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  • lethargica
  • From 1917 to 1928, an epidemic of encephalitis lethargica occurred worldwide. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 1916, von Economo described encephalitis lethargica (EL), a CNS disorder presenting with pharyngitis followed by sleep disorder, basal ganglia signs (particularly parkinsonism) and neuropsychiatric sequelae. (wikipedia.org)
  • syndrome
  • We report a 3-year-old boy with anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor encephalitis with a typical syndrome of movement disorder and encephalopathy and evidence of herpes simplex virus (HSV) type 1 infection on brain biopsy. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Also a variant affecting mainly the spinal cord and the cortex has been proposed Neuromyelitis optica (NMO), and its associated "spectrum of disorders" (NMOSD), currently considered a common syndrome for at least three separated diseases:, mainly produced by AQP4 autoimmune channelopathy, though other variants exists, some with anti-MOG and some others idiopathic. (wikipedia.org)
  • The syndrome of anti-Ma2 encephalitis may be clinically mistaken for Whipple's disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • Symptoms
  • however, this disease must be considered for young encephalitis patients exhibiting psychiatric symptoms. (wordpress.com)
  • In this paradigm, tumor cells express tissue-restricted antigens (e.g., neuronal proteins), triggering an anti-tumor immune response which may be partially or, rarely, completely effective in suppressing tumor growth and symptoms. (wikipedia.org)
  • Immunotherapy
  • First-line immunotherapy with intravenous immunoglobulins (IgIV) was administered and the patient returned almost to his baseline residual deficits of HSV encephalitis. (heighpubs.org)
  • subunits
  • The receptor is a heteromeric complex that interacts with multiple intracellular proteins by three different subunits: NR1, NR2 and NR3. (wikipedia.org)
  • meningoencephalitis
  • Certain parasitic or protozoal infestations, such as toxoplasmosis, malaria, or primary amoebic meningoencephalitis, can also cause encephalitis in people with compromised immune systems. (wikipedia.org)
  • Clinical
  • 2013). Pediatric anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor encephalitis - Clinical analysis and novel findings in a series of 20 patients. (pediatricneurologybriefs.com)
  • Anti-MOG associated spectrum, often clinically presented as an anti-MOG autoimmune encephalomyelitis, but can also appear as negative NMO or atypical multiple sclerosis CRION (Chronic relapsing inflammatory optic neuritis): A distinct clinical entity from other inflammatory demyelinating diseases including multiple sclerosis (MS), neuromyelitis optica-immunoglobulin G (NMO-IgG) spectrum disease, and idiopathic relapsing optic neuritis. (wikipedia.org)
  • disorders
  • Overactivation of the receptor, causing excessive influx of Ca2+ can lead to excitotoxicity which is implied to be involved in some neurodegenerative disorders. (wikipedia.org)
  • neuronal
  • In this paradigm, tumor cells express tissue-restricted antigens (e.g., neuronal proteins), triggering an anti-tumor immune response which may be partially or, rarely, completely effective in suppressing tumor growth and symptoms. (wikipedia.org)
  • teratomas
  • These can be produced by cross reactivity with NMDA receptors in teratomas, which contain many cell types, including brain cells, and thus present a window in which a breakdown in immunological tolerance can occur. (wikipedia.org)
  • protein
  • The Abs are directed against membrane receptors and ion channel-associated proteins that are expressed on the surface of neurons in the CNS, such as N-methyl D-aspartate receptors and leucine-rich, glioma inactivated protein and contactin-associated protein like, that are associated with voltage-gated potassium channels. (wikipedia.org)
  • synthesis
  • Independent studies described a ligand for the oncogene ErbB2 (neu, Her2) and factors that stimulated proliferation of Schwann cells, as well as synthesis of receptors for acetylcholine by muscle. (clinmedjournals.org)
  • The discovery of NMDA receptors was followed by the synthesis and study of N-Methyl-D-aspartic acid (NMDA) in the 1960s by Jeff Watkins and colleagues. (wikipedia.org)
  • selectivity
  • Quinolinic acid affects neurons located mainly in the hippocampus, striatum, and neocortex, due to the selectivity toward quinolinic acid by the specific NMDA receptors residing in those regions. (wikipedia.org)
  • characteristic
  • When ruptured, the characteristic hypoattenuating fatty fluid can be found as anti dependent pockets, typically below the right hemidiaphragm, a pathognomonic finding 2 . (radiopaedia.org)
  • Causes
  • NMDA receptors are particularly important when they become overactive during withdrawal from alcohol as this causes symptoms such as agitation and, sometimes, epileptiform seizures. (wikipedia.org)
  • Additional possible viral causes are arbovirus (St. Louis encephalitis, West Nile encephalitis virus), bunyavirus (La Crosse strain), arenavirus (lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus) and reovirus (Colorado tick virus). (wikipedia.org)
  • activation
  • Integrins are not constitutively active but rather exist in multiple activation states wherein ligand binding stability is related to the activation status of the receptor. (thno.org)
  • Activation of NMDA receptors results in the opening of an ion channel that is nonselective to cations, with a combined reversal potential near 0 mV. (wikipedia.org)
  • specific
  • Extracellular magnesium (Mg2+) and zinc (Zn2+) ions can bind to specific sites on the receptor, blocking the passage of other cations through the open ion channel. (wikipedia.org)
  • found
  • One of the earliest reported syntheses of this quinolinic acid was by Zdenko Hans Skraup, who found that methyl-substituted quinolines could be oxidized to quinolinic acid by potassium permanganate. (wikipedia.org)
  • Quinolinic acid may undergo further decarboxylation to nicotinic acid (niacin): Oxidation of aspartate by the enzyme aspartate oxidase gives iminosuccinate, containing the two carboxylic acid groups that are found in quinolinic acid. (wikipedia.org)
  • people
  • World Encephalitis Day is the global awareness day for people who have been directly or indirectly affected by encephalitis. (scoop.it)
  • Founded by The Encephalitis Society in the UK in 2014, it is held on February 22 each year and has reached over 80 million people in the past five years. (scoop.it)
  • In 2015, encephalitis was estimated to have affected 4.3 million people and resulted in 150,000 deaths worldwide. (wikipedia.org)
  • People should only be diagnosed with encephalitis if they have a decreased or altered level of consciousness, lethargy, or personality change for at least twenty-four hours without any other explainable cause. (wikipedia.org)
  • function
  • Integrins are heterodimeric, transmembrane receptors that function as mechanosensors, adhesion molecules and signal transduction platforms in a multitude of biological processes. (thno.org)