• Particularly, unique epigenetic and genetic roles of amino acid, glutamine, are receiving much attention. (legacy.com)
  • HS131 is a six amino acid long peptide, has a molecular weight below 1000, and has only two amino acids in common with the natural MSH peptides. (pills2021.com)
  • All volunteers underwent the EPI scan without PNS when the readout direction was set to A/P. Excitatory amino acid transporters (EAATs) are the primary regulators of extracellular glutamate concentrations in the central nervous system. (pills2021.com)
  • Neither enzyme activity was induced in phosphate-replete medium, or in medium where both 2-aminoethylphosphonic acid and inorganic phosphate were supplied as sources of phosphorus. (ulster.ac.uk)
  • Consequently, methylphosphonic acid also serves as a source of inorganic phosphate (Pi) for marine bacteria that are starved of this nutrient. (nih.gov)
  • The enzymes PhnY and PhnZ comprise an oxidative catabolic pathway that enables marine bacteria to use 2-aminoethylphosphonic acid as a source of inorganic phosphate. (rcsb.org)
  • The aim was to provide a chemical linkage between PCL and CaP using a star-shaped polymer (sPEG) and a phosphonate, 2-aminoethylphosphonic acid (2-AEP). (uni-wuerzburg.de)
  • Phosphonate salts are the result of deprotonation of phosphonic acids, which are diprotic acids: RPO(OH)2 + NaOH → H2O + RPO(OH)(ONa) (monosodium phosphonate) RPO(OH)(ONa) + NaOH → H2O + RPO(ONa)2 (disodium phosphonate) Phosphonate esters are the result of condensation of phosphonic acids with alcohols. (wikipedia.org)
  • This reaction is a variant of the Michael addition: CH2=CHCO2R + 3 H3PO3 → (HO)2P(O)CH2CH2CO2R In the Hirao coupling dialkyl phosphites (which can also be viewed as di-esters of phosphonic acid: (O=PH(OR)2) undergo a palladium-catalyzed coupling reaction with an aryl halide to form a phosphonate. (wikipedia.org)
  • For example, methyl iodide catalyses the conversion of trimethylphosphite to the phosphonate ester dimethyl methylphosphonate: P(OMe)3 → MePO(OMe)2 These esters can be hydrolysed to the acid (Me = methyl): MePO(OMe)2 + H2O → MePO(OH)2 + 2 MeOH In the Michaelis-Becker reaction, a hydrogen phosphonate diester is first deprotonated and the resulting anion is alkylated. (wikipedia.org)
  • Examples include HEDP (etidronic acid or Didronel), which is prepared from phosphorous acid and acetic anhydride: 2 H3PO3 + (CH3CO)2O → CH3C(OH)(PO3H2)2 + CH3CO2H A thiophosphonate group is a functional group related to phosphonate by substitution of an oxygen atom for a sulphur. (wikipedia.org)
  • The naturally occurring phosphonate 2-aminoethylphosphonic acid was first identified in 1959 in plants and many animals, where it is localized in membranes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Coumpound 2 was been shown to be 2-aminoethylphosphonic acidity (2AEP) a common intermediate in various phosphonate biosynthetic pathways.1 This assignment was initially suggested predicated on the 31P NMR chemical substance change of 2 and additional backed by its retention on AG 50W-X8 cation exchange resin presumably because of the major amine. (experiencefla.com)
  • Phosphonates and phosphonic acids are organophosphorus compounds containing C−PO(OH)2 or C−PO(OR)2 groups (where R = alkyl, aryl). (wikipedia.org)
  • Phosphonic acids, typically handled as salts, are generally nonvolatile solids that are poorly soluble in organic solvents, but soluble in water and common alcohols. (wikipedia.org)
  • Several methods exist for the preparation of phosphonic acids and their salts. (wikipedia.org)
  • One example is the industrial preparation of nitrilotris(methylenephosphonic acid): NH3 + 3 H3PO3 + 3 CH2O → N(CH2PO3H2)3 + 3 H2O Phosphonic acid also can be alkylated with acrylic acid derivatives to afford carboxyl functionalized phosphonic acids. (wikipedia.org)
  • Instead, the genome contains a locus encoding homologues of the non-heme Fe(II) dependent oxygenases HF130PhnY* and HF130PhnZ, which were previously shown to convert 2-aminoethylphosphonic acid into glycine and Pi. (nih.gov)
  • Using this media C. jejuni NCTC 11168 was shown to be able to utilise mucin, L- serine, L-proline, L-glutamic acid, L-valine, L-glutamine, L-histidine, L-tyrosine, L-aspartate, L-asparagine and L-glycine as sole carbon sources. (surrey.ac.uk)
  • With the exception of aminoethanoic acid (glycine), the industrially produced amino acids are chiral and the two isomers (D and L) have different properties in biologically induced reactions. (hyeyunpark.com)
  • these include nucleic acids, many important coenzymes, adenosine triphosphate-the energy carrier in living organisms-and a number of vitamins. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • 4-Fluoro-2-methyl benzonitrile 147754-12-9 C8H6NF Indole-2-carboxylic acid 1477-50-5 C9H7NO2 4-Methyl-3-nitro benzaldehyde 14753-51-6 C8H7NO3 3-Amino picolinic acid 1462-86-8. (twfta.com)
  • Full List of ' 2-fluoro-4-methyl-1-nitro- 2-nitro-5-fluoro toluene 4-amino-2-fluorobenzoic acid 4-chloro-2-fluorobenzoic acid 3- 2 ' Manufacturers& 2-fluoro-4-methyl-1-nitro- 2-nitro-5-fluoro toluene 4-amino-2-fluorobenzoic acid 4-chloro-2-fluorobenzoic acid 3- 2 Suppliers in European Global & USA Asian. (twfta.com)
  • chloromethyl)- N , N'-Carbonyldiimidazole 3 , 5-Dimethoxy-4-Hydroxybenzoic Acid 4-Amino-6-Chloropyrimidine 4 , 6-Dichloro-5-Pyrimidine Carboxaldehyde 4-Fluoro-4'-Methylbenzophenone 3-Pyridinecarboxaldehyde , 6-methyl- 7alpha-Hydroxydehydroepiandrosterone Isoquinoline , 6-methoxy- DL-Tropic Acid 1H-Indazole , 1-[(3-fluorophenyl)methyl]-5-nitro- Benzeneacetic acid , 2-chloro-.alpha. (twfta.com)
  • Flavouring agentEthyl lactate, also known as lactic acid ethyl ester, is a monobasic ester formed from lactic acid and ethanol, commonly used as a solvent. (hyeyunpark.com)
  • Lactic acid (2-hydroxypropanoic acid) is produced by fermentation of sugars from maize (corn syrup) and cane sugar (molasses) using a lactobacillus bacterium. (hyeyunpark.com)
  • Lactic acid can be esterified with ethanol to form ethyl 2-hydroxypropanoate (ethyl lactate) which is a non-toxic and biodegradable solvent. (hyeyunpark.com)
  • 19. The aqueous polishing composition of claim 16, wherein the hydroxycarboxylic acids (b1) are selected from the group consisting of glycolic acid, lactic acid, quinic acid, sugar acids, and mixtures thereof, and wherein the esters (b2) are selected from the group consisting of glycolic acid, lactic acid, quinic acid and sugar acid esters and lactones and mixtures thereof. (patentsencyclopedia.com)
  • The results point to the presence of a substrate inducible 2-aminoethylphosphonic acid biodegradation pathway in the isolated strain of Pseudomonas putida. (ulster.ac.uk)
  • In contrast, 2-aminoethylphosphonic acid is not a substrate for GmPhnY* and is therefore not a substrate for this pathway. (nih.gov)
  • C] Glycosphingolipids contain phosphorus and amine as 2-aminoethylphosphonic acid or phosphoethanolamine and are zwitterionic. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Esters and other acid derivatives of phosphorus are usually obtained by the action of chloranhydrides of these acids on alcohols, often in the presence of bases that bind the released HCl. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Conversion of methylphosphonic acid into Pi is currently only known to occur through the carbon-phosphorus lyase pathway, yielding methane as a byproduct. (nih.gov)
  • In this work, we describe an oxidative pathway for the catabolism of methylphosphonic acid in Gimesia maris DSM8797. (nih.gov)
  • G. maris can use methylphosphonic acid as Pi sources despite lacking a phn operon encoding a carbon-phosphorus lyase pathway. (nih.gov)
  • Any of a series of oligopeptide derivatives, designed as inhibitors of bacterial cell‐wall biosynthesis, that have a C‐terminal residue of l‐1‐aminoethylphosphonic acid (a phosphorus‐containing analogue of l‐alanine). (oup.com)
  • Structures of an alanine racemase from Bacillus anthracis (BA0252) in the presence and absence of (R)-1-aminoethylphosphonic acid (L-Ala-P). (ox.ac.uk)
  • A distinction is made between organophosphorus compounds in which the phosphorus is directly bonded to carbon in the molecules and organophosphorus compounds in which the phosphorus is bonded to the organic part of the molecules by a heteroatom-oxygen, nitrogen, or sulfur (this is mainly the case for esters and other acid derivatives of phosphorus). (thefreedictionary.com)
  • coli, DL-1,2-diaminoethylphosphonic and aminomethylphosphonic acids with Tetrahymena, DL-1-aminopropylphosphonic acid with anemone, and DL-1-aminoethylphosphonic and DL-1-aminobutylphosphonic acids with liver. (saladgaffe.cf)
  • Proteases, also known as peptidases or proteolytic enzymes, consists of a large number of enzymes catalyzing the hydrolysis of peptide bonds and subsequently resulting in the degradation of protein substrates into amino acids. (glpbio.com)
  • aminotetrahydro- Boc-4-Methoxyphenylalanine Ethyl 2-(2-Aminothiazole-4-Yl)Acetate 2-Amino-5-Iodobenzoic acid 4-Iodo-3-Nitrotoluene 4-Bromo-3-Nitrotoluene 2-hydrazino-benzoic acid 6-Chloro Nicotinic Acid Benzoyl Isothiocyanate 2-Chloro-4-Methylsulfonyl Benzoic Acid Benzeneacetic acid , .alpha. (twfta.com)
  • They are structurally closely related to (and often prepared from) phosphorous acid. (wikipedia.org)
  • Most processes begin with phosphorous acid (aka phosphonic acid, H3PO3), exploiting its reactive P−H bond. (wikipedia.org)
  • Methylphosphonic acid is synthesized by marine bacteria and is a prominent component of dissolved organic phosphorus. (nih.gov)
  • Via 31 P NMR spectroscopy, it is demonstrated that the GmPhnY* converts methylphosphonic acid to hydroxymethylphosphonic acid, which in turn is oxidized by GmPhnZ1 to produce formic acid and Pi. (nih.gov)
  • These results thus reveal a new metabolic fate for methylphosphonic acid. (nih.gov)
  • An estimate of the minimum amount of unsaturated fatty acid required for growth of Escherichia coli. (illinois.edu)
  • The changes in the composition of biomembrane PL were accompanied by an increase in the total cholesterol content in red cell biomembranes and by an increase in the total and free non-esterified fatty acids in blood plasma (P less than 0.05). (faintpower.cf)
  • Organophosphorus compounds containing a phosphorus-carbon bond, for example, β-aminoethylphosphonic acid (ciliatin), were discovered in nature in the 1960's. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Roberts and colleagues pioneered the immunohistochemical localization of neurotransmitter-specific neural systems at the light and electron microscopic levels using antisera to the synthetic enzyme glutamic acid decarboxylase. (legacy.com)
  • Application to the Asymmetric Synthesis of (1S,2S)-2,3-Methanoamino Acids. (hyeyunpark.com)
  • All amino acids detected in the urine control were also quantified in urine samples from patients to establish adequate reference intervals, regardless of the fact that some of them either were not useful for diagnosis or required special sampling for clinical management (1methylhistidine, carnosine, tryptophan, phosphoethanolamine , ethanolamine). (thefreedictionary.com)
  • This led to the discovery of the first compound in animals of a substance with a C-P bond (aminoethyl phosphonic acid), and the phosphodiester of L-serine and ethanolamine, both substances being found sub-sequentially in primordial living creature as well as a number of the interesting substances of interest. (legacy.com)
  • Neither of these activities were induced in either phosphate-free or phosphate-replete medium in the absence of 2-aminoethylphosphonic acid. (ulster.ac.uk)
  • amino-4-methoxy- 2 , 5-Dimethyl Benzoxazole Benzenamine , 3-fluoro-2-nitro- 1 , 12-Dodecanediol (R)-2-chloro-1-phenylethanol 2-Amino-4-Hydroxy-6-Phenylpyrimidine 5-Amino-2-Fluorobenzoic acid Z-Glu-OMe 4-(2-Methoxyethyl)Phenol Tryptophan , 5-hydroxy- Benzenepropanoic acid , .alpha. (twfta.com)
  • A strain of Pseudomonas putida that utilized the biogenic organophosphonate 2-aminoethylphosphonic acid as sole carbon and energy, nitrogen and phosphorus source contained 2-aminoethylphosphonic acid: pyruvate aminotransferase and phosphonoacetaldehyde hydrolase (phosphonatase) activities which were inducible by the presence of 2-aminoethylphosphonic acid in the culture medium, regardless of the phosphate status of the cells. (ulster.ac.uk)
  • For imaging those areas of fibrosis / infarct, intravenous gadolinium chelated contrast agents, such as gadolinium diethylenetriamine penta-ace-tic acid are needed. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Multilayer binding of the protein to the amphoteric polymer brush, with a degree of multilayer binding of 3.3, 8.6, and 15 for Lf, Cyt c, and Ly, respectively, with the (2-aminoethyl)-phosphonic acid-immobilized porous hollow-fiber membrane, was demonstrated with a negligible diffusional mass-transfer resistance of the protein to the ampholite immobilized. (elsevier.com)
  • The 2-amino-ethane-1-sulfonic acid-immobilized porous hollow-fiber membrane exhibited the lowest initial flux of the protein solution, 0.41 m/h at a transmembrane pressure of 0.1 MPa and 298 K, and the highest equilibrium binding capacity of the protein, e.g., 130 mg/g for lysozyme. (elsevier.com)
  • Biologically active concentrations of chloroquine increase the pH of the parasite's acid vesicles within 3-5 min. (ajtmh.org)
  • although at high concentrations caffeic acid and rutin were growth inhibitory. (surrey.ac.uk)
  • In addition, factors, like DTPA, EDTA (chelating agents' diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid and ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid) in detergents, such as soaps, powders, and the like, increase the heavy-metal solubility and accumulation in soil [28]. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Because chloroquine is a weak base, it increases vesicle pH by that mechanism in chloroquine-susceptible and resistant parasites and mammalian cells (based on its two pKs and on the ΔpH between the acid vesicle and the extracellular environment). (ajtmh.org)
  • This is a property they share with related functional groups such as thiocarboxylic acids and organothiophosphates. (wikipedia.org)
  • In Enterobacter aerogenes IFO 12010, 2-aminoethylphosphonate : pyruvate aminotransferase and phosphonatase activities were induced only when cells were both phosphate limited and supplied with 2-aminoethylphosphonic acid as sole phosphorus source for growth. (ulster.ac.uk)
  • C. jejuni was shown to be able to acquire iron from DL- neorepinephrine, epinephrine, caffeic acid, rutin and quercetin but not catechin. (surrey.ac.uk)
  • In 1949, Roberts discovered the presence of unusually large quantities of y-aminobutyric acid (GABA) in the brain. (legacy.com)
  • Another chelating agent used to treat certain types of internal radiation poisoning is diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid (DTPA). (thefreedictionary.com)