• Understanding the specificities that mediate broad neutralization will provide insight into which epitopes should be targeted for immunogen design and aid in the isolation of broadly neutralizing monoclonal antibodies from these donors. (nih.gov)
  • However, the IDDM epitopes have been difficult to further define because the antibodies do not bind GAD protein fragments or synthetic peptides. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Identification of epitopes targeted by IDDM sera may allow one to distinguish between GAD antibody-positive individuals at high and low risk of developing IDDM and to determine if differences in the autoimmune repertoire directed at GAD are present. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Although the development of an immunogen that elicits such antibodies remains elusive, a proportion of HIV-1 infected individuals evolve broadly neutralizing serum responses over time, demonstrating that the human immune system can recognize and generate NAbs to conserved epitopes on the virus. (nih.gov)
  • In approximately half of the donors, key N-linked glycans were critical for expression of the epitopes recognized by the bNAb specificities in the sera. (nih.gov)
  • The sera also failed to neutralize chimeric simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) and HIV-2 viruses displaying highly conserved gp41-neutralizing epitopes, suggesting that antibodies directed against these epitopes likely do not account for the broad neutralizing activity observed. (asm.org)
  • Serum antibodies from these human vaccine recipients were also found to be preferentially directed to linear epitopes within gp120 that are poorly exposed on native gp120. (asm.org)
  • High specificity is the pre-requisite for any antibody used in diagnostic and therapeutic applications. (origene.com)
  • Drugs targeting the epigenetic machinery are being tested in oncology clinics now, and a better understanding of what the antibodies are recognizing will help researchers define more precisely how epigenetics works and ultimately lead to better, stronger conclusions that can make a difference for drug discovery and future therapeutic interventions. (healthcanal.com)
  • Custom antibody development and commercial partnerships to advance your diagnostic and therapeutic discovery. (abcam.com)
  • Whether managing a research program, a reagent company R&D lab or a diagnostic/therapeutic antibody initiative, you will benefit from learning more about an antibody BEFORE you use it (or sell it). (cdi-lab.com)
  • Antibodies are used routinely in various analytical, diagnostic, and therapeutic applications, including cell and protein sorting ( 1 ), in vitro assays ( 2 ), in vivo imaging ( 3 ), and targeted delivery of therapeutics for the treatment of various diseases, including cancer ( 4 ), arthritis ( 5 ), and allergies ( 6 ). (pnas.org)
  • Although the benefits of antibodies in delivering therapeutic carriers to tissues have long been recognized, the effect of carriers themselves on antibody function has been relatively less studied. (pnas.org)
  • We find that the GAD binding present in most IDDM sera ( n = 11 of 12) is composed of two distinct GAD antibody specificities that target different conformation-dependent regions of the GAD 65 protein, one that is located between amino acids 240 and 435 (termed IDDM-E1) and one that is located between amino acids 451 and 570 (termed IDDM-E2). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Here, we have used a number of new and established technologies to map the bNAb specificities in the sera of 19 donors who exhibit among the most potent cross-clade serum neutralizing activities observed to date. (nih.gov)
  • To better understand the requirements for cross-neutralization of HIV-1, we have characterized the neutralizing antibody specificities present in the sera of three asymptomatic individuals exhibiting broad neutralization. (asm.org)
  • Overall, the data suggest that broad neutralization results from more than one specificity in the sera but that the number of these specificities is likely small. (asm.org)
  • Analysis of 19 selected RA sera revealed that autoantibodies were generally associated with specific antibodies to some species of heterologous type I1 collagen. (docme.ru)
  • Additionally, those immune sera with the highest oligomeric gp160 antibody binding titers had neutralizing activity against some primary HIV-1 isolates, using phytohemagglutinin-stimulated peripheral blood mononuclear cell targets. (asm.org)
  • There's been a real awakening in the biological community that we need better ways to know if the antibodies are recognizing what they're intended to recognize. (healthcanal.com)
  • In the same study, antibodies 2F5 and 4E10, which recognize adjacent sites on the highly conserved membrane proximal external region (MPER) of gp41 ( 55 , 86 ), showed an even greater neutralization breadth, neutralizing 67% and 100%, respectively, of the cross-clade virus panel. (asm.org)
  • The anti-C could be a passive antibody derived from the IV RhIG or a new alloantibody stimulated by prior transfusion. (traqprogram.ca)
  • Alloantibody specificities differed from those previously described, especially due to the significantly higher frequency of anti-S. Although alloimmunization was not associated with frequency of vasoocclusive episodes, a higher percentage of alloimmunized patients had chronic pain, as defined by daily use of short-acting narcotics (p = 0.006), long-acting narcotics (p = 0.013), or both (p = 0.03). (duke.edu)
  • Second, susceptible strains of rodents (8-12) and nonhuman primates (1315) immunized with type I1 collagen produce high titers of autoreactive antibodies and develop an erosive polyarthritis that shares phenotypic features with RA. (docme.ru)
  • Current human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) envelope vaccine candidates elicit high antibody binding titers with neutralizing activity against T-cell line-adapted but not primary HIV-1 isolates. (asm.org)
  • However, the enormous sequence diversity of HIV-1 presents a major complication, in that a globally effective vaccine must elicit broadly neutralizing antibodies (bNAbs), i.e., those capable of neutralizing a wide range of primary isolates. (asm.org)
  • Antibody responses to conserved regions of the functional envelope spike have been difficult to elicit, due at least in part to the restricted accessibility of these regions. (asm.org)
  • Induction of an antibody response preferentially reactive with natively folded gp120/gp160 was dependent on the tertiary structure of the HIV-1 envelope immunogen as well as its adjuvant formulation, route of administration, and number of immunizations administered. (asm.org)
  • This antibody, BB7.2, can be used as an HLA-A2 typing reagent with little modification of current typing techniques. (nih.gov)
  • In the in situ method, protein synthesis is carried out on a protein array surface that is pre-coated with a protein-capturing reagent or antibody. (wikipedia.org)
  • This antibody reacts with most of macrophages in lymphoreticular organs and in many other organs and tissues. (osu.edu)
  • Neglecting this important validation step has resulted in the proliferation of nonspecific, poorly validated antibodies, thus contributing to a major problem in biomedicine: the reproducibility crisis. (ptglab.com)
  • Abcam has incorporated knockout based validation as a standard level of validation for its antibody products. (abcam.com)
  • When you see the knockout validated seal, you can trust that the antibody has not only been validated in the recommended applications and species, but its specificity has been confirmed through our in-house knockout validation approach. (abcam.com)
  • Abcam knockout validates its antibodies using the extensive library of knockout cell lines available from Horizon Discovery. (abcam.com)
  • This particular antibody labels high and low molecular weight keratins in many epithelia, including keratinized and corneal epidermis, stratified squamous epithelia of internal organs, stratified epithelia, hyperproliferative keratinocytes, and simple epithelia. (osu.edu)
  • This antibody reacts specifically with human CD45 and is useful for identifying human leukocytes transplanted into immunodeficient mice. (osu.edu)
  • We describe here a single antigen bead panel for accurate identification of human leukocyte antigen (HLA) antibody specificities by flow cytometry. (ovid.com)
  • In efforts to gain further insight on the potential role of these lectin-like molecules, our laboratory generated monoclonal antibodies (mAb) against the human analogs of rhesus macaque CD200, CD200R and Mincle, since the rhesus macaques are accepted as the most reliable animal model to study human HIV infection. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Antibodies with specificity to native gp120 and neutralization activity against primary human immunodeficiency virus type 1 isolates elicited by immunization with oligomeric gp160. (asm.org)
  • Other clinically significant antibodies have been excluded based on at least one negative with a cell from a homozygous donor. (traqprogram.ca)
  • The results suggest that broad and potent serum neutralization arises in most donors through a limited number of specificities (1-2 per donor). (nih.gov)
  • These results open unique opportunities for particulate forms of antibodies in therapeutics and diagnostics. (pnas.org)
  • In addition to exhibiting higher binding and internalization, trastuzumab-coated rods also exhibited greater inhibition of BT-474 breast cancer cell growth in vitro to a level that could not be attained by soluble forms of the antibody. (pnas.org)
  • Although most individuals with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) have autoantibodies to glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD), antibodies to GAD are also present in some individuals with a low risk of developing diabetes. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • This antibody recognizes the antigen presenting on the cell surface membrane of tissue macrophages. (osu.edu)
  • The antibody 2G12, which has a unique dimeric domain-exchanged structure that recognizes a carbohydrate cluster on the so-called silent face of gp120 ( 16 , 67 , 69 , 76 ) also neutralized over 40% of the 90-virus panel. (asm.org)
  • With their specificity and sensitivity, these tools can help to easily identify the protein of interest at various expression levels. (abcam.com)
  • This antibody does not react with dendritic cell population, such as epidermal Langerhans cells, interdigitating cells in the paracortex of lymph nodes, nor follicular dendritic cells. (osu.edu)
  • This brings up the issue of how antibodies are typically used, since they can be collected directly from the serum or by isolating the B cell(s) that is producing the antibody of interest. (pacificimmunology.com)
  • This surprising interplay between particle shape and antibodies originates from the unique role of shape in determining binding and unbinding of particles to cell surface. (pnas.org)
  • BB7.2 provides an example of an antibody which requires bivalent attachment to a polymeric antigen, e.g., a cell, to produce a readily detectable complex. (nih.gov)
  • Alloimmunization in sickle cell disease: changing antibody specificities and association with chronic pain and decreased survival. (duke.edu)
  • Unreliable antibodies have led to numerous instances of false findings, failed experiments, and wasted money and samples. (healthcanal.com)
  • Here, we show that presentation of antibodies on the surface of nonspherical particles enhances antibody specificity as well as avidity toward their targets. (pnas.org)
  • In fact, it has been speculated that the largest driver of poor reproducibility in published biomedical literature is antibody- driven. (avmbiomed.com)
  • Enter the Histone Antibody Specificity Database (www.histoneantibodies.com), a newly launched online portal that lets scientists find the right antibodies for their research with a much higher degree of confidence than ever before. (healthcanal.com)
  • The array was manufactured as indicated in the flow chart below and tested with 1:500 dilution of OriGene's anti-DDK (FLAG) tag antibody followed by DyLight 649 conjugated goat anti-mouse IgG secondary antibody. (origene.com)