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  • proteins
  • Cell and tissue culture (in vitro) studies are used to screen for anti-cancer, anti-AIDS, and other types of drugs, and they are also a means of producing and testing a number of other pharmaceutical products, including vaccines, antibiotics, and therapeutic proteins. (change.org)
  • results
  • Animal experimenters face the unavoidable fact that their artificially created "animal model" can never fully reflect the human condition, whereas clinical investigators know that the results of their work are directly relevant to people. (change.org)
  • ALTEX
  • The journal has two companion publications: ALTEX Proceedings (ISSN 2194-0479), which publishes proceedings of scientific conferences relating to the 3Rs, and TIERethik, a biannual German-language periodical on bioethics and human-animal studies. (wikipedia.org)
  • researchers
  • Researchers can study diseases like cancer cells in a petri dish, but they don't behave the same way in a dish as in a living, breathing animal or person. (fbresearch.org)
  • By using human cells, the researchers hope to avoid misleading toxicity results caused by differences in how animal and human cells respond to the same chemical. (all-creatures.org)
  • The researchers will develop test platforms using four different types of cells: Liver cells because of their ability to remove toxic substances from blood, fetal membrane and mammary gland cells because of the roles they play in reproduction, and limb and joint cells because of their role in development. (all-creatures.org)
  • Humane Education
  • He addressed in the meetings of International Network for Humane Education (InterNICHE) and International Centre for Alternatives in Research and Education (I-CARE). (wikipedia.org)
  • InterNICHE (International Network for Humane Education), based in United Kingdom, is a non-profit organization and an international network comprising campaigners, students, teachers and trainers to promote the use of humane alternatives within biological science, medical and veterinary medical education globally. (wikipedia.org)
  • Resource developed by InterNICHE to catalyze change comprise the multi-language book From Guinea Pig to Computer Mouse (2003), several Alternative Loan Systems, the Humane Education Award, the information-rich website www.interniche.org, conferences, outreach visits and training around the world. (wikipedia.org)
  • human
  • Our lab-based alternative to animal testing, although in an early stage of production, is faster, out-performs present alternatives, and, because the cells are human in origin, is more relevant. (innovations-report.com)
  • In addition to raising public concern for animal welfare, animal testing is costly, time-consuming, and not always predictive of human responses. (europa.eu)
  • Today, the accent is on new, advanced, human-based tests reflecting current knowledge of mechanisms. (europa.eu)
  • The ex vivo materials are obtained form animals used for human (food) consumption, according to the committee. (cosmeticsandtoiletries.com)
  • Discovery requires living systems - both human and animal. (fbresearch.org)
  • T he use of animals to better understand human anatomy and human disease is a centuries-old practice. (britannica.com)
  • Animal behaviour can be as complex as human behaviour, and the cellular structures, proteins, and genes of humans and animals are so similar that the prospect of using animal tissues to replace diseased human tissues is under intense investigation for patients who would otherwise never receive a potentially life-saving transplant. (britannica.com)
  • Other alternatives include the use of humans for skin irritancy tests and donated human blood for pyrogenicity studies. (wikipedia.org)
  • Another alternative is so-called microdosing, in which the basic behaviour of drugs is assessed using human volunteers receiving doses well below those expected to produce whole-body effects. (wikipedia.org)
  • Human skin equivalent tests can be used to replace animal-based corrosive and irritative studies. (wikipedia.org)
  • A skinpatch test has been designed and is used in Canada to measure development of rashes, inflammation, swelling or abnormal tissue growth on human volunteers. (wikipedia.org)
  • For starters, it is more ethical as the process does not involve animal or human testing, and is therefore also safer for the patients themselves. (pwc.co.uk)
  • We want to demonstrate the possibility of leveraging microengineered physiological organ models to challenge a century-long tradition of using animals as human surrogates in life sciences. (all-creatures.org)
  • Several drug companies, like Merck and Janssen, have signed partnerships with biotech firms that manufacture organ chips, acknowledging that animals fail to adequately model human medicine and biology. (all-creatures.org)
  • For example, Pharmagene Laboratories, based in Royston, England, is the first company to use only human tissues and sophisticated computer technologies in the process of drug development and testing. (change.org)
  • Animal experimenters face the unavoidable fact that their artificially created "animal model" can never fully reflect the human condition, whereas clinical investigators know that the results of their work are directly relevant to people. (change.org)
  • Economically, animals provide much of the meat eaten by the human population, whether farmed or hunted, and until the arrival of mechanised transport, terrestrial mammals provided a large part of the power used for work and transport. (wikipedia.org)
  • The human population exploits a large number of animal species for food, both of domesticated livestock species in animal husbandry and, mainly at sea, by hunting wild species. (wikipedia.org)
  • Plants provide the greater part of the food for people and their domestic animals: much of human culture and civilisation came into being through agriculture. (wikipedia.org)
  • The human population exploits and depends on a large number of animal and plant species for food, mainly through agriculture but also by exploiting wild populations, notably of marine fish. (wikipedia.org)
  • vaccines
  • Cell and tissue culture (in vitro) studies are used to screen for anti-cancer, anti-AIDS, and other types of drugs, and they are also a means of producing and testing a number of other pharmaceutical products, including vaccines, antibiotics, and therapeutic proteins. (change.org)
  • Vaccines have been made using animals since their discovery by Edward Jenner in the 18th century. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the 20th century, vaccines for the viral diseases mumps and polio were developed using animal cells grown in vitro. (wikipedia.org)
  • eliminate
  • When the Tox21 program was initiated in 2008, Dr Christopher Austin, Director of the National Institutes of Health (NIH) Chemical Genomics Center, said: "It's a bold, ambitious thing to try to do but our goal is to eliminate animal use in toxicology in ten years. (all-creatures.org)
  • replace
  • Others say that they cannot replace animals completely as they are unlikely to ever provide enough information about the complex interactions of living systems. (wikipedia.org)
  • This method has been accepted by the EU and is intended to replace the Draize rabbit skin irritation test. (wikipedia.org)
  • Non-animal tests are generally faster and less expensive than the animal tests they replace and improve upon. (change.org)
  • Draize
  • Another example of a toxicity test performed on animals that often produces inaccurate results is the Draize test, in which a chemical, such as a cosmetic or pharmaceutical agent, is applied to the skin or eye of a rabbit. (britannica.com)
  • rats
  • According to the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA), the total number of animals used in that country in 2005 was almost 1.2 million, excluding rats and mice. (wikipedia.org)
  • supporters
  • According to the animal rights organization, Unilever decided to end the practice for Lipton products after receiving more than 40,000 appeals from PETA supporters and days before PETA made plans to launch its "Lipton CruelTEA" campaign Unilever no longer test their products on animals unless required to by governments as part of their regulatory requirements. (wikipedia.org)
  • fibres
  • Textiles from the most utilitarian to the most luxurious are made from animal fibres such as wool, camel hair, angora, cashmere, and mohair. (wikipedia.org)
  • Textiles are made from both animal fibres, including wool and silk, and plant fibres, including cotton and flax. (wikipedia.org)
  • supplement
  • The plant also produces 13,000 metric tons of lignin pellets per year, used as fuel at combined-heat-and-power plants, and 11,100 metric tons of C5 molasses which is currently used for biomethane production via anaerobic digestion, and has been tested as a high carbohydrate animal feed supplement and potential bio-based feedstock for production of numerous commodity chemicals including diols, glycols, organic acids, and biopolymer precursors and intermediates. (wikipedia.org)
  • CAAFI functions as a clearinghouse, facilitating the exchange of information about and coordination of private-sector and governmental initiatives supporting the development and commercialization of "drop-in" alternative aviation fuels (i.e., fuels that can directly supplement or replace petroleum-derived jet fuels). (wikipedia.org)
  • assess
  • Environment--to assess the spectrum of environmental impacts of any alternative fuel options developed, participants are working to measure engine emissions that affect air quality and quantify the full life-cycle greenhouse gas emissions resulting from the fuel production process including feedstock extraction and transport, fuel processing, fuel distribution and land use changes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Statistical tests use data from samples to assess, or make inferences about, a statistical population. (wikipedia.org)
  • given
  • CAAFI participants are evaluating alternative jet fuels in teams focused in four areas: Fuel Certification and Qualification--to ensure the safety of any alternative fuels given the demanding environment posed by aviation operations, participants have created a new jet fuels approval process via the ASTM International standard setting body. (wikipedia.org)
  • future
  • Due to limitations in the number of spaceflights and crewmembers in which novel countermeasures can be tested, future development, evaluation and validation of new countermeasures to the effects of skeletal muscle unloading will likely employ variations of these same basic ground-based models. (wikipedia.org)
  • true
  • The power of a binary hypothesis test is the probability that the test correctly rejects the null hypothesis (H0) when a specific alternative hypothesis (H1) is true. (wikipedia.org)
  • The power of the test is the probability that the test will find a statistically significant difference between men and women, as a function of the size of the true difference between those two populations. (wikipedia.org)
  • event
  • However, horse conformation and temperament play a role in this event, and hence animals that are calm, quiet, have collected, soft gaits and the strong muscling required to sustain slow, controlled movement are the most competitive. (wikipedia.org)
  • false
  • A similar concept is the Type I error probability, also referred to as the "false positive rate" or the level of a test under the null hypothesis. (wikipedia.org)
  • samples
  • For example, to test the null hypothesis that the mean scores of men and women on a test do not differ, samples of men and women are drawn, the test is administered to them, and the mean score of one group is compared to that of the other group using a statistical test such as the two-sample z-test. (wikipedia.org)
  • among
  • CAAFI (Commercial Aviation Alternative Fuels Initiative) is a cooperative effort among interested stakeholders to bring commercially viable, environmentally sustainable alternative aviation fuels (e.g., aviation biofuel) to market. (wikipedia.org)