human and mouse pulmonary tissues, including the trachea, bronchi, alveoli, and visceral pleura. (rupress.org)
  • There are 13 isoforms of AQP that express in different types of cells and tissues (1,2). (cellsignal.com)
  • One of the more perplexing questions in biomedical research is-why does the body's protective shield against infections, the immune system, attack its own vital cells, organs, and tissues? (nih.gov)
  • protein
  • Dendritic cell progenitor is transformed by a conditional v-Rel estrogen receptor fusion protein v-RelER. (naver.com)
  • This Cell Signaling Technology antibody is conjugated to Alexa Fluor® 647 fluorescent dye and tested in-house for direct flow cytometric analysis in human cells transfected with Myc-tagged protein. (cellsignal.com)
  • This complex, formed by a foreign protein and an MHC protein, then binds to a T cell receptor on the surface of another type of immune cell, the CD4 helper T cell. (nih.gov)
  • immune system
  • Modern subunit vaccines stimulate the B cell immune system and induce neutralizing Abs. (jimmunol.org)
  • To succeed, an immune system must distinguish the many cellular components of its own body (self) from the cells or components of invading organisms (nonself). (nih.gov)
  • However, if the immune system fails to recognize self cells or components and mistakenly attacks them, the result is known as an autoimmune disease. (nih.gov)
  • Gene expression simulates the immune system to respond to the secreted antigen. (btxonline.com)
  • characterization
  • Characterization of the DNA copy-number genome in the blood of cutaneous T-cell lymphoma patients. (yale.edu)
  • Streilein JW, Niederkorn JW: Characterization of the suppressor cell(s) responsible for Anterior Chamber Associated Immune Deviation (ACAID) induced in BALB/c mice by P815 cells. (springer.com)
  • Wilbanks GA, Streilein JW: Characterization of suppressor cells in anterior chamber-associated immune deviation (ACAID) induced by soluble antigen. (springer.com)
  • cancer
  • PYCR1 expression is induced in kidney cancer cells to compensate for the proline shortage and maintain cancer cell growth. (cellsignal.com)
  • In addition, breast cancer cells also express high levels of PYCR1 (2,3). (cellsignal.com)
  • Proline is restrictive to invasive ductal breast carcinoma cells, indicating proline vulnerability in the breast cancer formation (2). (cellsignal.com)
  • An iron-chelating agent that removes iron from tumors by inhibiting DNA synthesis and causing cancer cell death. (encognitive.com)
  • Presented in part at the Keystone Symposium "Cellular and Molecular Biology of Dendritic Cells," Santa Fe, NM, March 3-9, 1998, and at the annual meeting of the American Association for Cancer Research, March 28-April 1, 1998. (bloodjournal.org)
  • inhibits
  • DNA dendrimer linked to both a targeting moiety and a siRNA which inhibits expression of Human antigen R (HuR), pharmaceutical compositions comprising the DNA. (patents.com)
  • effector T cel
  • These findings suggest that T cells of a given clone can be activated and tolerized simultaneously in different microenvironments of the same host and that effector T cells are rapidly tolerized in the tumors. (pnas.org)
  • specificity
  • The specificity and efficiency of XCR1-mediated Ag targeting to cross-presenting DC, combined with its lack of adverse effects, make this system a prime candidate for the development of therapeutic cytotoxic vaccines in humans. (jimmunol.org)
  • The repertoire of CD8 + T cells in a naive organism contains only relatively few cells of a given Ag specificity, estimated to be in the order of several hundred cells ( 2 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • Function of DCs could be restored by transfer of Ig irrespective of antigen specificity and isotype. (wur.nl)