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  • Laboratories
  • During this period, research laboratories would purchase "bootleg" dogs for experimentation, and patterns of thefts were apparent with specific types of dogs going missing at certain times. (wikipedia.org)
  • Medical research organisations sought to change the bill by removing references to animals other than cats or dogs, saying that: "It would impose a well-nigh impossible burden to regulate traffic in fish, frogs, turtles, reptiles, birds and the many other mammalian forms used in laboratories. (wikipedia.org)
  • 2016
  • In August 2016, to counter criticism from animal rights' groups, a white paper coauthored by nine of the most premier scientific groups and titled The Critical Role of Nonhuman Primates in Medical Research was released. (wikipedia.org)
  • 1988
  • This book presents the proceedings of an international symposium organized in Strasbourg (October 24-25, 1988), with the aim of assessing present-day requirements as regards animal experimentation in research related to major medical and toxicological problems still awaiting solutions. (springer.com)
  • The group's singer and songwriter Nivek Ogre explained his stance on animal testing to Vinyl Propaganda in 1988, stating the following: When I was young, growing up, I always thought that animal experimentation was necessary, that there was some reason for it, that there was some good being done with it. (wikipedia.org)
  • Procedures
  • In this book, Smyth provided a Three Rs definition of alternatives: "All procedures which can completely replace the need for animal experiments, reduce the numbers of animals required, or diminish the amount of pain or distress suffered by animals in meeting the essential needs of man and other animals. (ccac.ca)
  • As has been noted, the word alternatives is used to describe any change from present procedures that will result in the replacement of animals, a reduction in the numbers used or a refinement of techniques that may reduce or replace animals or reduce the pain, stress or distress of the animals. (ccac.ca)
  • Nevertheless, by the end of the seventeenth century, the question of animal suffering and the acceptability of such procedures had become an increasingly prominent moral and social concern ( Maehle and Tröhler, 1990 ). (brill.com)
  • A key point of Lyons' report was that the animals' suffering was severe, but most of the procedures had been classed as "moderate" by the researchers. (wikipedia.org)
  • The act does not define "scientific necessity" or regulate specific scientific procedures, but approval or rejection of individual techniques in each federally funded lab is determined on a case-by-case basis by the Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee, which contains at least one veterinarian, one scientist, one non-scientist, and one other individual from outside the university. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Animals (Scientific Procedures) Act 1986 "expressly directs that, in determining whether to grant a licence for an experimental project, 'the Secretary of State shall weigh the likely adverse effects on the animals concerned against the benefit likely to accrue. (wikipedia.org)
  • The CASJ was involved in 2012 with other animal protection groups in consulting with members of parliament over an amendment to the Animals (Scientific Procedures) Act 1986. (wikipedia.org)
  • Draft Animals (Scientific Procedures) Act 1986 Amendment Regulations 2012", House of Commons, 3 December 2012. (wikipedia.org)
  • researchers
  • There is a Law for the Humane Treatment and Management of Animals in place in Japan, which requires that researchers using animals are self-guided by the principles of the three Rs (outlined in the previous article in this series). (brighthub.com)
  • However, while local-level inspections may be carried out, there are no governmental inspections, and researchers are not required to report on the number of animals they use. (brighthub.com)
  • One thing is certain, though: researchers agree that organoid models will reduce the number of animals that are experimented on. (navs.org)
  • Many researchers, however, seem hesitant to say that organoids will be able to fully replace animal research, with many viewing the models as simply complementary to animal studies. (navs.org)
  • The question of pain and distress in animals used for research, teaching and testing has concerned the general public and thoughtful researchers for a long time. (ccac.ca)
  • Singh is one of dozens of researchers at the University of Alberta who use animals for biological research, a practice that has been legally recognized since the 1870s. (thegatewayonline.ca)
  • rats
  • However, the act specifically excludes any rats, mice, and birds purpose-bred for experimentation - and this is a fatal flaw, because it is highly unusual for wild animals of these species to be used in medical research. (brighthub.com)
  • We took great pains to hear evidence from all interested parties, but the amount of evidence that bore on the welfare of unattractive animals, or on pests like rats, was negligible. (animalresearch.info)
  • According to the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA), the total number of animals used in that country in 2005 was almost 1.2 million, excluding rats and mice. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the U.S., the numbers of rats and mice used in animal research is estimated at 20 million a year, or 95% of the total number of lab animals. (wikipedia.org)
  • roles
  • Anti-vivisectionists have played roles in the emergence of the animal welfare and animal rights movements, arguing that animals and humans have the same natural rights as living creatures, and that it is inherently immoral to inflict pain or injury on another living creature, regardless of the purpose or potential benefit to mankind. (wikipedia.org)
  • Animals further play a wide variety of roles in literature, film, mythology, and religion. (wikipedia.org)
  • Living things including animals, plants, fungi and microbes play many roles in culture. (wikipedia.org)
  • suffer
  • The tested animals are injured, live in pain and suffering, and sometimes are left to suffer or die with no relief (AAVS). (brightkite.com)
  • Though it's never easy watching an animal suffer, Singh insists that if society wants better treatment for diabetic patients, it's the price that has to be paid. (thegatewayonline.ca)
  • Technique
  • In the book The Principles of Humane Experimental Technique , published in 1959, the authors Russell and Burch proposed that all research using animals should be evaluated to see if the Three Rs could be applied. (ccac.ca)
  • A similar technique can be used when testing animals, where food is used as a reward for responding to the sound. (wikipedia.org)
  • pain
  • Of these animals, almost 100,000 experienced "unalleviated pain and distress" in 2010, which means that they were administered physical suffering and were not given drugs to ease their discomfort (AAVS). (brightkite.com)
  • This leads to more pain, deaths, and consequences for the animals used (AAVS). (brightkite.com)
  • Experiments like these are conducted on over 100 million animals, which are treated as if they are not living beings with thoughts, feelings, and pain receptors. (brightkite.com)
  • The questions posed represent two of the more contentious issues in animal based research, teaching and testing: the numbers of animals being used, and the pain and suffering being experienced by these animals. (ccac.ca)
  • Refinement means a change in some aspect of the experiment that results in a reduction or replacement of animals or in a reduction of any pain, stress or distress that animals may experience. (ccac.ca)
  • During the animal experimentation the animals are often put into restrain tubes or other types of restraints so they have no way of escaping the pain. (animal-rights-action.com)
  • Below: Another monkey in a restraint, forcing the animal to endure the terror and pain of being experimented on. (animal-rights-action.com)
  • Animal protection groups fought for years to end MAb production in mice because it causes intense suffering for the animals that includes severe abdominal pain, difficulty breathing and death. (wikipedia.org)
  • mice
  • Even more startling, at least ten percent of the general population has been observed to carry some form of animal-derived antibodies, most often from mice, due to the preponderance of medical agents made from the serum of animals. (wikipedia.org)
  • Scientific Research
  • A six-part series which examines practical and ethical issues involved in the use of animals for scientific research. (brighthub.com)
  • By employing the 3Rs when continuing to use animals for scientific research, the scientific community can affirm its moral conscience as well as uphold its obligation to humanity to further the advancement of science for civilization and humanity. (ultimedescente.com)
  • Established in 1981, the organization is dedicated to informing the news media, teachers, and other groups about the need for lab animals in medical and scientific research. (wikipedia.org)
  • fibres
  • Textiles from the most utilitarian to the most luxurious are made from animal fibres such as wool, camel hair, angora, cashmere, and mohair. (wikipedia.org)
  • Textiles are made from both animal fibres, including wool and silk, and plant fibres, including cotton and flax. (wikipedia.org)
  • genetically
  • This may be achieved by reducing the number of variables through good experimental design, by using genetically homogeneous animals or by ensuring that the conditions of the experiment are rigorously controlled. (ccac.ca)
  • Driven by increased development and use of genetically-modified animals ( Ormandy, Schuppli and Weary, 2009 ), and by large-scale chemical-testing programs ( Knight, 2011 ), laboratory animal use has steadily increased in most developed countries, ever since. (brill.com)
  • acceptable
  • This shift had a few effects, one of which was the rise in patient experimentation, leading to some moral questions about what was acceptable in clinical trials and what was not. (wikipedia.org)
  • Due to the fact that survival of the species is based on the ability to interact with their own in a normal manner, these experiments-which usually interfere with that-walk a fine line for animal rights and what is acceptable. (wikipedia.org)
  • Practically
  • Practically every ingredient that's used in cosmetics was at some point tested on animals. (writework.com)
  • There is practically no way of replacing animals in these investigations and so-called 'alternative methods' are in reality merely complementary. (springer.com)
  • birds
  • A wide variety of animals are kept as pets, from invertebrates such as tarantulas and octopuses, insects including praying mantises, reptiles such as snakes and chameleons, and birds including canaries, parakeets and parrots all finding a place. (wikipedia.org)
  • biological
  • The following passage from the History of Animals a better though less familiar translation would be Animal Inquiries suggests that the entire biological project is organized in accordance with the theory of inquiry developed in APo. (ultimedescente.com)
  • Animals serve as models in biological research, such as in genetics, and in drug testing. (wikipedia.org)
  • Animals such as the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster, the zebrafish, the chicken and the house mouse, serve a major role in science as experimental models, both in fundamental biological research, such as in genetics, and in the development of new medicines, which must be tested exhaustively to demonstrate their safety. (wikipedia.org)
  • ethical
  • Two leading questions are posed here to stimulate the reader, and frame the importance of considering the Three Rs principles in striving to meet our ethical responsibilities for conducting humane animal experimentation. (ccac.ca)
  • Although
  • Although it is often argued that animal testing is more cost-efficient, it is actually more costs more and takes more time than other means of. (brightkite.com)
  • Plant
  • When animal or plant matter is buried during sedimentation, the constituent organic molecules (lipids, proteins, carbohydrates and lignin-humic compounds) break down due to the increase in temperature and pressure. (wikipedia.org)
  • world
  • In Asheville, North Carolina, wildlife biologists study a growing black bear population, one example of city-dwellers and animals who try to coexist around the world. (kirkusreviews.com)
  • What he was he owed to his original methods of health building, methods which were a precious outcome of years of careful study of nearly every theory of health and preventative medicine to be found in the world, of endless experimentation, and lastly, of a very critical examination, from the standpoint of modern medical science, of the knowledge so acquired. (wikipedia.org)
  • drugs
  • The focus of this leaflet is safety testing of new drugs, highlighting the dangers of using animals and the improvements in safety that could be acheived with more modern methods. (safermedicines.org)
  • Our film, Safer Medicines , showcases some of the latest technologies that we believe could supplant animal tests in drug development to deliver safer drugs to patients, in less time and at less cost. (safermedicines.org)