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  • infectious
  • Interestingly, humans have more memory B cells than mice 3,4 , although this may be an artifact of mice being housed in pathogen-free facilities and therefore, are exposed to only a limited number of microbes and infectious agents. (mainebiotechnology.com)
  • Memory cells need to be recruited to lymph nodes if the infectious agent induces local inflammation. (mainebiotechnology.com)
  • Mature B cells are capable of making antibodies and developing memory, a feature in which the B cell will rapidly recognize and respond to an infectious agent the next time it is encountered. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Emory University
  • If you're developing a vaccine, you want to fill up this compartment with cells that respond to your target antigen," says co-senior author F. Eun-Hyung Lee, MD, assistant professor of medicine at Emory University School of Medicine and director of Emory Healthcare's Asthma, Allergy and Immunology program. (emory.edu)
  • serum
  • Naïve ( A and B ) and activated ( C and D ) T cells were assayed for their chemotactic response to serum samples obtained from patients undergoing therapy with trastuzumab and IL-12. (aacrjournals.org)
  • E, migration of activated T cells was measured in response to patient serum that had been pretreated with neutralizing concentrations of antibodies to IL-8, RANTES, and MIP-1α or with isotype-matched control IgG. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Here, we report the development of a serum-free CHO DG44 cell line, stably producing a CR9114-like antibody with a potential to become a useful influenza virus research tool. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Here, we decided to take advantage of a biotechnology-relevant production cell line, Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) DG44, to establish a serum-free, stable, CR9114-like (CR9114L, a generic version of CR9114) antibody-producing cell line for a steady supply of this mAb with low batch to batch variation. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • vivo
  • When cells from individual Swiss mice immunized in vivo with TNP--SRBC were as an allogeneic culture from the 2nd day after immunization in the presence of TNP--SRBC, the frequency of bispecific PFC increased from 8 to 30/10(6) cells. (mysciencework.com)
  • We generated cloned lines of B cells specific for respiratory syncytial virus and used these cells as a source of antibodies that effectively neutralized this virus in vivo. (nih.gov)
  • In this post I will provide an overview of B cell development with the goal of providing an understanding of how antibodies are generated in vivo . (mainebiotechnology.com)
  • Because of the broad neutralization and in vivo protection across influenza A and influenza B virus strains, monoclonal antibody CR9114 is widely used in influenza virus research as a positive control in many experiments. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • TRA-8, an agonistic mouse monoclonal antibody to human DR5, generates apoptosis in a variety of human tumor cell lines and inhibits tumor growth in vivo ( Nature Med 7:954-60, 2001 and Clin Cancer Res 9:3731-41, 2003). (aacrjournals.org)
  • spleen
  • Antibody-bearing cells of spleen and lymph node of the mouse and rabbit detected by rosette formation with the antigenic red blood cells were collected by micropipet and studied by electron microscopy. (rupress.org)
  • In cells of the mouse spleen, macrophages were also found among the RFC, especially in the later days after immunization. (rupress.org)
  • I Bispecific cell occurrence in double stimulated cultures of syngeneic or allogeneic spleen cells of the mouse. (mysciencework.com)
  • It should be noted that for each immunogen many germinal centers will be generated in the spleen or lymph nodes (or other secondary lymphoid tissue) which will increase the diversity of antigen specific B cell clones. (mainebiotechnology.com)
  • Thymidine (Tdr) and its analogues 5-fluorodeoxyuridine (FUdr) and 5-bromodeoxyuridine (BUdr) inhibited the development of antibody-producing cells (PFC) in cultures of explants of rabbit spleen stimulated with sheep red cells in vitro. (biomedsearch.com)
  • affinity maturation
  • We have also examined intraclonal affinity maturation by generating Abs inferred to have been produced by the unmutated precursors and branchpoint intermediates of the largest 68ld clone. (jimmunol.org)
  • stable
  • It is important to develop a stable antibody-producing cell line to meet the high dosage requirement of therapeutic antibodies for the growing cancer patient population. (creative-biogene.com)
  • CD27 + memory peripheral blood cells acquire a stable GC-like phenotype following transduction with BCL6 and Bcl-xL and subsequent culture. (nih.gov)
  • In addition to the generation of all of these lineages the HSC, CMP, and CLP all undergo self-renewal to provide a stable stem cell population for continual renewal of all of the leukocyte (and erythrocyte) cell populations throughout the life of the host. (mainebiotechnology.com)
  • clones
  • The B cells that cannot compete will die, resulting in the selection of multiple B cell clones with increased specificity and affinity toward the antigen. (mainebiotechnology.com)
  • The expanded clones expressed CD80 and HLA-DR, which is compatible with properties of antigen-presenting cells. (bio-zentrum.com)
  • The establishment of B cell lines and clones would give a useful tool to review further the part and biological features of autoimmune myelin-specific B cells and would also facilitate research on BCT-cell relationships in the pathogenesis of PN-MGUS. (bio-zentrum.com)
  • In a parallel system of clonal B cell expansion, in which autoantibodies may occur, we have immortalized the malignant clones of several B-type chronic lymphocytic leukaemia patients and compared these to their normal counterparts . (bio-zentrum.com)
  • inhibitors
  • When cancer cells are exposed to Chk1 inhibitors, they experience DNA damage and, as a consequence, launch another defense mechanism by activating a protein known as ERK1/2. (bio-medicine.org)
  • The activation of ERK1/2 explains why multiple myeloma cells are able to survive the lethal effects of Chk1 inhibitors," says Grant. (bio-medicine.org)
  • Grant's team discovered that Src inhibitors not only blocked ERK1/2 activation, but also synergized with Chk1 inhibitors to trigger a dramatic increase in cell death. (bio-medicine.org)
  • viruses
  • As described in part of the Immunity paper, the researchers studied 11 older individuals (aged 43 to 70) who had not been immunized against measles or mumps, but who had antibodies in their blood indicating infection by those viruses in childhood. (emory.edu)
  • plasma
  • Of 162 such cells, fine gradations were also found throughout the lymphocytic and plasmacytic categories, but in this case the great majority were in the plasmacytic group, and more plasma cells showed amorphous nuclear chromatin. (rupress.org)
  • Single plasma cells (PCs) and IgD- memory B cells were sorted from the ileum and/or blood of 7 EHI and 3 CHI. (biomedcentral.com)
  • a ) Phenotype of BCL6+Bcl-xL transduced CD27 + memory B cells (6XL, black histogram line) compared to tonsil GC cells (GC, CD38 + CD20 + , shaded grey), tonsil naïve and memory cells (N/M, CD38 − CD20 low , red histogram), and tonsil plasma cells (PC, CD38 ++ CD20 low , blue histogram). (nih.gov)
  • Most of the plasma cells will remain locally (Figure 2) to produce antibodies for the recognition, targeting, and removal of the inducing pathogen 1 . (mainebiotechnology.com)
  • These are typically referred to as short-lived plasma cells as they are only maintained while the pathogen is present and will die off once the infection is cleared. (mainebiotechnology.com)
  • Development of Memory B cells & Antibody Producing Plasma cells. (mainebiotechnology.com)
  • B-cells can be used as memory cells or can be activated to produce more plasma cells to create additional antibodies. (wanttoknowit.com)
  • Monoclonal expansion of B cells and plasma cells, producing antibodies against self molecules, can be found not only in different autoimmune diseases, such as peripheral neuropathy (PN), but also in malignancies, such as Waldenstr?ms macroglobulinaemia and B-type of chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (B-CLL), as well as in precancerous conditions including monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS). (bio-zentrum.com)
  • CD19
  • d ) CD19 + cells from non-sorted double transduced cultures were analyzed for CD38, HLA-DR, and surface Ig kappa (IgL-κ) or lambda (IgL-λ) light chain expression. (nih.gov)
  • functional
  • During the pro-B and pre-B stages not only is HC and LC Ig rearrangement occur, but each stage is tested to make sure that it is a functional rearrangement (to insure the generation of a fully functional antibody). (mainebiotechnology.com)