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  • effector
  • The immunomodulator FTY720 interferes with effector functions of human monocyte-derived dendritic cells," European Journal of Immunology , vol. 35, no. 2, pp. 533-545, 2005. (hindawi.com)
  • AngII
  • Increased CD40 expression led to enhanced activity of the pathway, as AngII-treated cells stimulated with recombinant CD40L released higher amounts of IL-8 and had increased COX-2 (cyclo-oxygenase-2) expression. (mendeley.com)
  • monoclonal
  • First, monoclonal antibodies directed against osteopontin have been found completely to block the stimulatory effects of Ang II on cultured rat cardiac fibroblasts. (ahajournals.org)
  • vascular smooth
  • Proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells was pronounced (fourfold to 20-fold increase in [3H]thymidine incorporation) as opposed to a minimal proliferation of glomerular cells in Ang II-infused rats. (ahajournals.org)
  • 7 Most of the known physiological and pathophysiological effects of Ang II are mediated via the AT 1 R. 1-7 This receptor subtype is expressed in cardiovascular-relevant cell types including vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs), endothelial cells, cardiac myocytes, cardiac fibroblasts, and renal mesangial cells. (ahajournals.org)
  • Mechanism
  • 1,2,4,6,7 In addition, AT 1 Rs mediate many of their pathophysiological effects by stimulating reactive oxygen species generation via an reduced nicotinamide-adenine dinucleotide/reduced nicotinamide-adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase-dependent mechanism. (ahajournals.org)
  • hence, overexpression of the AT 1 R is one potential mechanism by which Ang II can contribute to cardiovascular disease. (ahajournals.org)
  • aldosterone
  • 20 Interestingly, it has been shown that myocardial osteopontin expression is markedly attenuated in Ang II-infused rats treated either with adrenalectomy or with the selective aldosterone blocker eplerenone. (ahajournals.org)
  • (ahajournals.org)
  • Conclusions- Aldosterone plays a key role in the pathogenesis of Ang II-induced organ damage. (ahajournals.org)
  • 1,2 The key enzyme in aldosterone production is aldosterone synthase (CYP11B2). (ahajournals.org)
  • however, aldosterone levels can be elevated even though Ang II production is inhibited or its action is blocked. (ahajournals.org)
  • 9,10 The aim of the present study was to define the effect of FAD286 and the role of circulating or locally produced aldosterone in the pathogenesis of Ang II-induced renal and cardiac damage. (ahajournals.org)
  • interaction
  • On the one hand, a number of findings indicate that the interaction of Ang II with the Ang II type-1 (AT 1 ) receptor located in cardiac fibroblasts results in induction of fibroblast hyperplasia, activation of collagen biosynthetic pathways, and inhibition of collagen degradative pathways. (ahajournals.org)
  • nmol
  • However, the dose of perindoprilat used in our study was not, as suggested by Drs Kessler and Kessler, converted from a subpressor to pressor dose by noradrenergic preconstriction as perindoprilat (5 nmol/mL) virtually abolishes the vasoconstricting action of angiotensin I (200 pmol/min) when coinfused at the brachial artery (unpublished data), though it has no effect on basal forearm blood flow. (ahajournals.org)
  • type
  • Ang II-infused rats also developed focal tubulointerstitial injury, with tubular atrophy and dilation, cast formation, an interstitial monocytic infiltrate, and mild interstitial fibrosis with increased type IV collagen deposition. (ahajournals.org)
  • extracellular
  • The use of Cre-loxP technology and selective deletion of endogenous SOD3 in the present study elegantly reveal that extracellular O 2 ยทโˆ’ signaling in SFO is also important. (ahajournals.org)
  • 7 The multiple actions of Ang II, mediated through the AT 1 R, are a result of complex intracellular signaling pathways including stimulation of the phospholipase C/inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate/diacylglycerol cascade, mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK)/extracellular signal-regulated kinases, tyrosine kinases, and RhoA/Rho kinase. (ahajournals.org)
  • chymase
  • In addition, our recent study performed with human heart indicated that non-ACE-dependent Ang II-forming activity caused by chymase was higher in the left atrium than in other chambers (M. Ihara, MD, et al, unpublished observations, 1999). (ahajournals.org)
  • It is important to determine which Ang II formation pathway (ACE or chymase) is more closely related to atrial electrophysiology. (ahajournals.org)
  • Candesartan
  • The infusion of saline (n=8), candesartan (n=5), captopril (n=6), or Ang II (n=5) was initiated 30 minutes before rapid pacing and continued throughout the study. (ahajournals.org)
  • tissue
  • Sato H, Sato K, Sato Y, Asamura M, Kanamaru R, Mimata Y. and Wakui A. (1981) Clinical cancer chemotherapy based on the experimental findings of selective enhancement of drug delivery to tumor tissue by angiotensin II. (springer.com)
  • blood pressure
  • In addition, deletion of SOD3 in the SFO increases the sensitivity to systemic Ang II at a dose that does not normally affect blood pressure in mice. (ahajournals.org)
  • 21 These conclusions were based on the observation that AT 1A R knockout (AT 1 R โˆ’/โˆ’ ) mice were found to exhibit low blood pressure and attenuated Ang II pressor response. (ahajournals.org)
  • The end result is that angiotensin II receptor antagonists prevent blood vessels from narrowing, thereby keeping a normal blood pressure. (blausen.com)
  • The surface ECG lead II, intracardiac electrograms, right atrial pressure, and blood pressure were continuously monitored and recorded at a paper speed of 100 mm/s (San Ei 8 MI4). (ahajournals.org)
  • Human
  • 18,19 In addition, Ang II has been shown to increase osteopontin mRNA expression in fresh samples of human myocardium. (ahajournals.org)