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  • monoclonal antibodies
  • In mice, these immunogens elicited monoclonal antibodies capable of neutralizing up to 31% of a cross-clade panel of 208 HIV-1 strains. (deepdyve.com)
  • This protocol offers a detailed description of the method starting from the flow-cytometric isolation of single human B cells to the reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR)-based amplification of the expressed immunoglobulin (Ig) transcripts ( IGH , IGK , and IGL) and their subsequent cloning into expression vectors for the in vitro production of recombinant monoclonal antibodies. (springer.com)
  • make antibodies
  • The first direct evidence that DNA is rearranged during B cell development came in the 1970s from experiments in which molecular biologists compared DNA from early mouse embryos, which do not make antibodies, with the DNA of a mouse B cell tumor, which makes a single species of antibody molecule . (nih.gov)
  • recombination
  • During the development of a B cell, a complete coding sequence for each of the two antibody chains to be synthesized is assembled by site-specific genetic recombination (discussed in Chapter 5). (nih.gov)
  • The recombination between V-J and V-D-J is not always perfect and if errors occur during recombination event, additional diversity occurs. (avroarrow.org)
  • T-cell receptor diversity results from an initial random DNA editing process, called VDJ recombination, followed by functional selection of cells according to the interaction of their surface receptors with self and foreign antigenic peptides. (pnas.org)
  • We find a significant correlation between biases induced by VDJ recombination and our inferred selection factors together with a reduction of diversity during selection. (pnas.org)
  • This diversity, which is central to the ability of the immune system to defeat pathogens, is initially created by a stochastic process of germline DNA editing (called VDJ recombination) that gives each new immune cell a unique surface receptor gene. (pnas.org)
  • Vaccine Design
  • The findings give us new options for vaccine design," adds TSRI professor Dennis R. Burton, who directs the International AIDS Vaccine Initiative's (IAVI) Neutralizing Antibody Consortium and the National Institutes of Health-sponsored Center for HIV/AIDS Vaccine Immunology and Immunogen Discovery (CHAVI-ID) at TSRI. (infectioncontroltoday.com)
  • pathogen
  • We introduce a general framework, in which we can study many antibody-pathogen matching rules, including the widely-used shape-space model (Perelson and Oster, 1979). (psu.edu)
  • For the antibody/pathogen matching rules that we studied, the scaling relation between fitness and the size of the evolved antibody library is only a shifted variant of the scaling relation that we obtain with random libraries of the same size. (psu.edu)
  • libraries
  • This dissertation describes several strategies used to create diversity in non-immune antibody libraries. (utexas.edu)
  • Extremely high rates of mutagenesis (2.2% of the gene to 2.7%) were used to create two libraries of the anti-digoxin antibody 26-10. (utexas.edu)
  • The libraries had been screened by others in an attempt to examine the effects of highrates of mutagenesis on the directed evolution of an antibody. (utexas.edu)
  • This study confirmed that high-error rate antibody libraries contain more active clones than expected. (utexas.edu)
  • Combinations of the selected consensus mutations from these libraries provide moderate enhancements to the kinetics and expression of the wild-type antibody in a non-synergistic manner. (utexas.edu)
  • Utility of the method is demonstrated via fabrication of complementarity determining regions (CDR) in antibody fragment libraries and next generation sequencing (NGS) analysis of their quality and diversity. (openaire.eu)
  • sequences
  • This showed that the DNA sequences encoding an antibody molecule are rearranged at some stage in B cell development ( Figure 24-36 ). (nih.gov)
  • cell
  • The B cell tumor arose from a single B cell and therefore makes a single species of antibody molecule. (nih.gov)
  • The new research, reported in the September 25, 2014 issue of the journal Cell, is part of a broad effort to "retro design" an effective HIV vaccine, based on an understanding of rare, natural antibodies that effectively hit HIV's most vulnerable sites. (infectioncontroltoday.com)