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  • Drugs
  • Nonlocal anesthetic adjuvants such as anti-inflammatory agents, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs-traditional or cyclooxygenase [COX] 2 inhibitors) and steroids, as well as opioids and ketamine have all been used. (nysora.com)
  • Unlike other drugs which act in the region of the synapse, local anesthetics are agents that reversibly block the generation and conduction of nerve impulses along a nerve fiber. (libretexts.org)
  • To compare the types of anesthetic, researchers administered the drugs to adult patients during a two-week period. (lelezard.com)
  • Cocaine
  • The local anesthetic effects of cocaine and one of its main metabolites norcocaine, were investigated comparatively on isolated ganglion cells of the marine gastropod, Aplysia californica . (springer.com)
  • concentration
  • Moreover, other factors of pharmacodynamic origin have been implicated, such as antagonistic effects of nucleotides or increased sodium concentration, increased afferent input from nociceptors, or receptor downregulation of the sodium channels, and often the interpretation is quite difficult because of time-dependent variations in pain or circadian changes in the duration of local anesthetic action: phenomena that are named pseudotachyphylaxis (5) . (lww.com)
  • Thus, the concentration of local anesthetic may be lowered and the volume increased, keeping the total dose within safe limits. (nysora.com)
  • The present invention relates to pharmacological active preparations, especially local anesthetic preparations and deals with the problem of i a obtaining a solution of a local anesthetic agent in the form of its base, where the concentration is higher than otherwise possible. (google.com)
  • Injections
  • As careful injections of local anesthetic are made close to the site of surgical injury, there is a potential for targeting the source of pain caused by local inflammation and pain to supply effective treatment close to the origin of pain. (nysora.com)
  • dose
  • Small-dose intraspinal local anesthetics, when added to either epidural or intrathecal opioids, synergistically enhance the antinociceptive effects of the opioid dose, as demonstrated by isobolographic analysis (2) , likely because of inhibition of neuronal excitability. (lww.com)
  • effect
  • The anesthetic effect will be evaluated using a standardized human sensory and pain model. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • The development of tolerance to morphine is delayed, and the quality of analgesia can be improved because of the morphine-sparing effect of local anesthetics (3) . (lww.com)
  • membrane
  • Local anesthetics reduce impulse transmission by interfering with the mechanism of normal depolarization, binding to specific receptors located at the nerve membrane-more specifically, on the voltage-gated, tetrodoxin-sensitive sodium channel-and resulting in decreased or eliminated permeability to sodium ions, leading to interruption of nerve conduction. (lww.com)
  • The most recent research indicates that the local anesthetic binds to a phospholipid in the nerve membrane and inhibits the ability of the phospholipid to bind Ca +2 ions. (libretexts.org)
  • dosages
  • Reducing drug dosages while retaining the benefits of effective responses to local anesthetics should be explored further," the authors wrote in the official journal of the American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. (lelezard.com)