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  • ethanol
  • Cornell University biological engineers have deciphered the cellular strategy to make the biofuel ethanol, using an anaerobic microbe feeding on carbon monoxide - a common industrial waste gas. (phys.org)
  • Caloramator celer , formerly known as Thermobrachium celere [ 6 ], is a strict anaerobic, alkalitolerant, thermophilic bacterium capable of converting C 6 sugars to H 2 , CO 2 , acetate, ethanol and formate as major metabolites. (biomedcentral.com)
  • For cost-effective and efficient ethanol production from lignocellulosic fractions of plant biomass, the conversion of not only major constituents, such as glucose and xylose, but also less predominant sugars, such as l -arabinose, is required. (asm.org)
  • The resulting S. cerevisiae strain exhibited high rates of arabinose consumption (0.70 g h −1 g [dry weight] −1 ) and ethanol production (0.29 g h −1 g [dry weight] −1 ) and a high ethanol yield (0.43 g g −1 ) during anaerobic growth on l -arabinose as the sole carbon source. (asm.org)
  • In addition, efficient ethanol production from sugar mixtures containing glucose and arabinose, which is crucial for application in industrial ethanol production, was achieved. (asm.org)
  • Although glucose and xylose are often the predominant sugars in these feedstocks, the economically efficient production of ethanol also requires the conversion of smaller carbohydrate fractions, such as l -arabinose, at high rates and yields ( 9 , 23 ). (asm.org)
  • In addition to the development of pentose-consuming bacteria such as Zymomonas mobilis , Escherichia coli , and Klebsiella oxytoca as alternative biocatalysts for ethanol production ( 5 ), this situation has inspired various studies to expand the substrate range of S. cerevisiae . (asm.org)
  • Most cells prefer glucose (there are exceptions, such as acetic acid bacteria which prefer ethanol). (statpearls.com)
  • genome
  • The genome of Caldithrix abyssi , the first cultivated representative of a phylum-level bacterial lineage, was sequenced within the framework of Genomic Encyclopedia of Bacteria and Archaea (GEBA) project. (frontiersin.org)
  • The genome contained genes of respiratory polysulfide/thiosulfate reductase, however, elemental sulfur and thiosulfate were not used as the electron acceptors for anaerobic respiration with acetate or H 2 , probably due to the lack of the gene of the maturation protein. (frontiersin.org)
  • Surprisingly, the genome of this anaerobic microorganism encoded all genes for cytochrome c oxidase, however, its maturation machinery seems to be non-operational due to genomic rearrangements of supplementary genes. (frontiersin.org)
  • Among sulfate-reducing bacteria, genome sequencing has shown that D. vulgaris has developed well-defined protective enzymatic oxygen-defense systems ( 5 , 24 ). (pnas.org)
  • pentose
  • Actinobacillus succinogenes , a Gram-negative facultative anaerobe, exhibits the native capacity to convert pentose and hexose sugars to succinic acid (SA) with high yield as a tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle intermediate. (asm.org)
  • pathogenic
  • Sialic acids are a group of monosaccharides with a nine-carbon backbone, commonly found in mammalian cells and pathogenic bacteria, and frequently described to protect EPS molecules and cells from attack by. (tudelft.nl)
  • They exhibit important technological properties, e.g. thermostability and retaining of activity at a wide pH range, which along with the bactericidal action against Gram-positive food spoilage and pathogenic bacteria, make them an important class of biopreservatives. (biomedcentral.com)
  • feedstocks
  • In addition, A. succinogenes is capnophilic, incorporating CO 2 into SA, making this organism an ideal candidate host for conversion of lignocellulosic sugars and CO 2 to an emerging commodity bioproduct sourced from renewable feedstocks. (asm.org)
  • aerobic
  • he also demonstrated that about half the heat appeared during the anaerobic contraction phase, while the other half was evolved during the aerobic recovery phase. (encyclopedia.com)
  • glycogen
  • of a variety of carbohydrates, e.g., milk and cane sugars, maltose, cellulose, or glycogen, but it is usually manufactured by hydrolysis of cornstarch cornstarch, material made by pulverizing the ground, dried residue of corn grains after preparatory soaking and the removal of the embryo and the outer covering. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The sugars are absorbed from the blood by the liver and are stored there as glycogen. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • symbiotic
  • The aim of this paper is to give an overview of current knowledge on EPSs produced by marine bacteria including symbiotic marine EPS-producing bacteria isolated from some marine annelid worms that live in extreme niches. (mdpi.com)
  • substrates
  • Despite the fact that sugars were not among the substrates reported when C. abyssi was first described, our genomic analysis revealed multiple genes of glycoside hydrolases, and some of them were predicted to be secreted. (frontiersin.org)
  • bacterial
  • it is thought that Bifidobacterium's ability to compete with other gastrointestinal bacteria and occupy a large percentage in the bacterial flora of the gastrointestinal region might be partly due to the large variety of molecules that it is able to use for energy (Schell et al . (kenyon.edu)
  • Aristilde used an emerging biochemical approach, called metabolomics, to track different sugar carbon atoms inside the bacterial cells and learn why the cell factory does not efficiently convert all sugar carbons into biofuel. (phys.org)
  • Media are initially sterilized, then inoculated with the bacteria that is of interest and finally incubated for twenty four hours or more , to encourage bacterial growth. (blogspot.com)
  • They constitute a large fraction of the reduced carbon reservoir in the ocean and enhance the survival of marine bacteria influencing the physicochemical environment in proximity of the bacterial cell. (mdpi.com)
  • microbial
  • Metabolite labelling reveals hierarchies inthat selectively channel carbons from sugar mixtures towards biofuel precursors, Microbial Biotechnology (2016). (phys.org)
  • Saccharomyces
  • In the popular Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain EBY.VW4000, deletion of 21 transporters completely abolished hexose transport. (tudelft.nl)
  • genes
  • Specifically, genes for cellulosomal enzymes and components were highly expressed on α-cellulose, while xylanases and glucosidases were up-regulated on 5 carbon sugars with respect to cellobiose. (biomedcentral.com)
  • digestion
  • Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology "Effects of lipids on thermophilic anaerobic digestion and reduction of lipid inhibition upon addition of bentonite" 1990, pp. 469-472 Angellidaki, S. P. Petersen and B. K. Ahring. (patents.com)
  • oxygen
  • Unlike animals, bacteria do not all require oxygen. (blogspot.com)
  • Some types of bacteria are poisoned by oxygen, others can take it or leave it. (blogspot.com)
  • Liquid broth allows bacteria to grow at varying oxygen levels, which decrease as the depth of the broth increases. (blogspot.com)
  • Determining the transient chemical properties of the intracellular environment can elucidate the paths through which a biological system adapts to changes in its environment, for example, the mechanisms that enable some obligate anaerobic bacteria to survive a sudden exposure to oxygen. (pnas.org)
  • In this study, we investigated the dynamics of cellular chemical environment in a model oxygen-stress adaptive response system, namely that of the strictly anaerobic sulfate-reducing bacterium Desulfovibrio vulgaris Hildenborough during transient exposure to air. (pnas.org)
  • Sulfate-reducing bacteria are of particular interest because of their importance in cycling and transformation of essential nutrients and minerals ( 24 , 25 ) and of their links to different pathogenesis ( 26 , 27 ) in environments where extreme fluctuations in oxygen concentrations occur. (pnas.org)
  • The bacteria can even survive very high levels of oxygen in their natural environment ( 28 , 29 ), but the mechanism remains elusive. (pnas.org)
  • As carbo - hydrates , sugars are made up of carbon ( C ) and water, which is composed of hydrogen ( H ) and oxygen ( O ). The hydrogen and oxygen atoms are arranged in various configurations around a chain of carbon atoms which form the structural backbone of the molecule. (thefreshloaf.com)
  • organic
  • The ultimate goal is to understand the cycling of complex organic mixtures by anaerobic soil bacteria. (phys.org)
  • These bacteria are important in the natural conversion of organic carbons in soils and they are exploited for industrial biofuel production," Aristilde said. (phys.org)
  • Bacteria produce organic acids that contribute, for good and bad, to the quality of bread. (thefreshloaf.com)
  • electron
  • For a biotechnological exploitation of this bacterium for H 2 production it is crucial to understand the factors that regulate carbon and electron fluxes and therefore the final distribution of metabolites to channel the metabolic flux towards the desired product. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Oxygenic phototrophic bacteria, known as cyanobacteria, share similar electron transport pathways with other oxygenic phototrophs (e.g., plants and algae). (frontiersin.org)
  • inhibition
  • The bacteriocins produced by Gram-negative bacteria are most often large proteins (many are larger that 20 kDa) and their inhibition spectrum is rather narrow, spanning to closely related species. (biomedcentral.com)
  • pathways
  • While the pathways in this discussion start with sugar and finish as various end-products, there are several intermediate compounds formed along the way as one thing is converted to the next. (thefreshloaf.com)
  • In the phosphorylative pathways, the sugar is first converted to a phosphate ester (phosphorylated) in a reaction with ATP. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • In the nonphosphorylative pathways, the sugar is usually oxidized to the corresponding aldonic acid. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • conditions
  • Many marine bacteria produce exopolysaccharides (EPS) as a strategy for growth, adhering to solid surfaces, and to survive adverse conditions. (mdpi.com)
  • biological
  • Right now, though, this bacterium is not very efficient at processing complex wastes to biofuel production ," said Ludmilla Aristilde, assistant professor of biological and environmental engineering. (phys.org)