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  • serum
  • The aim of this study was to evaluate their sensitivity, specificity, and usability using 360 acute-phase serum samples containing JE, dengue, or neither IgM antibody. (ajtmh.org)
  • A form of fluorescent antibody technique commonly used to detect serum antibodies and immune complexes in tissues and microorganisms in specimens from patients with infectious diseases. (labome.org)
  • diversity of antibodies
  • The concept was introduced by the Australian doctor Frank Macfarlane Burnet in 1957, in an attempt to explain the formation of a diversity of antibodies during initiation of the immune response. (wikipedia.org)
  • In April 1974 Köhler took up a post-doctoral research fellowship at the Laboratory of Molecular Biology in Cambridge, UK where he began working with César Milstein to develop a laboratory tool that could help them investigate the mechanism that underlies the diversity of antibodies. (wikipedia.org)
  • soluble
  • In addition to exhibiting higher binding and internalization, trastuzumab-coated rods also exhibited greater inhibition of BT-474 breast cancer cell growth in vitro to a level that could not be attained by soluble forms of the antibody. (pnas.org)
  • Then the cell stops producing all other side chains and starts intensive synthesis and secretion of the antigen-binding side chain as a soluble antibody. (wikipedia.org)
  • The descendents will be capable of active liberation of soluble antibody and lymphocytes which can fulfil the same functions as the parental forms. (wikipedia.org)
  • bind
  • However, the IDDM epitopes have been difficult to further define because the antibodies do not bind GAD protein fragments or synthetic peptides. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Ehrlich theorised that a cell under threat grew additional side-chains to bind the toxin, and that these additional side chains broke off to become the antibodies that are circulated through the body. (wikipedia.org)
  • For any given antigen, at least one of these side chains would bind, stimulating the cell to produce more of the same type, which would then be liberated into the blood stream as antibodies. (wikipedia.org)
  • According to Ehrlich, an antibody could be considered an irregularly shaped, microscopic, three-dimensional label that would bind to a specific antigen but not to the other cells of the organism. (wikipedia.org)
  • Then, a further specific antibody is applied over the surface so it can bind to the antigen. (wikipedia.org)
  • More recently antibodies have been used to bind to molecules involved in T-cell regulation to remove inhibitory pathways that block T-cell responses. (wikipedia.org)
  • Diseases
  • Antibodies are used routinely in various analytical, diagnostic, and therapeutic applications, including cell and protein sorting ( 1 ), in vitro assays ( 2 ), in vivo imaging ( 3 ), and targeted delivery of therapeutics for the treatment of various diseases, including cancer ( 4 ), arthritis ( 5 ), and allergies ( 6 ). (pnas.org)
  • Research and development is underway to create antibodies for diseases (such as rheumatoid arthritis, multiple sclerosis, Alzheimer's disease, Ebola and different types of cancers). (wikipedia.org)
  • Monoclonal antibody therapy may prove to be beneficial for cancer, autoimmune diseases, and neurological disorders that result in the degeneration of body cells, such as Alzheimer's Disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • receptor
  • Ehrlich suggested that interaction between an infectious agent and a cell-bound receptor would induce the cell to produce and release more receptors with the same specificity. (wikipedia.org)
  • According to Ehrlich's theory, the specificity of the receptor was determined before its exposure to antigen, and the antigen selected the appropriate receptor. (wikipedia.org)
  • The clonal selection theory can be summarised with the following four tenets: Each lymphocyte bears a single type of receptor with a unique specificity (by V(D)J recombination). (wikipedia.org)
  • epitope
  • Each individual antibody protein is capable of binding specifically with one unique epitope thanks to the unique Antigen Binding Site located at the tip of the variable region on the antibody. (pacificimmunology.com)
  • Also, it is important to recognize that multiple antibodies will be generated against a typical protein antigen and so any one of these antibodies could potentially cross-react with another protein that contains the same epitope(s). (pacificimmunology.com)
  • However, since RA and relapsing polychondritis patient sera differed in their reactivity with the cyanogen bromide-digested peptides, it is possible that the clinical manifestation of collagen autoimmunity might be influenced by the epitope specificity of the antibodies. (docme.ru)
  • New, proteomic approaches, including T-cell and B-cells-epitope mapping, can also accelerate the pace at which scientists discover antibody-antigen relationships. (wikipedia.org)
  • specific
  • Research data from various groups have shown that some monoclonal antibodies on the market are not mono-specific. (origene.com)
  • This antibody recognizes muscle specific alpha and gamma actin isomers but is not reactive to beta isomers. (osu.edu)
  • Using spherical, rod-, and disk-shaped polystyrene nano- and microparticles and trastuzumab as the targeting antibody, we studied specific and nonspecific uptake in three breast cancer cell lines: BT-474, SK-BR-3, and MDA-MB-231. (pnas.org)
  • Analysis of 19 selected RA sera revealed that autoantibodies were generally associated with specific antibodies to some species of heterologous type I1 collagen. (docme.ru)
  • In contrast, antibodies found in 4% of the non-RA controls were specific for either bovine or chick type I1 collagen. (docme.ru)
  • Cross-linked DNA fragments associated with the protein(s) of interest are selectively immunoprecipitated from the cell debris using an appropriate protein-specific antibody. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cell debris in the sheared lysate is then cleared by sedimentation and protein-DNA complexes are selectively immunoprecipitated using specific antibodies to the protein(s) of interest. (wikipedia.org)
  • Antibody specificity exists for specific interaction with a given antigen. (wikipedia.org)
  • The theory states that in a pre-existing group of lymphocytes (specifically B cells), a specific antigen only activates (i.e. selection) its counter-specific cell so that particular cell is induced to multiply (producing its clones) for antibody production. (wikipedia.org)
  • Synthetic or animal-derived antibodies are created that react with a specific target protein. (wikipedia.org)
  • Next, the electrophoresis membrane is washed in a solution containing the specific antibody. (wikipedia.org)
  • The sample with an unknown amount of antigen is immobilized on a solid support (usually a polystyrene microtiter plate) either non-specifically (via adsorption to the surface) or specifically (via capture by another antibody specific to the same antigen, in a "sandwich" ELISA). (wikipedia.org)
  • In between the washes, only the ligand and its specific binding counterparts remain specifically bound or "immunosorbed" by antigen-antibody interactions to the solid phase, while the nonspecific or unbound components are washed away. (wikipedia.org)
  • However the dissimilarity between murine and human immune systems led to the clinical failure of these antibodies, except in some specific circumstances. (wikipedia.org)
  • react
  • This antibody does not react with dendritic cell population, such as epidermal Langerhans cells, interdigitating cells in the paracortex of lymph nodes, nor follicular dendritic cells. (osu.edu)
  • molecules
  • Accordingly, the CAR?s composition includes extracellular recognition domain made of a single chain variable fragment (scFv) of an antibody linked to intracellular domains of various stimulatory and co-stimulatory molecules that dictate the function of the transduced cells. (omicsonline.org)
  • In efforts to gain further insight on the potential role of these lectin-like molecules, our laboratory generated monoclonal antibodies (mAb) against the human analogs of rhesus macaque CD200, CD200R and Mincle, since the rhesus macaques are accepted as the most reliable animal model to study human HIV infection. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • According to Burnet's hypothesis among antibodies are molecules that can correspond probably with varying degrees of precision to all, or virtually all, the antigenic determinants that occur in biological material other than that characteristic of the body itself. (wikipedia.org)
  • Immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies are large heterodimeric molecules, approximately 150 kDa and are composed of two kinds of polypeptide chain, called the heavy (~50kDa) and the light chain (~25kDa). (wikipedia.org)
  • reacts
  • The antibody against CD34 reacts with hematopoietic precursor cells and endothelial cells. (osu.edu)
  • This antibody reacts specifically with human CD45 and is useful for identifying human leukocytes transplanted into immunodeficient mice. (osu.edu)
  • diphtheria
  • He worked on antitoxins for diphtheria and their binding to antibodies in the blood. (wikipedia.org)
  • 1888 - Identification of bacterial toxins (diphtheria bacillus) (Pierre Roux and Alexandre Yersin) 1888 - Bactericidal action of blood (George Nuttall) 1890 - Demonstration of antibody activity against diphtheria and tetanus toxins. (wikipedia.org)
  • receptors
  • Ehrlich's theory can be summarised with the following tenets: Antibodies are produced by white blood cells normally and they act as side chains (receptors) on the cell membrane. (wikipedia.org)
  • The differentiated effector cells derived from an activated lymphocyte will bear receptors of identical specificity as the parental cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • Typically, these receptors are used to graft the specificity of a monoclonal antibody onto a T cell, with transfer of their coding sequence facilitated by retroviral vectors. (wikipedia.org)
  • effector
  • These antibodies have: a short half-life in vivo (due to immune complex formation), limited penetration into tumour sites and inadequately recruit host effector functions. (wikipedia.org)
  • commonly
  • Commonly used nanoparticles for immobilizing antibodies include gold ( 9 ), iron oxide ( 12 ), quantum dots ( 13 , 14 ), silica ( 15 ), polymers including poly(lactide-coglycolic acid) (PLGA) ( 11 , 16 ) and polystyrene ( 17 , 18 ), liposomes ( 19 ), and albumin ( 20 ). (pnas.org)
  • The antibodies are commonly coupled to agarose, sepharose or magnetic beads. (wikipedia.org)
  • cell
  • This antibody recognizes the antigen presenting on the cell surface membrane of tissue macrophages. (osu.edu)
  • Abcam knockout validates its antibodies using the extensive library of knockout cell lines available from Horizon Discovery. (abcam.com)
  • Other clinically significant antibodies have been excluded based on at least one negative with a cell from a homozygous donor. (traqprogram.ca)
  • This surprising interplay between particle shape and antibodies originates from the unique role of shape in determining binding and unbinding of particles to cell surface. (pnas.org)
  • The first experimental evidence came in 1958, when Gustav Nossal and Joshua Lederberg showed that one B cell always produces only one antibody. (wikipedia.org)
  • The key difference from Ehrlich's theory was that every cell was presumed to synthesize only one sort of antibody. (wikipedia.org)
  • After antigen binding the cell proliferates, forming a clone producing the same antibody. (wikipedia.org)
  • Passive
  • The anti-C could be a passive antibody derived from the IV RhIG or a new alloantibody stimulated by prior transfusion. (traqprogram.ca)
  • Because transfusion occurred 3 months ago and the patient could be validly typed as E+, the anti-E appears to be a passive antibody derived from the IV RhIG and sensitizing the patient?s E+ red cells. (traqprogram.ca)
  • Monoclonal antibodies can be acquired in the immune system via passive immunity or active immunity.The advantage of active monoclonal antibody therapy is the fact that the immune system will produce antibodies long-term, with only a short-term drug administration to induce this response. (wikipedia.org)
  • Passive monoclonal antibody therapy can ensure consistent antibody concentration, and can control for adverse reactions by stopping administration. (wikipedia.org)
  • cells
  • Antibodies against desmin label smooth and striated muscle cells and is useful in identification of tumors of myogenic origin such as leiomyosarcomas and rhabdomyosarcomas. (osu.edu)
  • Antibody against CD31 strongly labels endothelial cells and neoplasms derived from endothelial cells. (osu.edu)
  • This antibody stains only lambda light chain-containing cells in lymphoid tissue. (osu.edu)
  • Antibodies against Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein label astrocytes and some CNS ependymal cells. (osu.edu)
  • This may happen by certain cells phagocytosing the immune complexes and somehow replicating the antibody structure to produce more of it. (wikipedia.org)
  • Monoclonal antibody therapy can aid the immune system because the innate immune system responds to the environmental factors it encounters by discriminating against foreign cells from cells of the body. (wikipedia.org)
  • Monoclonal antibodies can target tumor cells or abnormal cells in the body that are recognized as body cells, but are debilitating to one's health. (wikipedia.org)
  • species
  • 2) What is the species and isotype of the Fc region of your antibody? (thermofisher.com)
  • When you see the knockout validated seal, you can trust that the antibody has not only been validated in the recommended applications and species, but its specificity has been confirmed through our in-house knockout validation approach. (abcam.com)
  • Ehrlich
  • It was these antibodies that Ehrlich first described as "magic bullets", agents that specifically target toxins or pathogens without harming the body. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 1900, Paul Ehrlich proposed the so-called side chain theory of antibody production. (wikipedia.org)
  • Phenotypic
  • Second, susceptible strains of rodents (8-12) and nonhuman primates (1315) immunized with type I1 collagen produce high titers of autoreactive antibodies and develop an erosive polyarthritis that shares phenotypic features with RA. (docme.ru)
  • molecular
  • This particular antibody labels high and low molecular weight keratins in many epithelia, including keratinized and corneal epidermis, stratified squamous epithelia of internal organs, stratified epithelia, hyperproliferative keratinocytes, and simple epithelia. (osu.edu)
  • human
  • The UltraMAB Service leverages OriGene's proprietary technology platform, the High-Density Protein Microarray, to test the specificity of an antibody against the human proteome in a high-throughput manner. (origene.com)
  • We describe here a single antigen bead panel for accurate identification of human leukocyte antigen (HLA) antibody specificities by flow cytometry. (ovid.com)
  • Test antibody specificity was evaulated using CDI HuProt™ Human Proteome Microarray (~75% of the human proteome) and subseqently analyzed with GenePix Pro Image Acquisition and Analysis Software, the benchmark tool for the acquisition and analysis of microarray images. (cdi-lab.com)
  • autoantibodies
  • Although most individuals with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) have autoantibodies to glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD), antibodies to GAD are also present in some individuals with a low risk of developing diabetes. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • protein
  • Photo Leucine, as well as another photo-reactive amino acid derived from Methionine, Photo-Methionine, were first synthesized in 2005 by Monika Suchanek, Anna Radzikoska and Christoph Thiele from the Max Planck Institute of Molecular Cell Biology and Genetics with the objective of identifying protein to protein interaction throughout a simple western blot test that would provide high specificity. (wikipedia.org)
  • The diagnostic capability of the PAMG-1 protein has originally been used by an immunoassay that employs a series of monoclonal antibodies (MABs) to the PAMG-1 protein. (wikipedia.org)
  • Sensitivity
  • In this group, the PartoSure test provided a 97.4% and 93.6% negative predictive value, and 78.3% and 87.0% positive predictive value for the prediction of imminent spontaneous delivery within ≤7 and ≤14 days, respectively, and 90.0% and 80.0% sensitivity and 93.8% and 96.1% specificity for ≤7 and ≤14 days, respectively. (wikipedia.org)
  • detect
  • This research has potential to provide a wide range of off-the-shelf biochemical tests, which use antibodies to detect the presence of biomolecules, revolutionising the in vitro diagnostics field. (nanowerk.com)
  • Confirmation is by laboratory testing to detect the virus's RNA, antibodies for the virus, or the virus itself in cell culture. (wikipedia.org)
  • respectively
  • New methods incorporate the dUTPs modified by fluorophores or haptens, including biotin or bromine, which can be detected directly in the case of a fluorescently-modified nucleotide (i.e., fluorescein-dUTP), or indirectly with streptavidin or antibodies, if biotin-dUTP or BrdUTP are used, respectively. (wikipedia.org)
  • blood
  • Diagnosis is based upon a combination of symptoms, history of tick exposure, and possibly testing for specific antibodies in the blood. (wikipedia.org)
  • western
  • Antibodies against TRPC1, 3, 4 and 5 had been the kind present from Teacher W.P. Schilling (Case Traditional western College or university, Cleveland, OH, USA). (cancercurehere.com)
  • itself
  • The study describes the modification of the antibody fragment (anti-CEA sscFv) through its disulfide bond by adding a spin label, a nitroxide molecule that has an unpaired electron, which can attach itself to a biomolecule. (nanowerk.com)
  • Journal
  • There he performed a number of studies on the immunological specificity and chemical nature of antibodies and antigens and published the results in the Journal of Physical and Chemical Society in 1915. (wikipedia.org)