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  • homologous
  • elongatus , L. macrocephalus , L. obtusidens , L. reinhardti , L. trifasciatus ) possess enlarged W chromosomes in comparison to the Z, due the increase of heterochromatin, while one, Leporinus sp2, presents a karyotype with the W chromosome equal in size to its homologous Z and the autosomes. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Autosome
  • Overall, these results indicated that the Y chromosome of T. muenninki avoided a loss event, which occurred in an ancestral lineage of T. osimensis and T. tokunoshimensis , through fusion with an autosome. (springer.com)
  • Phylogeny
  • Our data reveal 18 major haplogroups (A-R) with radiation times that are mostly confined to the Neolithic and later periods and place the root of the phylogeny corresponding to the Ancestral Mare Mitogenome at ∼130-160 thousand years ago. (blogspot.hk)
  • somatic
  • Benirschke K, Brownhill LE, Beath MM (1962) Somatic chromosomes of the horse, the donkey and their hybrids, the mule and the hinny. (springer.com)
  • breakpoints
  • Our data demonstrate a high level of reuse of breakpoints among muroid rodents, further supporting the "Fragile Breakage Model" of chromosome evolution. (deepdyve.com)