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  • cross-reactivity
  • STS with good sensitivity and specificity helps enhance blood safety and consolidation of STS along with other transfusion transmittable infections such as human immunodeficiency virus, hepatitis-C virus, and hepatitis-B virus helps in reducing the errors and enhances efficiency.There was no cross-reactivity with other viral and auto-immune antibodies.No interference was observed from endogenous interfering substances like free hemoglobin or fats. (nih.gov)
  • epitopes
  • Thus, current HIV-1 vaccines may not induce these types of antibodies because of autoantigen mimicry of the conserved membrane-proximal epitopes of the virus. (sciencemag.org)
  • A major conundrum has been that HIV-1 envelopes that express membrane-proximal epitopes fail to induce equivalent antibodies in animal models or humans ( 5 - 8 ). (sciencemag.org)
  • infection
  • HIV-1 infection and vaccination induce multiple types of antibodies, including antibodies to envelope variable loops, the CD4 binding site, and the chemokine receptor binding site. (sciencemag.org)
  • NS1 antigen is a nonstructural protein found in infected patients from 1st day of fever upto 5 days after the onset of fever.Dengue Hemorrhagic Fever and Dengue Shock Syndrome are caused by infection of RNA Flavivirus transmitted by a mosquito vector. (molq.in)
  • The nontreponemal antibodies are indicators of active infection since a significant reduction in titer can be used to suggest success of therapy, while a significant increase can indicate a possible relapse or reinfection. (asm.org)
  • gp41
  • The initial antibody response to HIV-1 is targeted to envelope (Env) gp41, and is nonneutralizing and ineffective in controlling viremia. (rupress.org)
  • Polyreactive gp41-binding antibodies were also isolated from uninfected individuals. (rupress.org)
  • The human monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) 2F5 and 4E10 represent rare antibodies with broadly neutralizing activity made from B cells of HIV-1-infected humans, which react with conserved membrane-proximal amino acids in HIV-1 gp41 ( 2 - 4 ). (sciencemag.org)
  • Laboratory
  • Laboratory findings were often ignored as the virus along with its antigens was well known to disappear from the cerebrospinal fluid in the early stage of the disease. (neurologyindia.com)
  • placental
  • The ability of these antibodies to interact with trophoblast-derived PLAC1 and alter placental function under normal physiological circumstances is unknown. (hindawi.com)
  • response
  • Collectively, these studies suggested that expression of the PLAC1 antigen can elicit a spontaneous antibody/immunologic response capable of altering tumor cell biology. (hindawi.com)
  • levels
  • The levels of antibody mutation frequencies during this period of plasmacytosis were compared with those induced by primary HIV Env immunization in uninfected subjects. (rupress.org)
  • development
  • This drug may be considered in refractory sarcoidosis after other TNF-α inhibitors failure, having the advantage of not being associated with neutralizing antibodies development. (biomedcentral.com)