Loading...
  • IUPAC
  • The IUPAC names of amino acids are acquired by pointing out the position of amino group via Arabic numeral on the alkyl radical chain of the alkanoic acid, making the carboxylic carbon the number 1 carbon. (tutorsglobe.com)
  • Amination
  • Racemic valine can be synthesized by bromination of isovaleric acid followed by amination of the α-bromo derivative HO2CCH2CH(CH3)2 + Br2 → HO2CCHBrCH(CH3)2 + HBr HO2CCHBrCH(CH3)2 + 2 NH3 → HO2CCH(NH2)CH(CH3)2 + NH4Br Valine, like other branched-chain amino acids, is associated with insulin resistance: higher levels of valine are observed in the blood of diabetic mice, rats, and humans. (wikipedia.org)
  • aqueous
  • Altunina L.K., Bezrukov O.F., Smirnova N.A., Moskvicheva I.A., Fokanov V.P. (1971) Self-Diffusion in Aqueous Solutions of Amino Acids, Peptides, and Proteins. (springer.com)
  • Biointerface studies were conducted using a combination of SFG and quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) comparing the interfacial structure and concentration of two amino acids and their corresponding homopeptides at two model liquid-solid interfaces as a function of their concentration in aqueous solutions. (unt.edu)
  • enzymes
  • Cells are able to specifically synthesize the L isomers of amino acids because the active sites of enzymes are asymmetric, causing the reactions they catalyze to be stereo-specific. (coursehero.com)
  • Enzymes involved in this biosynthesis include: Acetolactate synthase (also known as acetohydroxy acid synthase) Acetohydroxy acid isomeroreductase Dihydroxyacid dehydratase Valine aminotransferase Like other branched-chain amino acids, the catabolism of valine starts with the removal of the amino group by transamination, giving alpha-ketoisovalerate, an alpha-keto acid, which is converted to isobutyryl-CoA through oxidative decarboxylation by the branched-chain α-ketoacid dehydrogenase complex. (wikipedia.org)
  • amine
  • The mechanism involves silylation of the carbonyl oxygen and elimination of tert-butyl iodide (1), methanolysis of the silyl ester to the carbamic acid (2) and finally decarboxylation to the amine (3). (wikipedia.org)
  • molecules
  • For example, in biochemistry it is widely used to separate charged molecules such as proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • Major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I molecules rely on aminopeptidases such as ERAP1 and LRAP to trim precursors to antigenic peptides in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) following cleavage in the cytoplasm by tripeptidyl peptidase II (TPP2). (wikipedia.org)
  • sequence
  • LY-127,623), or metkephamid acetate (USAN), but most frequently referred to simply as metkephamid, is a synthetic opioid pentapeptide and derivative of [Met]enkephalin with the amino acid sequence Tyr-D-Ala-Gly-Phe-(N-Me)-Met-NH2. (wikipedia.org)
  • Carbon
  • Naturally occurring amino acid has been illustrated via stereo-chemical studies to have the similar configuration concerning the α-carbon atom and they looks like L(-)-glyceraldehyde. (tutorsglobe.com)
  • valine
  • Valine (abbreviated as Val or V) is an α-amino acid that is used in the biosynthesis of proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • In sickle-cell disease, a single glutamic acid in β-globin is replaced with valine. (wikipedia.org)
  • The name valine comes from valeric acid, which in turn is named after the plant valerian due to the presence of the acid in the roots of the plant. (wikipedia.org)
  • Valine, like other branched-chain amino acids, is synthesized by plants, but not by animals. (wikipedia.org)
  • The valine catabolite 3-hydroxyisobutyrate promotes skeletal muscle insulin resistance in mice by stimulating fatty acid uptake into muscle and lipid accumulation. (wikipedia.org)
  • example
  • Somedepend on nutrients other than proteins (energy intake, for example), othersdepend on the pathophysiological condition (aging, stress, and so on), and somedepend on the dietary protein itself. (nestlenutrition-institute.org)
  • As an example, while its parent peptide, [Met]enkephalin, has an in vivo half-life of merely seconds, metkefamide has a half-life of nearly 60 minutes, and upon intramuscular administration, has been shown to provide pain relief that lasts for hours. (wikipedia.org)
  • dietary
  • Human dietary sources are foods that contain protein, such as meats, dairy products, soy products, beans and legumes. (wikipedia.org)
  • structure
  • A novel optical parametric amplifier was developed and utilized in SFG experiments to investigate the secondary structure of an adsorbed model peptide at the solid-liquid interface. (unt.edu)
  • nucleic acids
  • The three main purposes of metabolism are the conversion of food/fuel to energy to run cellular processes, the conversion of food/fuel to building blocks for proteins, lipids, nucleic acids, and some carbohydrates, and the elimination of nitrogenous wastes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Metabolism is usually divided into two categories: catabolism, the breaking down of organic matter for example, the breaking down of glucose to pyruvate, by cellular respiration, and anabolism, the building up of components of cells such as proteins and nucleic acids. (wikipedia.org)
  • Expression of type I and III IFNs can be induced in virtually all cell types upon recognition of viral components, especially nucleic acids, by cytoplasmic and endosomal receptors, whereas type II interferon is induced by cytokines such as IL-12, and its expression is restricted to immune cells such as T cells and NK cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • gene
  • p>Describes annotations that are concluded from looking at variations or changes in a gene product such as mutations or abnormal levels and includes techniques such as knockouts, overexpression, anti-sense experiments and use of specific protein inhibitors. (uniprot.org)
  • To do this, we designed mutagenic oligonucleotide primers that would anneal to the wild-type Kumamolisin gene and incorporate point mutations that, when expressed, would result in a variant of Kumamolisin with the desired amino acid shift. (igem.org)
  • The protein encoded by this gene is a high affinity calcium ion-binding protein that is structurally and functionally similar to calmodulin and troponin C. The encoded protein is thought to be involved in muscle relaxation. (genecards.org)
  • PVALB (Parvalbumin) is a Protein Coding gene. (genecards.org)
  • Gene Ontology (GO) annotations related to this gene include calcium ion binding and protein heterodimerization activity . (genecards.org)
  • This gene encodes a membrane protein belonging to the interleukin-17 receptor (IL-17R) protein family. (genecards.org)
  • IL17RD (Interleukin 17 Receptor D) is a Protein Coding gene. (genecards.org)
  • In this technique, a gene encoding a protein of interest is inserted into a phage coat protein gene, causing the phage to "display" the protein on its outside while containing the gene for the protein on its inside, resulting in a connection between genotype and phenotype. (wikipedia.org)
  • Phage display was first described by George P. Smith in 1985, when he demonstrated the display of peptides on filamentous phage by fusing the peptide of interest onto gene III of filamentous phage. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the case of M13 filamentous phage display, the DNA encoding the protein or peptide of interest is ligated into the pIII or pVIII gene, encoding either the minor or major coat protein, respectively. (wikipedia.org)
  • Tetratricopeptide repeat protein 39B is a protein that in humans is encoded by the TTC39B gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • The TTC39B gene has five different transcript variants, each coding for a different protein. (wikipedia.org)
  • Uteroglobin, also known as secretoglobin family 1A member 1 (SCGB1A1), is a protein that in humans is encoded by the SCGB1A1 gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • In humans, the LDL receptor protein is encoded by the LDLR gene on chromosome 19. (wikipedia.org)
  • kinase
  • Purpose Review aberrations of insulin signaling to atypical proteins kinase C (aPKC) in muscles and liver that generate cardiovascular risk elements, including, weight problems, hypertriglyceridemia, hypercholesterolemia, insulin level of resistance and blood sugar intolerance in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), and obesity-associated metabolic symptoms (MetSyn). (biomasswars.com)
  • In response to interferon, cells produce large amounts of an enzyme known as protein kinase R (PKR). (wikipedia.org)
  • genes
  • More than twenty distinct IFN genes and proteins have been identified in animals, including humans. (wikipedia.org)
  • Another cellular enzyme, RNAse L-also induced by interferon action-destroys RNA within the cells to further reduce protein synthesis of both viral and host genes. (wikipedia.org)
  • In addition, interferons induce production of hundreds of other proteins-known collectively as interferon-stimulated genes (ISGs)-that have roles in combating viruses and other actions produced by interferon. (wikipedia.org)
  • With the human genome sequenced, the next step is the verification and functional annotation of all predicted genes and their protein products. (wikipedia.org)
  • fragment
  • Background Cardiac stress may trigger production of the 40\kDa peptide fragment produced from the amino terminus from the cardiac myosin\binding protein C. function, cell viability, hypertrophy, or possibility of success. (biomasswars.com)
  • If a "phagemid" vector is used (a simplified display construct vector) phage particles will not be released from the E. coli cells until they are infected with helper phage, which enables packaging of the phage DNA and assembly of the mature virions with the relevant protein fragment as part of their outer coat on either the minor (pIII) or major (pVIII) coat protein. (wikipedia.org)
  • enzyme
  • GABA is usually synthesized from glutamic acid or glutamate in a reaction catalyzed by pyridoxal 5′-phosphate (PLP)-dependent enzyme glutamate decarboxylase (Gad, EC: 4.1.1.15). (springeropen.com)
  • It is used for finding new ligands (enzyme inhibitors, receptor agonists and antagonists) to target proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • The luciferase enzyme consists of a 555-amino acid-long peptide with a molecular mass of 61627 u, while the luciferine vargulin has only a mass of 405.5 u. (wikipedia.org)
  • These proteolytic active sites located in the inner side of a chamber formed by 4 stacked rings of 20S subunits, preventing random protein-enzyme encounter and uncontrolled protein degradation. (wikipedia.org)
  • The elaborate structural studies of proteins from several important systems as potential drug targets such as phospholipase A2, cyclooxygenase, lipoxygenase, endothelin receptor, endothelin converting enzyme, breast cancer regression proteins and matrix metanosomal proteins as well as their complexes with natural and designed synthetic ligands have been carried out. (wikipedia.org)
  • Tyrosylprotein Sulfotransferase is the enzyme that catalyzes the sulfation reaction of protein tyrosines, a post-translational modification of proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • recombinant
  • Small volumes of AK1 recombinant protein vial(s) may occasionally become entrapped in the seal of the product vial during shipment and storage. (mybiosource.com)
  • AK1 Human Recombinant fused with a 20 amino acid His tag at N-terminus produced in E Coli is a single, non-glycosylated, polypeptide chain containing 214 amino acids (1-194 a.a.) and having a molecular mass of 23.7kDa. (mybiosource.com)
  • binds
  • By immobilizing a relevant DNA or protein target(s) to the surface of a microtiter plate well, a phage that displays a protein that binds to one of those targets on its surface will remain while others are removed by washing. (wikipedia.org)
  • complexes
  • Here, we describe a technique that consists of a combination of biochemistry approaches, quantitative proteomics and computational methods using wild‐type and deletion strains to investigate the organization of proteins within macromolecular protein complexes. (embopress.org)
  • Furthermore, we identified a novel subunit of the ADA complex, termed Ahc2, and characterized Sgf29 as an ADA family protein present in all Gcn5 histone acetyltransferase complexes. (embopress.org)
  • Determining the architectures of protein complexes improves our understanding of protein cellular functions. (embopress.org)
  • The binding properties of ProtA to IgG-coupled and CBP to calmodulin-coupled sepharose beads permit the capture and purification of low abundant fusion protein complexes by affinity column chromatography. (pharmacologicalsciences.us)
  • Most TPR-containing proteins are associated with multiprotein complexes, and there is extensive evidence indicating that TPR motifs are important to the functioning of chaperone, cell-cycle, transcription, and protein transport complexes. (wikipedia.org)
  • esters
  • Due to its resonance stabilization, the peptide bond is relatively unreactive under physiological conditions, even less than similar compounds such as esters. (wikipedia.org)
  • Tyrosine
  • Then, the target protein and tyrosine bind TPST and the histidine transfers the sulfonate group to the target tyrosine. (wikipedia.org)
  • glutamic acid
  • 2015 ). Addition of monosodium glutamate monohydrate (MSG) or glutamic acid in some microorganisms can efficiently improve GABA production. (springeropen.com)
  • sequences
  • Applications of phage display technology include determination of interaction partners of a protein (which would be used as the immobilised phage "bait" with a DNA library consisting of all coding sequences of a cell, tissue or organism) so that the function or the mechanism of the function of that protein may be determined. (wikipedia.org)
  • characterize
  • In this study, we developed and applied a novel method utilizing biochemistry, quantitative proteomics and computational approaches in order to characterize the organization of proteins in a complex. (embopress.org)
  • He initiated a new programme on Clinical Proteomics at the All India Institute of Medical Sciences in which it is intended to characterize all the proteins that are expressed during various patho/physiological conditions. (wikipedia.org)
  • cellular
  • Amino acids also contribute to cellular energy metabolism by providing a carbon source for entry into the citric acid cycle (tricarboxylic acid cycle), especially when a primary source of energy, such as glucose, is scarce, or when cells undergo metabolic stress. (wikipedia.org)
  • serine
  • The three-dimensional structures of various proteins including lactoperoxidase, peptidoglycan recognition protein, lactoferrin from several species, ribosome inactivating proteins, bifunctional inhibitor proteins from plant seeds and various serine proteases and their inhibitors have been determined by his group. (wikipedia.org)
  • glutamate
  • Escherichia coli overexpressing glutamate decarboxylase GadB can produce gamma-aminobutyric acid with addition of monosodium glutamate. (springeropen.com)
  • The yield and productivity of gamma-aminobutyric acid might be significantly improved if the overexpressed GadB in E. coli cells can be excreted outside, where it can directly transforms monosodium glutamate to gamma-aminobutyric acid. (springeropen.com)
  • 264.4 and 313.1 g/L gamma-aminobutyric acid were obtained with addition of monosodium glutamate after 36 and 72 h, respectively. (springeropen.com)
  • Antibodies
  • This technology was further developed and improved by groups at the Laboratory of Molecular Biology with Greg Winter and John McCafferty, The Scripps Research Institute with Lerner and Barbas and the German Cancer Research Center with Breitling and Dübel for display of proteins such as antibodies for therapeutic protein engineering. (wikipedia.org)
  • ribosome
  • Competing methods for in vitro protein evolution include yeast display, bacterial display, ribosome display, and mRNA display. (wikipedia.org)
  • mammals
  • SCGB1A1 is the founding member of the secretoglobin family of small, secreted, disulfide-bridged dimeric proteins found only in mammals. (wikipedia.org)
  • bacteria
  • Interferons (IFNs) are a group of signaling proteins made and released by host cells in response to the presence of several pathogens, such as viruses, bacteria, parasites, and also tumor cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • specificity
  • Photo Leucine, as well as another photo-reactive amino acid derived from Methionine, Photo-Methionine, were first synthesized in 2005 by Monika Suchanek, Anna Radzikoska and Christoph Thiele from the Max Planck Institute of Molecular Cell Biology and Genetics with the objective of identifying protein to protein interaction throughout a simple western blot test that would provide high specificity. (wikipedia.org)
  • isomer
  • A nonnative isomer of some peptide groups can disrupt the conformational folding significantly, either slowing it or preventing it from even occurring until the native isomer is reached. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is also important to mention that only the L- isomer of the photo-leucine amino acid is synthetized. (wikipedia.org)
  • chemical reactions
  • Nevertheless, peptide bonds can undergo chemical reactions, usually through an attack of an electronegative atom on the carbonyl carbon, breaking the carbonyl double bond and forming a tetrahedral intermediate. (wikipedia.org)
  • secretion
  • Conditions for GadB secretion and gamma-aminobutyric acid production were optimized in E. coli BL21(DE3)/pET20b- torA - gadB , leading the secretion of more than half of the overexpressed GadB. (springeropen.com)
  • Some of the hormones which signal the tubules to alter the reabsorption or secretion rate, and thereby maintain homeostasis, include (along with the substance affected) antidiuretic hormone (water), aldosterone (sodium, potassium), parathyroid hormone (calcium, phosphate), atrial natriuretic peptide (sodium) and brain natriuretic peptide (sodium). (wikipedia.org)
  • The Extended Signal Peptide Region (ESPR) is found in the N-terminus of the signal peptides of proteins belonging to the Type V secretion systems. (wikipedia.org)
  • First, biogenesis of proteins in the Type V Secretion System (T5SS). (wikipedia.org)
  • interaction
  • The encoded protein is a component of the interleukin-17 receptor signaling complex, and the interaction between this protein and IL-17R does not require the interleukin. (genecards.org)
  • According to the protein interaction and topological characteristics of this multisubunit complex, the 19S regulatory particle is composed of a base and a lid subcomplex. (wikipedia.org)
  • found
  • The AK1 protein is found in the cytosol of skeletal muscle, brain and erythrocytes. (mybiosource.com)
  • The TCAP is the resulting peptide from cleaving a putative furin cleavage site found immediately on the N-terminal of TCAP. (wikipedia.org)
  • For example, the set of carboxylic acids that are best known as the intermediates in the citric acid cycle are present in all known organisms, being found in species as diverse as the unicellular bacterium Escherichia coli and huge multicellular organisms like elephants. (wikipedia.org)
  • Two more TPR domains are found in the TTC39B protein: TPR1 which spans from amino acids 393 to 426 (34 amino acids long) and TPR2 which spans from amino acids 626 to 659 (also 34 amino acids long). (wikipedia.org)
  • The receptor also recognizes the apoE protein found in chylomicron remnants and VLDL remnants (IDL). (wikipedia.org)
  • The reason for this lies in the fact that all human amino acids are found in the L form, and, therefore, if photo-leucine has to be introduced in human samples it is imperative for it to be in the L form. (wikipedia.org)
  • Currently, it's not fully know why all the human amino acids are found in the L- form, however, evidence suggests that L- amino acids are slightly more soluble than is the racemic mixture of D- and L- amino acids, which tends to form crystals. (wikipedia.org)
  • Transcription
  • The transcription start site for TTC39B protein isoform 1 is located from base pairs 15,307,340 to 15,307,389 and has a length of 50 bp. (wikipedia.org)
  • target protein
  • TPR motifs that are arranged one in front of another create a right-handed helical structure with an amphipathic channel which could possibly accommodate the complementary region of a target protein. (wikipedia.org)