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  • spores
  • Anthrax occurs in humans when they are exposed to infected animals, tissue from infected animals or when they are directly exposed to B. anthracis or its spores. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • vaccine
  • Anthrax Vaccine Adsorbed (AVA) protects against anthrax. (cdc.gov)
  • To build up protection against anthrax, these groups should get 5 shots of anthrax vaccine over 18 months. (cdc.gov)
  • Anyone who has had a serious allergic reaction to a previous dose of anthrax vaccine. (cdc.gov)
  • Anyone who has a severe allergy to any component of the anthrax vaccine. (cdc.gov)
  • In November 2015, FDA also approved the vaccine for use after exposure to anthrax for people 18 through 65 years of age. (cdc.gov)
  • In certain situations, such as a bioterrorist attack involving anthrax, anthrax vaccine might be recommended to prevent the disease in people after they have been exposed to the anthrax germs. (cdc.gov)
  • If this were to happen, people who were exposed would get 3 shots of anthrax vaccine over 4 weeks plus a 60-day course of antibiotics. (cdc.gov)
  • During an emergency, the only people who should not get the anthrax vaccine after possible exposure are those who have had a serious allergic reaction to a previous dose of anthrax vaccine. (cdc.gov)
  • See the Anthrax Vaccine Adsorbed Vaccine Information Statement . (cdc.gov)
  • The anthrax vaccine helps protect people from anthrax. (cdc.gov)
  • The anthrax vaccine does not appear to harm women's fertility, according to a study of Army soldiers. (menstuff.org)
  • Did the military secretly doctor the anthrax vaccine? (slate.com)
  • Matsumoto's contention, as he first reported in a 1999 Vanity Fair article that triggered a congressional hearing, is that the U.S. military's anthrax vaccine causes a constellation of autoimmune diseases and symptoms such as lupus, rashes, hair loss, and aching joints that fall under the rubric known as Gulf War Syndrome. (slate.com)
  • To be sure, a myriad of real problems have stained the reputation of the military's anthrax vaccine, and Matsumoto thoroughly documents them. (slate.com)
  • To read more about the anthrax vaccine, click here . (slate.com)
  • Yet in his strained attempt to expose what the jacket calls the "worst friendly fire incident in military history," Masumoto never satisfyingly answers the vexing question that might make his case at least plausible: What motive did the U.S. military have to secretly doctor the anthrax vaccine with squalene? (slate.com)
  • Developed in the 1950s and approved by the FDA in 1970, the anthrax vaccine requires an extraordinary six doses-most vaccines work with three or fewer-and contains what's called "protective antigen," a toxin made by the anthrax bacterium. (slate.com)
  • To help rev up the antibody response against the protective antigen, the anthrax vaccine also contains a chemical called an adjuvant, which essentially serves as an irritant to command the immune system's full attention. (slate.com)
  • The adjuvant used in the FDA-licensed anthrax vaccine is aluminum hydroxide, or alum , which has a long safety record in other vaccines. (slate.com)
  • In the late 1980s, military researchers demonstrated that a single dose of a vaccine made from protective antigens and squalene prevented a particularly nasty anthrax strain from harming guinea pigs and mice. (slate.com)
  • On the eve of the Persian Gulf War in October 1990, the Department of Defense did not have enough anthrax vaccine for its troops, and the DoD's pressing deployment plans created a time crunch-ideally, the vaccine requires six shots over 18 months to develop a full antibody response. (slate.com)
  • 2002
  • RICHARDSON, Texas (Nov. 26, 2002) - 'Addressing the Threat of Anthrax' will be the subject of a lecture by Harvard Medical School Professor R. John Collier, Ph.D., on Tuesday, Dec. 3, at The University of Texas at Dallas (UTD). (utdallas.edu)
  • human anthrax
  • Unreliable reporting makes it difficult to estimate with accuracy the true incidence of human anthrax. (iaff.org)
  • In the United States, the annual incidence of human anthrax has steadily declined-from about 127 cases in the early years of this century to about one per year for the past 10 years. (iaff.org)
  • The largest reported epidemic of human anthrax occurred in Zimbabwe from 1978 through 1980, with an estimated 10,000 cases. (iaff.org)
  • The cutaneous or skin form of the infection occurs most frequently on the hands and forearms of persons working with infected livestock or contaminated animal products and represents 95% of cases of human anthrax. (wave3.com)
  • infection
  • Anthrax is an acute infection caused by B. anthracis . (health.gov.au)
  • A recent study indicated that non-headache neurological symptoms (such as confusion, dizziness or loss of consciousness), dyspnoea, nausea or vomiting, and any finding on lung auscultation were suggestive of anthrax rather than an upper respiratory tract infection in the context of a suspected deliberate release of anthrax . (health.gov.au)
  • exposure
  • People everywhere, hyped into believing their flu-like symptoms are caused by anthrax exposure and mis-informed by irresponsible media reports, are taking CIPRO, and worse yet - are giving it to their children. (mnwelldir.org)
  • scab
  • After 1 to 2 days, the papule develops into a vesicle which ruptures to form the painless ulcer with the central necrotic dry black scab- the typical anthrax eschar. (health.gov.au)
  • Vaccination
  • The anthrax vaccination program was also shrouded in secrecy-most shots were not marked on their recipients' immunization cards. (slate.com)
  • occurs
  • Anthrax occurs worldwide. (iaff.org)
  • During times of economic hardship and disruption of veterinary and human public health practices, such as occurs during war, there have been large epidemics of anthrax. (iaff.org)
  • toxin
  • Anthrax toxin is composed of a cell-binding protein, known as protective antigen (PA), and two enzyme components, called edema factor (EF) and lethal factor (LF). (wikipedia.org)
  • Research on anthrax toxin also provides insight into the generation of macromolecular assemblies, and on protein translocation, pore formation, endocytosis, and other biochemical processes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Anthrax toxin is a mixture of three protein components: (i) protective antigen (PA), (ii) edema factor (EF), and (iii) lethal factor (LF). (wikipedia.org)
  • Each individual anthrax toxin protein is nontoxic. (wikipedia.org)
  • Anthrax toxin is of the form A2B, where the two enzymes, EF and LF, are the A components and PA is the B component. (wikipedia.org)
  • citation needed] Anthrax toxin protein components must assemble into holotoxin complexes to function. (wikipedia.org)
  • This process starts when the 83-kDa form of PA, called PA83, binds to an anthrax toxin receptor. (wikipedia.org)
  • cases
  • However, there have been no reported cases of anthrax in Indiana livestock since before 1960. (in.gov)
  • There were no reported human or animal cases of anthrax in Indiana in 2004. (in.gov)
  • In more recent years, anthrax in animals has been reported from 82 countries, and human cases continue to be reported from Africa, Asia, Europe, and the Americas 3 . (iaff.org)
  • There aren't any known cases of anthrax passing from one person to another, so it is considered to be noncontagious. (howstuffworks.com)
  • As soon as the first cases of anthrax resulting from suspicious mail became known, there were wide reports of a hectic run on this drug. (mnwelldir.org)
  • Scare
  • As a result of the current Anthrax scare another fluorinated drug called CIPRO has received extensive media coverage and the name has become familiar to millions almost overnight. (mnwelldir.org)
  • Alibek
  • Dr. Ken Alibek , a recent defector from the former Soviet Union's biological weapons program, revealed that the Soviets had produced anthrax in ton quantities for use as a weapon. (bibliotecapleyades.net)
  • For Alibek, the business of anthrax has been very, very good. (villagevoice.com)
  • Located in the Aral Sea, it is another place condemned by anthrax and, worse, a place that apparently no one, including Alibek, ever saw fit to "iron. (villagevoice.com)
  • cattle
  • Natural reservoir of Anthrax include farm animals such as cattle, goat, and sheep. (smore.com)
  • BISMARCK, N.D. - North Dakota has had its first confirmed case of anthrax this year in Sioux County, where eight head of cattle died out. (agweek.com)
  • BISMARCK (AP) -- Cattle have tested positive for anthrax in southwestern North Dakota, the first case in the state this year. (agweek.com)
  • deliberate
  • The vaccinations and course are part of a broader effort by health officials to respond quickly to any new bioterrorism threats that might follow the recent deliberate spread of anthrax through the mail. (menstuff.org)
  • Diseases
  • Ray Suarez examines the medical implications of anthrax with Dr. Anthony Fauci, director of the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases. (pbs.org)
  • Our concerns are not limited to anthrax," said Dr. James M. Hughes, who directs the agency's center for infectious diseases. (menstuff.org)
  • Now that recent events have shown bioterrorism to be a reality, greater understanding of the scientific basis of diseases such as anthrax is imperative. (scidev.net)