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  • cystine
  • following uptake the cystine is converted to cysteine, an amino acid that is found only at very low levels in plasma and cerebrospinal fluid. (novusbio.com)
  • xCT is implicated in chemotherapeutic resistance in some cancers , where a significant increase in cystine uptake is associated with improved tumour cell survival. (novusbio.com)
  • protein
  • GAD67 protein is not detectable, and GAD25, a nonenzymatically active GAD67 splice variant ( 3 ), is present in a relatively sparse subset of cells (S.D.C., W.T.S., unpublished observations) ( 2 , 4 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • SILAC has emerged as a very powerful method to study cell signaling, post translation modifications such as phosphorylation, protein-protein interaction and regulation of gene expression. (wikipedia.org)
  • We further identify the 3-phosphoinositide-dependent protein kinase 1 (PDK1), a well-known kinase involved in the PI3K-Akt signaling pathway, as a direct Meis3 target, which mediates its role in β-cell survival. (biomedsearch.com)
  • This amino acid is encoded by UAG (normally a stop codon), and its synthesis and incorporation into protein is mediated via the biological machinery encoded by the pylTSBCD cluster of genes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Unlike posttranslational modifications of lysine such as hydroxylysine, methyllysine, and hypusine, pyrrolysine is incorporated during translation (protein synthesis) as directed by the genetic code, just like the standard amino acids. (wikipedia.org)
  • Thus, for protein production, and therefore mTORC1 activation, cells must have adequate energy resources, nutrient availability, oxygen abundance, and proper growth factors in order for mRNA translation to begin. (wikipedia.org)
  • Furthermore, since insulin is a factor that is secreted by pancreatic beta cells upon glucose elevation in the blood, its signaling ensures that there is energy for protein synthesis to take place. (wikipedia.org)
  • Hydroxyproline is produced by hydroxylation of the amino acid proline by the enzyme prolyl hydroxylase following protein synthesis (as a post-translational modification). (wikipedia.org)
  • mTORC1 activates protein translation when the cell has sufficient amounts amino acids and energy. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, loss of any one protein in the four protein KICSTOR complex resulted in a lack of inhibition of mTORC1 by amino acid or glucose deprivation and increased mTORC1 signaling. (wikipedia.org)
  • It regulates the metabolism of carbohydrates, fats and protein by promoting the absorption of, especially, glucose from the blood into liver, fat and skeletal muscle cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • The human insulin protein is composed of 51 amino acids, and has a molecular mass of 5808 Da. (wikipedia.org)
  • Desmoglein-2 is a 122.2 kDa protein composed of 1118 amino acids. (wikipedia.org)
  • In vitro studies in HL-1 cardiomyocytes have shown that inhibition of desmoglein-2 binding or mutation of desmoglein-2 protein (Ala517Val or Val920Gly) at cardiac intercalated discs results in a reduced strength of cell-cell contact, demonstrating that desmoglein-2 is critical for cardiomyocyte cohesion. (wikipedia.org)
  • differentiation
  • The first step of the study was to see whether Uaas could be incorporated into neural stem cells without disrupting their process of differentiation - and, if that were possible, whether the fluorescent tag the team had inserted would be carried into neuronal cells created by the stem cells. (photonics.com)
  • Because added genes are often lost before a stem cell has a chance to finish differentiation, current methodology for Uaa incorporation is not appropriate for stem cells. (photonics.com)
  • molecular
  • Differential cell systematic evolution of ligands by exponential enrichment (SELEX) is an in vitro selection method for obtaining molecular recognition elements (MREs) that specifically bind to individual cell types with high affinity. (hindawi.com)
  • Biology
  • Although stem cells hold great promise for disease treatment, it is difficult to study how they renew themselves and produce all of the body's cells, said Dr. Lei Wang, assistant professor and Frederick B. Rentschler Developmental Chair in the institute's Chemical Biology and Proteomics Laboratory. (photonics.com)
  • molecule
  • They could then load it with the third engineered molecule: an unnatural amino acid. (photonics.com)
  • a glycerol molecule attached to three fatty acid esters is called a triacylglyceride. (wikipedia.org)
  • Proline hydroxylation requires ascorbic acid (vitamin C). The most obvious, first effects (gingival and hair problems) of absence of ascorbic acid in humans come from the resulting defect in hydroxylation of proline residues of collagen, with reduced stability of the collagen molecule, causing scurvy. (wikipedia.org)
  • As long as there is a specific primer for a protease, protease inhibitor, or interacting molecule, qRT-PCR can serve as a highly sensitive method to detect minuscule amounts of mRNA copy numbers per cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • Currently, four desmoglein subfamily members have been identified and all are members of the cadherin cell adhesion molecule superfamily. (wikipedia.org)
  • SILAC
  • Pulsed SILAC (pSILAC) is a variation of the SILAC method where the labelled amino acids are added to the growth medium for only a short period of time. (wikipedia.org)
  • gene
  • With a single gene, scientists reprogram supporting cells in the spines of living mice into new neurons. (the-scientist.com)
  • Combining gene editing and stem-cell induction improves efficiency of functional genetic analyses. (the-scientist.com)
  • Halofuginone is also an inhibitor of collagen type I gene expression and as a consequence it may inhibit tumor cell growth. (wikipedia.org)
  • tissue
  • The scope of these degradomes can range from cell, tissue, and organism-wide scales. (wikipedia.org)
  • The degradome was broken down into two concepts, the first referring the entire profile of proteases expressed under by a cell, tissue, or organism under defined circumstances. (wikipedia.org)
  • The second definition applies specifically to the full substrate repertoire of a certain protease in a cell, tissue, or organism. (wikipedia.org)
  • contrast
  • In contrast, the second population is fed with growth medium containing amino acids labeled with stable (non-radioactive) heavy isotopes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Expression
  • In cultured human fibroblasts incubated under hypertonic conditions, the specific silencing of SNAT2 expression, obtained with anti-SNAT2 siRNAs, prevents the increase in system A transport activity, hinders the expansion of intracellular amino acid pool, and significantly delays cell volume recovery. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Cells that express only GAD67 may require higher levels of VIAAT expression. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • This type of MRE selection provides the dual benefits of binding to cell surface molecules and taking advantage of the differences in surface expression between cells. (hindawi.com)
  • A number of experiments using different human embryonic stem cell lines, oocytes, as well as erythroblasts found C12orf66 expression was increased in these cells earlier in development and expression decreased as these cells became more differentiated. (wikipedia.org)
  • distinct
  • Researchers show that cancer stem cells can exist in two distinct and interconvertible states. (the-scientist.com)
  • Chemically distinct from the 20 naturally occurring amino acids in the body, these unnatural amino acids can be engineered for various desirable properties, such as the ability to fluoresce. (photonics.com)
  • blood cells
  • Originally performed by the Gold laboratory, SELEX has been used to identify nucleic acid MREs that bind to the surface of red blood cells [ 11 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • secretory
  • GAD65 is primarily membrane-associated and targeted to the cytoplasmic surface of the synaptic-like microvesicle (SLMV), a secretory organelle found in endocrine cells that is the counterpart of the neuronal synaptic vesicle ( 7 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • certain
  • Desmoglein-2 is an integral component of desmosomes, which are cell-cell junctions between epithelial, myocardial, and certain other cell types. (wikipedia.org)
  • Disease
  • Rodent models of Huntington's disease show dysfunctional cysteine production, and adding the amino acid to their diets seems to relieve symptoms. (the-scientist.com)
  • stem-cell
  • Small trials using younger donors and elderly recipients hint that mesenchymal stem cell transfers might reduce frailty. (the-scientist.com)
  • LA JOLLA, Calif. - Before stem-cell-based regenerative medicine can advance, scientists must understand how stem cells work and what kinds of cells they produce. (photonics.com)
  • walls
  • The most notable ones are 2,3-cis-, 3,4-trans-, and 3,4-dihydroxyproline, which occurs in diatom cell walls and are postulated to have a role in silica deposition. (wikipedia.org)
  • The cells are cocci, 0.6-1.5 micrometres long with sulfated polysaccharide walls. (wikipedia.org)
  • genome
  • Single-cell genome analyses reveal the amount of mutations a human brain cell will collect from its fetal beginnings until death. (the-scientist.com)
  • From single-cell analysis to whole-genome sequencing, this year's best new products shine on many levels. (the-scientist.com)