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  • gene
  • during the embryonic stage of development, testes form in an androgen-independent process that occurs due to the influence of the SRY gene on the Y chromosome. (wikipedia.org)
  • tumor
  • In their recent comprehensive update on the molecular biology of prostate cancer, Mackinnon et al (1) refer to the interesting possibility that the significance of TMPRSS2 (transmembrane protease, serine 2) fusion genes, including the commonest type, TMPRSS2:ERG (v-ets erythroblastosis virus E26 oncogene homologue), now known to be present in at least 50% of cases, (2) may be quite different depending on the androgen receptor status of the tumor. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • A novel dietary flavonoid fisetin inhibits androgen receptor signaling and tumor growth in athymic mice. (greenmedinfo.com)
  • hormone
  • This action of androgens is supported by a hormone from Sertoli cells, Müllerian inhibitory hormone (MIH), which prevents the embryonic Müllerian ducts from developing into fallopian tubes and other female reproductive tract tissues in male embryos. (wikipedia.org)
  • Insulin resistance appears to play a major role in a vicious cycle that alters female hormone metabolism towards androgen dominance. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • males and females
  • Alterations in androgen levels lead to reproductive defects in both males and females, including hypogonadotropic hypogonadism, anovulation, and infertility. (nih.gov)
  • agonist
  • Subsequently castrating male mice reduced the viral load, but injecting castrated mice with an androgen agonist resulted in a rising viral load again. (asm.org)
  • regulates
  • Here, we investigate how androgen regulates expression from the GnRH regulatory region in the GT1-7 cell line, a model of GnRH neurons. (nih.gov)
  • androstenedione
  • Adrenal androgens function as weak steroids (though some are precursors), and the subset includes dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEA-S), androstenedione (A4), and androstenediol (A5). (wikipedia.org)
  • deficiencies
  • Small studies find they are effective in boosting libido, energy and well-being in women with androgen deficiencies, as well as providing added protection against bone loss. (healthywomen.org)
  • PCOS
  • Left untreated, high levels of androgens, regardless of whether a woman has PCOS or not, are associated with serious health consequences, such as insulin resistance and diabetes, high cholesterol, high blood pressure and heart disease. (healthywomen.org)
  • A retrospective study by Christ and Falcone found that in women with PCOS, bariatric surgery significantly reduced androgen levels, leading to a substantial drop in the percentage of women who met the criteria for hyperandrogenism. (medscape.com)
  • male
  • Surprising new research findings show that male lemurs' androgen levels increase the more they engage in child care behaviors. (wn.com)
  • [ 6 ] Androgen regulated genes are critical for the development and maintenance of the male sexual phenotype . (thefullwiki.org)
  • levels
  • Low androgen levels can be a problem as well, producing effects such as low libido (interest in or desire for sex), fatigue, decreased sense of well-being and increased susceptibility to bone loss, osteoporosis and fractures. (healthywomen.org)
  • Low androgen levels may affect women at any age, but most commonly occur during the transition to menopause, or "perimenopause," a term used to describe the time before menopause (usually two to eight years). (healthywomen.org)
  • Androgens have been shown to down-regulate GnRH mRNA levels through an androgen receptor (AR)-dependent mechanism. (nih.gov)
  • This is important because so far most work has focused on eliminating total serum androgen levels, a type of therapy that has shown little success. (redorbit.com)
  • Chang's objective was to locate a new pathway for treatment that would not require depletion of androgen levels in the entire body, which amounts to castration and causes severe side effects for patients. (redorbit.com)
  • [ 80 ] Women using these methods can be reassured that these methods do not exacerbate hair growth, but they will not lower the androgen levels if they are elevated. (medscape.com)
  • liver
  • A University of Rochester study helps to explain why men get liver cancer more often than women and opens the door for a new treatment pathway, by showing a direct link between the androgen receptor, which is more active in men, and the hepatitis B virus as it relates to the deadly cancer. (redorbit.com)