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  • GMOs
  • The EU has established a legal framework regulating GM food and feed derived products as well as the release of living GMOs into the environment in order to ensure a high level of protection of human and animal health, and the environment. (europa.eu)
  • EFSA's role is to independently assess and provide scientific advice to risk managers on any possible risks of GMOs for human and animal health and the environment and to propose appropriate measures to mitigate the risks. (europa.eu)
  • The basic assumption of this type of comparative assessment, which is required under current EU legislation for all GMOs submitted for market authorisation, is that food and feed from conventionally-bred animals have a history of safe use and therefore can serve as a baseline for the risk assessment of food and feed derived from GM animals. (europa.eu)
  • The basic assumption of the comparative assessment, which is the risk assessment approach for all GMOs laid down in EU legislation, is that non-GM animals serve as a baseline with respect to environmental safety. (thefishsite.com)
  • GMOs are used to produce many medications and genetically modified foods and are widely used in scientific research and the production of other goods. (wikipedia.org)
  • In Canada and the USA labeling of GM food is voluntary, while in Europe all food (including processed food) or feed which contains greater than 0.9% of approved GMOs must be labelled. (wikipedia.org)
  • livestock
  • The world's appetite for meat is increasing and there are a lot of problems with the livestock industry beyond the animal suffering issue. (mynorthwest.com)
  • The review, led by UC Davis animal scientist Alison Van Eenennaam, examined nearly 30 years of livestock-feeding studies that represent more than 100 billion animals. (wattagnet.com)
  • Titled " Prevalence and Impacts of Genetically Engineered Feedstuffs on Livestock Populations ," the review article is now available online in open-access form through the American Society of Animal Science. (wattagnet.com)
  • Therefore, proposed labeling of animal products from livestock and poultry that have eaten GE feed would require supply-chain segregation and traceability, as the products themselves would not differ in any way that could be detected. (wattagnet.com)
  • The first transgenic livestock were produced in 1985 and the first animal to synthesise transgenic proteins in their milk were mice, engineered to produce human tissue plasminogen activator in 1987. (wikipedia.org)
  • GM livestock have been developed, although as of November 2013 none were on the market. (wikipedia.org)
  • pigs
  • CRISPR has prevented HIV infections in human cells and aided in the creation of genetically modified pigs that may one day serve as organ donors for human transplant patients. (ranker.com)
  • Although the procedure has been tested on animals such as fish, pigs, and rabbits, it remains relatively untested on humans. (wikipedia.org)
  • Enviropig was a genetically enhanced line of Yorkshire pigs in Canada created with the capability of digesting plant phosphorus more efficiently than conventional Yorkshire pigs. (wikipedia.org)
  • regulatory approval
  • To avoid international trade disruptions, it is critical that the regulatory approval process for genetically engineered products be established in countries importing these feeds at the same time that regulatory approvals are passed in the countries that are major exporters of animal feed," Van Eenennaam said. (wattagnet.com)
  • In 1986 the OSTP assigned regulatory approval of genetically modified plants in the US to the USDA, FDA and EPA. (wikipedia.org)
  • insects
  • Based on the wide range of GM research thought to be currently underway related to several different animal species, the European Commission requested that EFSA develop environmental risk assessment guidance for GM fish, insects, mammals and birds. (europa.eu)
  • The document, Guidance on the environmental risk assessment of genetically modified animals , which focuses on GM fish, insects, mammals and birds, outlines the specific data requirements and methodology for the ERA of GM animals should applications be submitted for market authorisation in the European Union (EU) in the future. (thefishsite.com)
  • The draft guidance document outlines data requirements for the comparative analysis of different areas of potential risk specific to GM fish, insects, mammals and birds. (thefishsite.com)
  • Salmon
  • The U.S. Food and Drug Administration is weighing whether to allow a genetically engineered Atlantic salmon to be the first such animal to be sold as food. (ibtimes.com)
  • One of the biggest headline-makers in genetically-modified animals is a type of salmon that is altered to grow twice as fast as a typical one. (mynorthwest.com)
  • It's a salmon that has been genetically modified to reach its adult size twice as fast as normal, a year and a half instead of three years," says Anthes. (mynorthwest.com)
  • Whether it's these new genetically-modified salmon or meat created off-animal in a lab, Anthes says we should explore it. (mynorthwest.com)
  • In 2015, the AquAdvantage salmon was approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for commercial production, sale and consumption, making it the first genetically modified animal to be approved for human consumption. (wikipedia.org)
  • In November 2015, the FDA of the USA approved the GM AquAdvantage salmon created by AquaBounty for commercial production, sale and consumption. (wikipedia.org)
  • The fish is essentially a GM Atlantic salmon with a Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) gene inserted. (wikipedia.org)
  • Pout also have antifreeze proteins in their blood, which allow the GM salmon to survive near-freezing waters and continue their development. (wikipedia.org)
  • The wild-type salmon takes 24 to 30 months to reach market size (4-6 kg) whereas the producers of the GM salmon claim it requires only 18 months for the GM fish to achieve this. (wikipedia.org)
  • It has been claimed that to prevent the genetically modified fish inadvertently breeding with wild salmon, all the fish will be female and reproductively sterile. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 2016 salmon modified with a growth hormone were sold. (wikipedia.org)
  • milk
  • The review study also found that scientific studies have detected no differences in the nutritional makeup of the meat, milk or other food products derived from animals that ate genetically engineered feed. (wattagnet.com)
  • Studies have continually shown that the milk, meat and eggs derived from animals that have consumed GE feed are indistinguishable from the products derived from animals fed a non-GE diet," Van Eenennaam said. (wattagnet.com)
  • In 2012, researchers from New Zealand also developed a genetically engineered cow that produced allergy-free milk. (wikipedia.org)
  • strains
  • They also have advantages over other mammals, in regards to research, in that they are available in hundreds of genetically homogeneous strains. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mexico is the center of diversity for maize and concerns had been raised about the impact genetically modified maize could have on local strains. (wikipedia.org)
  • world's
  • Critics have objected to GM fish on several grounds, including ecological concerns, animal welfare concerns and with respect to whether using them as food is safe and whether GM fish are needed to help address the world's food needs. (wikipedia.org)
  • genetic modification
  • Genetically modified sperm (GM sperm) is sperm that has undergone genetic modification for biomedical purposes, including the elimination of genetic diseases or infertility. (wikipedia.org)
  • The policy as it developed had three tenets: "(1) U.S. policy would focus on the product of genetic modification (GM) techniques, not the process itself, (2) only regulation grounded in verifiable scientific risks would be tolerated, and (3) GM products are on a continuum with existing products and, therefore, existing statutes are sufficient to review the products. (wikipedia.org)
  • assessments
  • While it acknowledges the broader societal, political and economic concerns over GM animals, EFSA does not consider these aspects when carrying out its scientific assessments. (europa.eu)
  • risks
  • Therefore, as a proactive measure, the European Commission has asked EFSA to develop comprehensive risk assessment guidelines that would be used by companies and risk assessment bodies to evaluate the possible risks for food and feed safety, the environment as well as related animal health and welfare aspects. (europa.eu)
  • Obviously potentially greater benefits or risks with genetically modified animals come into play when we talk about eating them. (mynorthwest.com)
  • and the impact of the GM animal on human and animal health, for example to assess potential risks to farmers, other workers or the general public that may come into contact with GM animals. (thefishsite.com)
  • The Netherlands agreed to release Oxitec's genetically modified mosquitoes to fight dengue, chikungunya and zika in Saba, a Dutch Caribbean island, after a report by The National Institute of Public Health and the Environment (RIVM) examined what effects the mosquitoes could have in the local ecosystem's food chain and concluded the release of the mosquitoes would not pose any risks to human health or the environment. (wikipedia.org)
  • The authors of the Basel Declaration acknowledge the need for greater discussion of animal experiment issues in public and also of the risks of research approaches and possible misuse of new technological developments. (wikipedia.org)
  • proteins
  • Transgenic fish are used in research covering five broad areas - Enhancing the traits of commercially available fish Their use as bioreactors for the development of bio-medically important proteins Their use as indicators of aquatic pollutants Developing new non-mammalian animal models Functional genomics studies Most GM fish are used in basic research in genetics and development. (wikipedia.org)
  • experiments
  • List Rules Vote up the most extreme genetic experiments that use animals. (ranker.com)
  • These insane genetically modified animal experiments are the future, and many of the advancements seem promising. (ranker.com)
  • The experiments demonstrated that the animals were able to survive in this environment and produce offspring. (wikipedia.org)
  • The signatories commit to accepting greater responsibility in animal experiments and to intensive cooperation with the public in the form of a dialogue with prejudice. (wikipedia.org)
  • At the same time, they demand that essential animal experiments for obtaining research results remain permitted both now and in the future. (wikipedia.org)
  • Animal experiments will remain necessary in biomedical research for the foreseeable future, but we are constantly working to refine the methods with animal welfare in mind. (wikipedia.org)
  • The signatories to the Declaration commit, amongst other things, to the use of animal experiments only when the research concerns fundamentally important knowledge and no alternative methods are available. (wikipedia.org)
  • With regard to the improvement of information for the public on research involving experiments the signatories to the Basel Declaration commit to the following: We communicate openly and with transparency - also with regard to animal experiments. (wikipedia.org)
  • We declare our solidarity with all researchers who have to rely on animal experiments. (wikipedia.org)
  • The initial signatories to the Basel Declaration see the tendency to restrict animal experiments, especially in the field of basic research, as a major risk. (wikipedia.org)
  • And they maintain that no stage of research (neither basic nor applied research) must be categorically excluded from those purposes of animal experiments that are deemed permissible. (wikipedia.org)
  • assessment
  • Several international organisations, including FAO/WHO and the United States Food and Drug Administration, have already published guidelines for the safety assessment of these animals and their derived products. (europa.eu)
  • Acting on the Commission's request, EFSA has developed two separate guidance documents for the risk assessment of GM animals. (europa.eu)
  • This guidance document, published in January 2012, outlines specific data requirements and the methodology to be followed for risk assessment should applications for food and feed derived from GM animals be submitted for market authorisation in the EU. (europa.eu)
  • The risk assessment approach compares GM animals and derived food and feed with their respective conventional counterparts, integrating food and feed safety as well as animal health and welfare aspects. (europa.eu)
  • EFSA concluded that a risk assessment of GM animals should include three major aspects. (europa.eu)
  • The risk assessment is based on a comparative approach between GM and non-GM animals. (thefishsite.com)
  • This document provides guidance for the risk assessment of food and feed containing, consisting of or produced from genetically modified (GM) animals, as well as for the health and welfare assessment of these animals, within the framework of Regulation (EC) No 1829/2003 on GM food and feed. (europa.eu)
  • The assessment strategy seeks to deploy appropriate approaches to compare GM animals and derived food and feed with their respective comparators. (europa.eu)
  • The health status of a food/feed producing animal has traditionally been considered as an important indicator of the safety of derived foods/feed and therefore comparative analysis of the phenotypic characteristics of the GM animal with the traditionally-bred animal, including health and physiological parameters, is considered an important component in the risk assessment. (europa.eu)
  • and the nutritional assessment to evaluate whether food and feed derived from a GM animal is as nutritious to humans and/or animals as food and feed derived from traditionally-bred animals. (europa.eu)
  • This guidance document also addresses the scientific requirements for the assessment of health and welfare of GM animals bred for food and feed use. (europa.eu)
  • That report recommends conducting the safety assessment of a GM food on a case-by-case basis through comparison to an existing food with a long history of safe use. (wikipedia.org)
  • species
  • Unbelievable Animals There are more than 8 million species walking, swimming, and flying around Planet Earth. (ranker.com)
  • Two species of fish, zebrafish and medaka, are most commonly modified because they have optically clear chorions (shells), develop rapidly, the 1-cell embryo is easy to see and micro-inject with transgenic DNA, and zebrafish have the capability of regenerating their organ tissues. (wikipedia.org)
  • In some cases, the aim is to introduce a new trait to the animals which does not occur naturally in the species, i.e. transgenesis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Oxitec has created genetically altered males of the species (OX513A) that produce the protein tTA, which negatively affects cell development. (wikipedia.org)
  • In other words, a product is regulated as GM if it carries some trait not previously found in the species whether it was generated using traditional breeding methods (e.g. selective breeding, cell fusion, mutation breeding) or genetic engineering. (wikipedia.org)
  • research
  • Design precise, translatable, genetically-engineered animal models for preclinical research and drug discovery. (taconic.com)
  • Regulation in the United States currently prohibits the application or research use of such technologies in humans, but does allow for research and commercial use, prior to approval, in animals. (wikipedia.org)
  • This means they suffer from frequent transmission of contagious diseases, a problem which is being addressed by GM research. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Basel Declaration is a call for greater transparency and communication on the use of animals in research. (wikipedia.org)
  • (The revised EU Directive provides for the use of fewer laboratory animals for scientific purposes in the future and better reconciles the needs of research with the protection of animals without making research more difficult. (wikipedia.org)
  • Within the organization are departments that regulate different areas of GM food including, the Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (CFSAN, ) and the Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (CBER). (wikipedia.org)
  • human beings
  • Her new book "Frankenstein's Cat: Cuddling up to Biotech's Brave New Beasts," introduces readers to some of the new frontiers of human beings' animal meddling, including efforts to make glowing cats and remote-controlled cockroaches. (mynorthwest.com)
  • farmers
  • Researchers have developed GM dairy cattle to grow without horns (sometimes referred to as "polled") which can cause injuries to farmers and other animals. (wikipedia.org)