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  • different
  • The trifunctional antibody is extracted chromatographically with protein A. Using two different species (mouse and rat) has the advantage that less mismatched antibodies are produced because rat light chains preferably pair with rat heavy chains, and mouse light chains with mouse heavy chains. (wikipedia.org)
  • Single species (mouse/mouse or rat/rat) quadromas, by contrast, produce up to ten different kinds of antibody, most of which have mismatched heavy or light chains, or both. (wikipedia.org)
  • study
  • The objective of this study was to determine the properties of a single-chain bispecific antibody (scBsAb) against human ovarian carcinoma and to develop this agent for potential use in human ovarian cancer. (bjmu.edu.cn)
  • large
  • As Dr. Monica introduced, untargeted mutagenesis and oligonucleotide-directed mutagenesis are used to construct random or defined sub-libraries to introduce a large number of mutants of the original antibody. (originalviewpoint.com)
  • human
  • Characterization of an anti-human ovarian carcinomaxanti-human CD3 bispecific single-chain antibody with an albumin-original interlinker[J]. GYNECOLOGIC ONCOLOGY,2004,92(1):135-146. (bjmu.edu.cn)
  • epitope
  • Each tip of the "Y" of an antibody contains a paratope (analogous to a lock) that is specific for one particular epitope (similarly analogous to a key) on an antigen, allowing these two structures to bind together with precision. (wikipedia.org)
  • They described the exact viral component, or epitope that triggered the antibody. (wikipedia.org)
  • Giving patients a modified gp120 that contains little more than the epitope that both antibodies target could act to "prime" the immune system, followed by a booster that contains trimer spikes in the most natural configuration possible. (wikipedia.org)
  • An antibody titer is a measurement of how much antibody an organism has produced that recognizes a particular epitope, expressed as the inverse of the greatest dilution (in a serial dilution) that still gives a positive result. (wikipedia.org)
  • The structure of the antibody is such that it readily binds to a membrane-proximal epitope, unbothered by steric hindrance. (wikipedia.org)
  • Besides the conformation of the linear epitope, 2F5-like responses to vaccine are complicated by the fact that antibody recognition of the epitope may also be dependent on interactions with other areas of the env region, accessibility, or interactions with membrane lipids on target cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Opsonization involves the binding of an opsonin, e.g., antibody, to an epitope on an antigen. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, antibodies that are monospecific to a certain tissue, or all monospecific to the same tissue because clones, can be polyvalent in their epitope binding. (wikipedia.org)
  • immune system
  • An antibody ( Ab ), also known as an immunoglobulin ( Ig ), is a large, Y-shaped protein produced mainly by plasma cells that is used by the immune system to neutralize pathogens such as pathogenic bacteria and viruses . (wikipedia.org)
  • Using this binding mechanism, an antibody can tag a microbe or an infected cell for attack by other parts of the immune system, or can neutralize its target directly (for example, by blocking a part of a microbe that is essential for its invasion and survival). (wikipedia.org)
  • The ability of an antibody to communicate with the other components of the immune system is mediated via its Fc region (located at the base of the "Y"), which contains a conserved glycosylation site involved in these interactions. (wikipedia.org)
  • The production of antibodies is the main function of the humoral immune system . (wikipedia.org)
  • Antibodies are secreted by B cells of the adaptive immune system, mostly by differentiated B cells called plasma cells . (wikipedia.org)
  • Mark S. Freedman, MD, MSc This difference is what gives neutralizing antibodies the ability to fight viruses which attack the immune system, since they can neutralize function without a need for white blood cells (excluding production) Broadly-neutralizing antibodies (bNAbs) affect multiple strains of a particular virus. (wikipedia.org)
  • Humanization can be necessary when the process of developing a specific antibody involves generation in a non-human immune system (such as that in mice). (wikipedia.org)
  • An antibody is a type of protein used by the immune system. (wikipedia.org)
  • Blocking antibodies have been described as a mechanism for HSV-1 to evade the immune system. (wikipedia.org)
  • After application, the patient's immune system usually produces anti-drug antibodies, which represent early indicators for a beneficial clinical outcome. (wikipedia.org)
  • Species
  • Recombinant antibodies can be cloned from any species of antibody-producing animal, if the appropriate oligonucleotide primers or hybridization probes are available. (wikipedia.org)
  • Humanized antibodies are antibodies from non-human species whose protein sequences have been modified to increase their similarity to antibody variants produced naturally in humans. (wikipedia.org)
  • The trifunctional antibody is extracted chromatographically with protein A. Using two different species (mouse and rat) has the advantage that less mismatched antibodies are produced because rat light chains preferably pair with rat heavy chains, and mouse light chains with mouse heavy chains. (wikipedia.org)
  • Single species (mouse/mouse or rat/rat) quadromas, by contrast, produce up to ten different kinds of antibody, most of which have mismatched heavy or light chains, or both. (wikipedia.org)
  • affinity
  • Synthetic antibodies are affinity reagents generated entirely in vitro, thus completely eliminating animals from the production process. (wikipedia.org)
  • Neutralizing
  • A neutralizing antibody (NAb) is an antibody that defends a cell from an antigen or infectious body by neutralizing any effect it has biologically. (wikipedia.org)
  • An example of a neutralizing antibody is diphtheria antitoxin, which can neutralize the biological effects of diphtheria toxin. (wikipedia.org)
  • Neutralizing antibody Blocking Antibodies at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) Hook LM, Huang J, Jiang M, Hodinka R, Friedman HM (July 2008). (wikipedia.org)
  • Blocking antibody access to neutralizing domains on glycoproteins involved in entry as a novel mechanism of immune evasion by herpes simplex virus type 1 glycoproteins C and E". J. Virol. (wikipedia.org)
  • mutations
  • The large and diverse population of antibody paratope is generated by random recombination events of a set of gene segments that encode different antigen-binding sites (or paratopes ), followed by random mutations in this area of the antibody gene, which create further diversity. (wikipedia.org)
  • This antibody attached to a "conserved" portion of gp120 that outlasts many of its mutations, affecting 17/24 tested strains at low doses. (wikipedia.org)
  • bNAbs evolve over years, accumulating some three times as many mutations as other antibodies. (wikipedia.org)
  • The antibody has been refined in order to remove any excess, unstable mutations that could negatively affect its neutralising ability, and this new version of the antibody has been termed "FI6v3" Researchers from Britain and Switzerland have found antibodies that work in Group 1 influenza A viruses or against most Group 2 viruses, but not against both. (wikipedia.org)
  • Production
  • Basically, the antibody paratope is polygenic, made up of three genes, V, D, and J. Each paratope locus is also polymorphic, such that during antibody production, one allele of V, one of D, and one of J is chosen. (wikipedia.org)
  • Kenney had managed the monoclonal antibody (McAb) development laboratory for Syntex Research in Palo Alto and Gould managed the McAb production facility for Syva Diagnostics. (wikipedia.org)
  • tissue
  • Tissue Micro-Array(TMA) core of colon cancer showing cytoplasmic staining using Antibody CPTC-OTUB1-2. (cancer.gov)
  • Tissue Micro-Array(TMA) core of breast cancer showing cytoplasmic staining using Antibody CPTC-GSTMu1-1. (cancer.gov)
  • Soluble antibodies are released into the blood and tissue fluids, as well as many secretions to continue to survey for invading microorganisms. (wikipedia.org)
  • Common advantages of these molecules compared to use of the typical antibody structure include a smaller size, giving improved tissue penetration, rapid generation times of weeks compared to months for natural and recombinant antibodies and cheaper costs. (wikipedia.org)
  • Antibody microarrays are often used for detecting protein expression from various biofluids including serum, plasma and cell or tissue lysates. (wikipedia.org)
  • or antibodies specific to one type of cell or tissue. (wikipedia.org)
  • involves
  • Recombinant antibody technology involves recovering the antibody genes from the source cells, amplifying and cloning the genes into an appropriate vector, introducing the vector into a host, and achieving expression of adequate amounts of functional antibody. (wikipedia.org)
  • The method involves optical mapping of DNA sequences that are added as "barcodes" to antibodies attached to the cells in the sample. (wikipedia.org)
  • Titer
  • If a few weeks later the same patient had an indirect Coombs titer of 32 (1/32 dilution which is 1 part serum to 31 parts diluent), this would mean that she was making more anti-Rh antibody, since it took a greater dilution to abolish the positive test. (wikipedia.org)
  • microbe
  • Should the microbe be coated with opsonising antibodies or C3b complement, the co-stimulation of endocytic PRR and opsonin receptor increases the efficacy of the phagocytic process, enhancing the lysosomal elimination of the infective agent. (wikipedia.org)
  • bound
  • Antibodies can occur in two physical forms, a soluble form that is secreted from the cell to be free in the blood plasma , and a membrane -bound form that is attached to the surface of a B cell and is referred to as the B-cell receptor (BCR). (wikipedia.org)
  • A screen of massive gp120 libraries led to one that strongly bound both an original antibody and the mature bNAb that evolved from it. (wikipedia.org)
  • During this process, the pathogen is opsonized and bound with the antibody IgG via its Fab domain. (wikipedia.org)
  • laboratory
  • As of 2014, Antibody Solutions' offices and laboratory are located within a 13,200 sq. ft. facility located just off Lawrence Expressway, immediately south of CA Highway 237. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cancer
  • These antibodies have been shown to play an important role in cancer development. (wikipedia.org)
  • Blocking antibodies can be used in a variety of medical and scientific manners, thus far been to treat cancer, Graves' disease, and prevent the growth of malaria in mosquitoes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Blocking antibodies have been used in clinical trials of cancer treatments. (wikipedia.org)