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  • Isotype
  • Each Fc region of a particular antibody isotype is able to bind to its specific Fc Receptor (except for IgD, which is essentially the BCR), thus allowing the antigen-antibody complex to mediate different roles depending on which FcR it binds. (wikipedia.org)
  • Animal selection should be based upon: the amount of antibody needed, the relationship between the donor of the antigen and the recipient antibody producer (generally the more distant the phylogenetic relationship, the greater the potential for high titer antibody response) and the necessary characteristics [e.g., class, subclass (isotype), complement fixing nature] of the antibodies to be made. (wikipedia.org)
  • subset
  • This contrasts with the major, specific, activity of AAHA, defining a subset of anti-cardiolipin antibodies that specifically interacts with Apo-H. AHAA only inhibits the anti-coagulation activity in the presence of Apo-H and the AAHA component of ACLA correlates with a history of frequent thrombosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Only a subset of autoimmune anti-cardiolipin antibodies bind Apo-H, these anti-apolipoprotein antibodies are associated with increased thrombosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Soluble
  • Antibodies can occur in two physical forms, a soluble form that is secreted from the cell to be free in the blood plasma , and a membrane -bound form that is attached to the surface of a B cell and is referred to as the B-cell receptor (BCR). (wikipedia.org)
  • Soluble antibodies are released into the blood and tissue fluids, as well as many secretions to continue to survey for invading microorganisms. (wikipedia.org)
  • therapeutic
  • The biotechnology company, Symphogen, develops this type of antibodies for therapeutic applications. (wikipedia.org)
  • New Drug Application Approval for POTELIGEO (Mogamulizumab) Injection in Japan, a Therapeutic Antibody for Adult T-cell Leukemia-Lymphoma (ATL)" (Press release). (wikipedia.org)
  • A primary antibody can be very useful for the detection of biomarkers for diseases such as cancer, diabetes, Parkinson's and Alzheimer's disease and they are used for the study of ADME and multi-drug resistance (MDR) of therapeutic agents. (wikipedia.org)
  • Recognition
  • Anti-cardiolipin antibodies can be classified in two ways: As IgM, IgG or IgA As β2-glycoprotein dependent or independent In autoimmune disease ACA are beta-2 glycoprotein dependent syphilis ACA are beta-2 glycoprotein independent and can be assayed using the Venereal Disease Research Laboratory test β2-glycoprotein I has been identified as Apolipoprotein H and is required for the recognition of ACA in autoimmune disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • Titer
  • The primary goal of antibody production in laboratory animals is to obtain high titer, high affinity antisera for use in experimentation or diagnostic tests. (wikipedia.org)
  • isoform
  • Mab can be expressed in culture or via ascites fluid production to produce large amounts of a single antibody isoform. (wikipedia.org)
  • Seattle Genetics
  • The US biotechnology company Seattle Genetics developed a technology in 2008 called SEA, short for 'Sugar-Engineered Antibody', in which fucose analogs are added to antibody-expressing CHO cells, resulting in a significant reduction in fucosylation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Seattle Genetics is working on SEA-CD40, an afucosylated antibody that targets CD40. (wikipedia.org)
  • idiopathic
  • Anti-cardiolipin antibodies (ACA) are antibodies often directed against cardiolipin and found in several diseases, including syphilis, antiphospholipid syndrome, livedoid vasculitis, vertebrobasilar insufficiency, Behçet's syndrome, idiopathic spontaneous abortion, and systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). (wikipedia.org)
  • assay
  • The antiendomysial antibody test is a histological assay for patient serum binding to esophageal tissue from primate. (wikipedia.org)
  • tissue
  • Tissue Micro-Array(TMA) core of colon cancer showing cytoplasmic staining using Antibody CPTC-OTUB1-2. (cancer.gov)
  • Tissue Micro-Array(TMA) core of breast cancer showing cytoplasmic staining using Antibody CPTC-GSTMu1-1. (cancer.gov)
  • In case of auto immune disease these natural antibodies functions deregulates that hampers the proper functioning of immune machinery either by hyper immune responses or by tissue degeneration. (wikipedia.org)
  • Antibodies to tissue transglutaminase (abbreviated as anti-tTG or anti-TG2) are found in patients with several conditions, including celiac disease, juvenile diabetes, inflammatory bowel disease, and various forms of arthritis. (wikipedia.org)
  • The antibodies to tissue transglutaminase follow a complex pathway of generation. (wikipedia.org)
  • diagnostic
  • Testing for Chlamydia antibodies is not the mainstay diagnostic tool for Chlamydia infection, which is preferentially diagnosed by Nucleic acid amplification tests (NAAT) such as polymerase chain reaction (PCR). (wikipedia.org)
  • Anti-actin antibodies (AAA) are found at increased frequency in certain autoimmune diseases and may be of some diagnostic value. (wikipedia.org)
  • epitope
  • Antibodies to a GM1 epitope as well as to one with the GT1a or GD3 epitope were found in different strains of Campylobacter jejuni and patients with Guillain-Barré syndrome have a high occurrence of C. jejuni infection. (wikipedia.org)
  • immune system
  • Using this binding mechanism, an antibody can tag a microbe or an infected cell for attack by other parts of the immune system, or can neutralize its target directly (for example, by blocking a part of a microbe that is essential for its invasion and survival). (wikipedia.org)
  • The ability of an antibody to communicate with the other components of the immune system is mediated via its Fc region (located at the base of the "Y"), which contains a conserved glycosylation site involved in these interactions. (wikipedia.org)
  • Antibodies are secreted by B cells of the adaptive immune system, mostly by differentiated B cells called plasma cells . (wikipedia.org)
  • Antibodies serve an important role in the immune system by detecting cells and substances that the rest of the immune system then eliminates. (wikipedia.org)
  • serum
  • The general procedure to produce polyclonal antibodies is as follows: Antigen preparation Adjuvant selection and preparation Animal selection Injection process Blood serum extraction An antigen/adjuvant conjugate is injected into an animal of choice to initiate an amplified immune response. (wikipedia.org)
  • scleroderma
  • Anti-centromere antibodies are found in approximately 60% of patients with limited systemic scleroderma and in 15% of those with the diffuse form of scleroderma. (wikipedia.org)
  • They are also referred to as anti-DNA topoisomerase I antibody (anti-topo I). Anti Scl-70 antibodies (also called anti-topoisomerase I after the type I topoisomerase target) is a type of anti-nuclear autoantibody seen mainly in diffuse systemic scleroderma, but is also seen the more limited form of systemic scleroderma called CREST syndrome. (wikipedia.org)
  • Scl-70 antibodies are associated with more severe scleroderma disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • Scleroderma results from the overproduction of collagen in affected tissues, one study claims that there is an increased density of Topoisomerase I sites in the collagen genes, and that the antibodies may be altering transcription at these loci. (wikipedia.org)
  • mice
  • Anti-gliadin antibodies can be generated in mice or rabbits by immunizing whole purified gliadins, proteolytic fragments of gliadin, or synthetic peptides that represent epitopes of gliadin. (wikipedia.org)