• Proteins are polymers of multiple monomer units called amino acid, which have many different functional groups. (wikibooks.org)
  • More than 500 amino acids exist in nature, but the proteins in all species, from bacteria to humans, consist mainly of only 20 called the essential amino acids. (wikibooks.org)
  • 2-amino acids, also known as alpha-amino acids, are a specific type of amino acid that makes up proteins. (wikibooks.org)
  • Amino acids play central roles both as building blocks of proteins and as intermediates in metabolism. (wikibooks.org)
  • Proteins are linear polymers formed by linking the a-carboxyl group of one amino acid to the a-amino group of another amino acid. (wikibooks.org)
  • Thus, the 20 amino acids that are found within proteins convey a vast array of chemical versatility. (wikibooks.org)
  • The chemical properties of the amino acids of proteins determine the biological activity of the protein. (wikibooks.org)
  • In addition, proteins contain within their amino acid sequences the necessary information to determine how that protein will fold into a three dimensional structure, and the stability of the resulting structure. (wikibooks.org)
  • There are twenty major amino acids which make up proteins. (wikibooks.org)
  • Current subject areas covered are Amino Acids, Peptides and Proteins. (google.com)
  • Give an example of amino acids that could give rise to the interactions pictured in Fig. 21-24 that maintain the tertiary structures of proteins. (bartleby.com)
  • Amino acids bind together to form large chain molecules of high molecular masses known as proteins. (bartleby.com)
  • amino acids (proteins) and cofactors (enzymes and vitamins). (le.ac.uk)
  • Amino acids are those L-amino acids commonly found in naturally occurring proteins and are listed in WIPO Standard ST.25 (1998), Appendix 2, Table 3. (uspto.gov)
  • For example, amino acids that make up proteins are left-handed, and sugars found in cells are typically right-handed. (answersingenesis.org)
  • Naturally occurring amino acids that are incorporated into proteins are, for the most part, the levorotary (L) isomer. (fsu.edu)
  • Amino acids are the principal building blocks of proteins and enzymes. (fsu.edu)
  • Alanine - The second simplest amino acid, but used the most in proteins. (fsu.edu)
  • Glutamic Acid - Negatively charged amino acid found on the surface of proteins. (fsu.edu)
  • Hydroxyproline - Important amino acid used in structural proteins like collagen. (fsu.edu)
  • Phenylalanine - Most common aromatic amino acid found in proteins. (fsu.edu)
  • Tryptophan - Aromatic amino acid used the least frequently in proteins. (fsu.edu)
  • Valine - Hydrophobic aliphatic amino acid used to hold proteins together. (fsu.edu)
  • advances in both DNA manufacturing and protein design that have led to a fortunate convergence between the upper limit of the size of oligonucleotides (230 bp) that can be synthesized as pools of 10,000 or larger, and the lower limit of the size of genetically encodable computationally designed proteins (roughly 40 amino acids). (sciencemag.org)
  • Antimalarial drugs inhibit the synthesis of DNA, ribonucleic acid (RNA), and proteins by interacting with nucleic acids. (medscape.com)
  • Moreover, a number of synthetic approaches have been developed for the synthesis of various pharmacologically interesting cyclic β-amino acid derivatives as monomers with multiple stereogenic centers. (deepdyve.com)
  • Catalytic intramolecular hydroamination of dithioketene acetals was developed for the synthesis of cyclic amino acid derivatives. (wustl.edu)
  • Triggered by the addition of a catalytical amount of n -BuLi, the reaction proceeds to give proline and pipecolic acid derivatives in excellent yields and diastereoselectivity. (wustl.edu)
  • The present invention relates to the stereoselective preparation of cyclic L-amino acids or salts and derivatives thereof. (allindianpatents.com)
  • These are amide derivatives of alpha amino acids. (hmdb.ca)
  • Several anti-influenza drugs such as oseltamivir and zanamivir are derivatives of sialic acid, which inhibits neuraminidase. (hindawi.com)
  • The aim of the studies reported in this investigation was to examine (from both a theoretical and experimental perspective) the effect of the change in structure and conformation of the diketopiperazine (DKP) ring and the cis amide geometry of the peptide bond, in relation to the vibrational spectra of a series of cyclic di-amino acid peptides (CDAPs). (gre.ac.uk)
  • Proline is a non-polar proteinogenic amino acid that forms a tertiary amide when incorporated into peptides. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • 2,5-Diketopiperazine, also known as piperazine-2,5-dione and as the cyclodipeptide cyclo(Gly-Gly), is an organic compound and the smallest cyclic dipeptide that consists of a six-membered ring containing two amide linkages where the two nitrogen atoms and the two carbonyls are at opposite positions in the ring. (wikipedia.org)
  • Asparagine - Amide derivative of aspartic acid. (fsu.edu)
  • In the second reaction, the thioester bond is cleaved, and an amide bond is formed between the bile acid and the amino acids glycine or taurine. (hmdb.ca)
  • Amide bonds can be formed at the purine C(8) position (via an intermediate carboxylic acid) toward use of the molecules as heterocyclic amino acids. (ufl.edu)
  • The investigated cyclic peptides contain an arrangement of an amino acid sequence which is no longer symmetric compared to the former investigations of the cyclo [ L -Tyr(Me)- D -Pro] 2 peptide. (rsc.org)
  • For drug design, to improve proteolytic stability, it is desirable to include unnatural building blocks, such as conformationally restricted β-amino acid moieties, into the peptide sequence. (deepdyve.com)
  • p>This subsection describes interesting single amino acid sites on the sequence that are not defined in any other subsection. (uniprot.org)
  • The precise amino acid content, and the sequence of those amino acids, of a specific protein, is determined by the sequence of the bases in the gene that encodes that protein. (wikibooks.org)
  • Antibody responses targeted the mid-region of the V2 loop that contains conserved epitopes and has the amino acid sequence KQKVHALFYKLDIVPI (HXB2 Numbering sequence 169-184). (nih.gov)
  • (A) Amino acid sequence of the cyclic (Cyc) V2 loop of the HIV-1 CRF01_AE 92TH023 strain. (nih.gov)
  • To develop a subunit RVB vaccine with maximal effect, we characterized the amino acid sequence variability and predicted antigenicity of RVB viral protein 7 (VP7), a major neutralizing antibody target, from clinically infected pigs in the United States and Canada. (mdpi.com)
  • 37 CFR 1.821 Nucleotide and/or amino acid sequence disclosures in patent applications. (uspto.gov)
  • a) Nucleotide and/or amino acid sequences as used in §§ 1.821 through 1.825 are interpreted to mean an unbranched sequence of four or more amino acids or an unbranched sequence of ten or more nucleotides. (uspto.gov)
  • Specifically defined" means those amino acids other than "Xaa" and those nucleotide bases other than "n" defined in accordance with the World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO) Handbook on Industrial Property Information and Documentation, Standard ST.25: Standard for the Presentation of Nucleotide and Amino Acid Sequence Listings in Patent Applications (1998), including Tables 1 through 6 in Appendix 2, herein incorporated by reference. (uspto.gov)
  • e.g. , hydroxylations or glycosylations, being described as set forth in WIPO Standard ST.25 (1998), Appendix 2, Table 4, but these modifications shall not be shown explicitly in the amino acid sequence. (uspto.gov)
  • The amino acid backbone determines the primary sequence of a protein, but the nature of the side chains determines the protein's properties. (fsu.edu)
  • 1. An isolated nucleic acid comprising a nucleotide sequence encoding a S. epidermis polypeptide selected from the group consisting of SEQ ID NO: 2992, SEQ ID NO: 3209, SEQ ID NO: 4536, SEQ ID NO: 4728, SEQ ID NO: 4737, SEQ ID NO: 5089, SEQ ID NO: 5172, SEQ ID NO: 5318, and SEQ ID NO: 5510. (patents.com)
  • 5. An isolated nucleic acid comprising a nucleotide sequence encoding a S. epidermis polypeptide or fragment thereof, said nucleic acid selected from the group consisting of SEQ ID NO: 155, SEQ ID NO: 372, SEQ ID NO: 1699, SEQ ID NO: 1891, SEQ ID NO: 1900, SEQ ID NO: 2252, SEQ ID NO: 2335, SEQ ID NO: 2481, and SEQ ID NO: 2673. (patents.com)
  • Sequence of bases in a DNA molecule which codes for the sequence of amino acids in a protein. (abpischools.org.uk)
  • Herein we report the design and synthesis of cyclic dominant negative competence-stimulating peptide (dnCSP) analogs capable of intercepting the competence regulon in both S. pneumoniae specificity groups with activities at the low nanomolar range. (pnas.org)
  • A cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase subfamily that is highly specific for CYCLIC GMP. (harvard.edu)
  • Novel Mechanism for Cyclic Dinucleotide Degradation Revealed by Structural Studies of Vibrio Phosphodiesterase V-cGAP3. (harvard.edu)
  • Obernolte R, Bhakta S, Alvarez R, Bach C, Zuppan P, Mulkins M, Jarnagin K, Shelton ER: The cDNA of a human lymphocyte cyclic-AMP phosphodiesterase (PDE IV) reveals a multigene family. (drugbank.ca)
  • 2',3'-Cyclic-nucleotide 3'-phosphodiesterase also known as CNPase is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the CNP gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • Inhibition of adenosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate phosphodiesterase by flavonoids. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Herbs to curb cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase and their potential role in Alzheimer's disease. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Plays a role in signal transduction by regulating the intracellular concentration of cyclic nucleotides. (uniprot.org)
  • It is named for its ability to catalyze the phosphodiester hydrolysis of 2',3'-cyclic nucleotides to 2'-nucleotides, though a cohesive understanding of its specific physiologic functions are still ambiguous. (wikipedia.org)
  • Sequences with fewer than four specifically defined nucleotides or amino acids are specifically excluded from this section. (uspto.gov)
  • CPPs typically have an amino acid composition that either contains a high relative abundance of positively charged amino acids such as lysine or arginine or has sequences that contain an alternating pattern of polar /charged amino acids and non-polar , hydrophobic amino acids. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cell-penetrating peptides are of different sizes, amino acid sequences, and charges but all CPPs have one distinct characteristic, which is the ability to translocate the plasma membrane and facilitate the delivery of various molecular cargoes to the cytoplasm or an organelle. (wikipedia.org)
  • Graphic representation of the cyclic V2 loop and alignment of V2 loop amino acid sequences. (nih.gov)
  • (B) Alignment of V2 loop amino acid sequences. (nih.gov)
  • Sequences that vary from 92TH023 are boxed and the first (157) and last (196) amino acids of the V2 are shown on top of the alignment. (nih.gov)
  • Those amino acid sequences containing D-amino acids are not intended to be embraced by this definition. (uspto.gov)
  • b) Patent applications which contain disclosures of nucleotide and/or amino acid sequences, in accordance with the definition in paragraph (a) of this section, shall, with regard to the manner in which the nucleotide and/or amino acid sequences are presented and described, conform exclusively to the requirements of §§ 1.821 through 1.825 . (uspto.gov)
  • c) Patent applications which contain disclosures of nucleotide and/or amino acid sequences must contain, as a separate part of the disclosure, a paper copy disclosing the nucleotide and/or amino acid sequences and associated information using the symbols and format in accordance with the requirements of §§ 1.822 and 1.823 . (uspto.gov)
  • We seek cyclic azobenzene-peptide sequences that assemble when the azobenzene linker is in the trans configuration and disassemble when azobenzene linker is in the cis configuration. (aiche.org)
  • The large potential parameter space for amino acid sequences makes experimental screening cumbersome. (aiche.org)
  • We computationally screened cyclic azobenzene-peptide sequences by computing dimer binding free energies for azobenzene-peptide sequences using well-tempered metadynamics [4]. (aiche.org)
  • Given the medicinal and biological significance of the hydroxylated β-amino acids, an increasing volume of research is currently being directed toward regio-, stereo- and enantioselective access to this class of compounds. (ingentaconnect.com)
  • Subcategories of these compounds are cyclic Cα-tetrasubstituted α-amino acids, in which both α-substituents are covalently connected. (uni-regensburg.de)
  • This review covers new trends towards the selective synthesis of organoboron compounds where boron reagents and cyclic substrates participate in the generation of carbanions, in the presence of stoichiometric amounts of main-group metals or catalytic amounts of transition metal complexes, via ring opening coupling transformations. (rsc.org)
  • The patents describe various processes for the preparation of this and similar compounds of general formula ##STR2## wherein R 1 is a hydrogen atom or a lower alkyl radical and n is 4, 5, or 6 and the pharmaceutically acceptable salts thereof, which depend upon known methods used for the preparation of primary amines or amino acids. (google.com)
  • Trifluoroacetylation of the 3 position hydroxyl groups after pentylation of the 2,6 hydroxyl groups creates a phase with high selectivity for oxygen containing analytes in the form of alcohols, ketones, acids, aldehydes, lactones, and halogenated compounds. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Only the element carbon is capable of bonding with itself to form stable, long chains, as well as branched and cyclic compounds, permitting the construction of myriad structures with different chemical and physical properties suitable for life. (answersingenesis.org)
  • The hereditary molecules of life, the nucleic acids DNA and RNA, are composed of carbon compounds. (answersingenesis.org)
  • Structure-activity relationships for 60 cyclic analogs were evaluated by competitive radioligand binding with C5a (affinity) and myeloperoxidase release (antagonist potency) from human PMNLs, with 20 compounds having high antagonist potencies (IC 50 , 20 nM-1 μM). (aspetjournals.org)
  • Belongs to the class of organic compounds known as l-alpha-amino acids. (hmdb.ca)
  • Cinnavalininate, also known as cinnabarinic acid or cinnabarinate, is a member of the class of compounds known as phenoxazines. (hmdb.ca)
  • The split/combine method was demonstrated to work well to form mixtures of compounds based on 3-amino-5-hydroxybenzoic acid as a core structure. (springer.com)
  • A cyclic hexapeptide comprising alternating alpha-aminoxy and alpha-amino acids is a selective chloride ion receptor. (nih.gov)
  • These are alpha amino acids which have the L-configuration of the alpha-carbon atom. (hmdb.ca)
  • In nonpolar solvents, the cyclic hexapeptide 2, which comprises alternating D-alpha-amino and D-alpha-aminoxy acids, adopts a C3-symmetric conformation with alternating eight (N--O turns)- and seven (gamma turns)-membered-ring hydrogen bonds. (nih.gov)
  • We discuss synthetic routes to the cyclic Cα-tetrasubstituted α-amino acids and their use as conformation determining elements in peptides. (uni-regensburg.de)
  • In our previous work we have shown that, despite the decreased hydrogen-bonding potential of the peptoid backbone, linear and cyclic α,β-peptoids can adopt more than one ordered conformation 6 and these can be perturbed by different solvent environments and temperatures. (diamond.ac.uk)
  • Structural analysis of lead analogs provided important insights as to the molecular mechanism that drives CSP receptor binding and revealed that the pan-group cyclic CSPs exhibit a chimeric hydrophobic patch conformation that resembles the hydrophobic patches required for both ComD1 and ComD2 binding. (pnas.org)
  • We have hypothesized that a turn conformation is important for activity of the C terminus of C5a and herein report small cyclic peptides that are stable turn mimics with potent antagonism at C5aR on human PMNLs. (aspetjournals.org)
  • A series of cyclic enediyne-containing amino acids with ring sizes varying from 10 to 12 atoms have been prepared starting from propargylglycine and homopropargylglycine. (nih.gov)
  • The single administration of narcotic analgesics, gamma (γ)-aminobutyric acid (GABA) analogs such as gabapentin, pregabalin and baclofen, antidepressants and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) have been shown to display pain alleviating properties in the clinic and in various animal models. (google.nl)
  • These fatty acids are less likely to be stored as body fat and instead are readily usable as an energy substrate. (muscleandfitness.com)
  • The diet trains the bodies metabolism to run off of fatty acids or ketone bodies. (naturalnews.com)
  • Specifically, fatty acids are broken down into ketone bodies. (naturalnews.com)
  • The cell membrane is the double outer layer of fatty acids. (naturalnews.com)
  • This structure is made up of a blend of saturated, monounsaturated and highly unsaturated fatty acids (HUFAs). (naturalnews.com)
  • Carnitine - Unusual amino acid that carries fatty acids into mitochondria. (fsu.edu)
  • Many methods have been developed to prepare chiral cyclic β-amino acids in high optical purity. (eurekaselect.com)
  • However, these processes do not provide a satisfactory solution for the synthesis of chiral cyclic amino acids on an industrial scale. (allindianpatents.com)
  • Cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) is one of the most important signaling molecules in virtually all cell types and organisms. (sciencemag.org)
  • Amino acids are molecules which contain both a carboxylic acid and an amine group. (wikibooks.org)
  • Amino acids which are acidic and basic in nature interact through charge-charge interactions and ionic bonds as they are charged molecules and those contain functional groups also interact through hydrogen bonding as they are polarized. (bartleby.com)
  • Aldehydes, carboxylic acids and epoxides separate better on the gamma while alcohols, alcohol amines and other linear molecules separate better on the beta derivative. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Furthermore, the manufacturing technique developed by Associate Professor of Chemistry Danith Ly could further the study of cyclic peptides by making the molecules easier and less expensive to produce. (healthcanal.com)
  • Various S2 mutations had effects on the kinetics of desensitization and recovery from desensitization, but no single amino acid substitution was found to block desensitization, as in the L/Y mutant AMPA receptors, or to prevent desensitization to KA. (jneurosci.org)
  • REFLECT AND APPLY Assume that you are getting ready to do an amino acid sequencing experiment on a protein cont. (bartleby.com)
  • Dr Redman's research interests are in the areas of amino acid, protein and peptide chemistry, nucleic acids and mass spectrometry. (cardiff.ac.uk)
  • Research Fellow, Scripps Research Institute (2000-2, M. R. Ghadiri, protein design and mass spectrometry of cyclic peptides). (cardiff.ac.uk)
  • The 2,5-diketopiperazines (2,5-DKPs) are the smallest possible cyclic peptides, which are peptidomimetic in nature and bear resemblance with a constrained protein beta turn. (wikipedia.org)
  • ELANE gene mutations that cause cyclic neutropenia change single protein building blocks (amino acids) in neutrophil elastase. (medlineplus.gov)
  • We show here that K-Ras is a substrate for cyclic GMP-dependent protein kinases (PKGs). (asm.org)
  • Protein-nucleic acid interaction is an important process in many biological phenomena. (springer.com)
  • In this study, a fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET)-based protein-DNA binding assay has been developed, in which a fluorescent amino acid is genetically incorporated into a DNA-binding protein. (springer.com)
  • A coumarin-containing amino acid was incorporated into a DNA-binding protein, and the mutant protein specifically produced a FRET signal upon binding to its cognate DNA labeled with a fluorophore. (springer.com)
  • This method is advantageous for studying protein-nucleic acid interactions, because it is performed under equilibrium conditions, technically easy, and applicable to any nucleic acid-binding protein. (springer.com)
  • The binding specificity of cyclic AMP receptor protein to recognition sites. (springer.com)
  • De Crombrugghe B, Busby S, Buc H (1984) Cyclic AMP receptor protein: role in transcription activation. (springer.com)
  • Hellman LM, Fried MG (2007) Electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA) for detecting protein-nucleic acid interactions. (springer.com)
  • Lee HS, Dimla RD, Schultz PG (2009b) Protein-DNA photo-crosslinking with a genetically encoded benzophenone-containing amino acid. (springer.com)
  • During and after the final assembly of a protein, the amino acid content dictates the spatial and biochemical properties of the protein or enzyme. (fsu.edu)
  • On the other hand, non-polar amino acids tend to reside within the center of the protein where they can interact with similar non-polar neighbors. (fsu.edu)
  • Cysteine - Thiol containing amino acid involved in active sites and protein tertiary structure determination. (fsu.edu)
  • Isoleucine - Hydrophobic amino acid used almost exclusively in protein and enzyme construction. (fsu.edu)
  • Methionine - An essential amino acid that helps initiate protein synthesis. (fsu.edu)
  • The amino acids present and the order in which they occur vary from one protein to another. (abpischools.org.uk)
  • Tor and cyclic AMP-protein kinase A: two parallel pathways regulating expression of genes required for cell growth. (semanticscholar.org)
  • article{ZuritaMartinez2005TorAC, title={Tor and cyclic AMP-protein kinase A: two parallel pathways regulating expression of genes required for cell growth. (semanticscholar.org)
  • In the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the Tor and cyclic AMP-protein kinase A (cAMP-PKA) signaling cascades respond to nutrients and regulate coordinately the expression of genes required for cell growth, including ribosomal protein (RP) and stress-responsive (STRE) genes. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Amino Acids, Cyclic" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicine's controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical Subject Headings) . (sickkids.ca)
  • Cyclic Nucleotide-Gated Cation Channels" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicine's controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical Subject Headings) . (harvard.edu)
  • An amino acid is in a zwitterionic state when the carboxylic acid group is deprotonated and the amino group is protonated, simultaneously. (wikibooks.org)
  • These organic acids exist naturally in a zwitterion state where the carboxylic acid moiety is ionized and the basic amino group is protonated. (fsu.edu)
  • Examples of the syntheses end in an isocyanate or urethane that can be converted into the desired (1-aminomethyl)-1-cyclohexaneacetic acid by acidic hydrolysis to give an acid or basic hydrolysis to give a basic salt or followed by acidification to give an acid salt. (google.com)
  • A class of amino acids characterized by a closed ring structure. (sickkids.ca)
  • The entire class of amino acids has a common backbone of an organic carboxylic acid group and an amino group attached to a saturated carbon atom. (fsu.edu)
  • or pipA (WO-A-96/01901) could be involved in the synthesis route of Rapamycin via transformation of lysine into pipecolic acid. (allindianpatents.com)
  • To date, however, even if it has sometimes been suggested obiter dictum, no activity of cyclodeamination of L-lysine into L-pipecolic acid has been demonstrated, exemplified or quantified. (allindianpatents.com)
  • This lack of knowledge of the reaction actually catalysed by these genes is demonstrated by the diversity of hypotheses concerning the biological route leading to pipecolic acid by certain of these authors who also relate in these publications that the conversion of lysine into pipecolic acid could be effected via D-lysine (Khaw et al. (allindianpatents.com)
  • The examples of amino acids that have ionic interactions are lysine and aspartic acid. (bartleby.com)
  • Lysine - An essential amino acid with a positive charge on the aliphatic side chain. (fsu.edu)
  • Glycine - Simplest amino acid that also acts as a neurotransmitter antagonist. (fsu.edu)
  • In humans, bile acids conjugated with glycine and taurine are the major solutes in bile, and unconjugated bile acids are almost nondetectable in normal bile. (hmdb.ca)
  • The intracellular second messenger cyclic AMP was also released into the perfusate, and its content was enhanced by local application of various biogenic amines. (muscimol.xyz)
  • A reduced activity of LAT1 remains the primary hypothesis possibly due to a modification of intracellular amino acid content which may reduce F-FDOPA uptake. (bireme.br)
  • Histidine - Amino acid responsible for histamine biosynthesis. (fsu.edu)
  • Taurine - Mercaptan-containing amino acid that is involved in bile acid biochemistry. (fsu.edu)
  • In order to optimize their binding abilities, investigations of their intrinsic structural properties especially with regard to the influence of different amino acid residues are fundamental. (rsc.org)
  • These peptides may be composed of any mixture of L- or D-amino acid residues, achiral amino acid residues, peptoid residues, or L- or D-oligourea residues. (rosettacommons.org)
  • A third class of CPPs are the hydrophobic peptides, containing only apolar residues, with low net charge or have hydrophobic amino acid groups that are crucial for cellular uptake. (wikipedia.org)
  • The glutamate receptor (GluR) agonist-binding site consists of amino acid residues in the extracellular S1 and S2 segments in the N-terminal and M3-M4 loop regions, respectively. (jneurosci.org)
  • We are preparing amino acids with mono- and bicyclic guanidine side chains as constrained analogues of arginine that are predicted to form hydrogen bonded interactions with nucleobases. (cardiff.ac.uk)
  • Likewise, enzymes can also have polar amino acid substituents within the active site that provide a polar region in which to conduct biochemical synthesis. (fsu.edu)
  • In solid state, the amine functionality deprotonates the carboxylic acid group, giving rise to the zwitterionic, dipolar entity. (wikibooks.org)
  • For example, gabapentin can be prepared by converting 1,1-cyclohexanediacetic acid, via a reactive acid derivative, into the azide which is subsequently subjected by thermal decomposition to a Curtius reaction. (google.com)
  • 2. The compound of claim 1 , wherein the first moiety is a baclofen, vigabatrin, gabapentin, or pregabalin, or a γ-amino-phosphinic acid derivative. (google.nl)
  • The ring closure proceeds by replacement of the hydroxy by the amino group and is kinetically controlled. (uni-greifswald.de)
  • The benzoic acid of the core structure served as the attachment point for the resin and the amino and hydroxy positions were variably substituted. (springer.com)
  • Chemically, cyclosporine is designated as [R-[R*,R*-(E)]]-cyclic(L-alanyl-D-alanyl-N-methyl-L-leucyl-N-methyl-L-leucyl-N-methyl-L-valyl-3-hydroxy-N,4-dimethyl-L-2-amino-6-octenoyl-L-α-amino-butyryl-Nmethylglycyl-N-methyl-L-leucyl-L-valyl-N-methyl-L-leucyl). (medscape.com)
  • Prompted by significant changes in the expression of genes involved in Ca 2+ and cyclic AMP (cAMP) signaling pathways in CAD-resistant MCF7 breast cancer cells, we identified here an early lysosomal Ca 2+ release through P2X purinergic receptor 4 (P2RX4) and subsequent Ca 2+ - and adenylyl cyclase 1 (ADCY1)-dependent synthesis of cAMP as a signaling route mediating CAD-induced lysosomal membrane permeabilization and cell death. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Potent Cyclic Antagonists of the Complement C5a Receptor on Human Polymorphonuclear Leukocytes. (aspetjournals.org)
  • A comparison of solution structures for the C terminus of C5a, small acyclic peptide ligands, and cyclic antagonists supports the importance of a turn for receptor binding. (aspetjournals.org)
  • CAD-induced inhibition of lysosomal acid sphingomyelinase is necessary, but not sufficient, for the subsequent lysosomal membrane permeabilization and cell death, while other pathways regulating this cell death pathway are largely unknown. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Efficacy of system l amino acid transporter 1 inhibition as a therapeutic target in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma. (bireme.br)
  • The reactions proceed via primary attack of the P-lone electron pair, as shown by the synthesis of phosphonium glycolates from tertiary phosphines and glyoxylic acid, and addition of PH at the carbonyl group. (uni-greifswald.de)
  • Synthetic cyclic peptides are used as artificial receptors due to a series of advantages over conventional receptors. (rsc.org)
  • Previous studies have shown that excitatory amino acids (EAAs) and their receptors may play important roles in the mammalian enteric system. (elsevier.com)
  • Amino acids can be broadly hydrophobic and hydrophilic , depending on the chemical properties of the R group side chain. (wikibooks.org)
  • On the other hand, hydrophilic amino acids tend to interact in the aqueous environment due to polarity. (wikibooks.org)
  • While the D- and L-substitutions of Leu, Phe, and Tyr all resulted in strong hemolytic activity, the substitutions of hydrophilic D-amino acids D-Lys and D-Asn in GS14 at position 4 resulted in weaker hemolytic activity than in the L-diastereomers, which demonstrated strong hemolysis. (sahmriresearch.org)
  • Cyclic peptides have been widely studied for applications such as targeted therapeutics [1] and biologically compatible nanostructures [2]. (aiche.org)
  • Iodinated and brominated tyrosine are also amino acids found in species, but are not included in the 20 major amino acids because of their rarity: iodinated tyrosin is only found in thyroid hormones, and brominated tyrosine is only found in coral. (wikibooks.org)
  • Tyrosine - Hydroxyphenyl amino acid that is used to build neurotransmitters and hormones. (fsu.edu)
  • Cyclic peptides represent a large class of substances that occur in nature with important biological and medical functions. (rsc.org)
  • Relative to the tissue content, the egress of the dopamine metabolites and of the non-transmitter (metabolic) amino acids was higher than that of the transmitter substances. (muscimol.xyz)
  • Thus, there are some analysis methods of selected DKPs available, but to the best of our knowledge there is no publication of a comprehensive study for separation of DKPs and their corresponding linear dipeptides and amino acids and method validation. (hindawi.com)
  • These cyclic dipeptides incorporate both donor and acceptor groups for hydrogen bonding and are small, conformationally constrained heterocyclic scaffolds in which diversity can be introduced at up to six positions and stereochemistry controlled at up to four positions, and they are stable to proteolysis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Differentiation of diastereomeric cyclic beta-amino acids by varying the neutral reagent in ion/molecule reactions studied by electrospray ionization Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Stereochemical differentiation of diasteromeric pairs of cis- and trans-2-aminocyclohexane-, -2-amino-4-cyclohexene-, and -2-aminocyclopentanecarboxylic acids was investigated with host-guest complexes where tetraethyl resorcarene was the host molecule. (biomedsearch.com)
  • n-Propylamine and i-propylamine proved to be the best neutral reagents, providing clear diastereoselectivity for beta-amino acids in ion/molecule reactions. (biomedsearch.com)
  • The formation of a dipeptide from two amino acids is accompanied by the loss of a water molecule. (wikibooks.org)
  • This review is intended to give a short summary of the developments in the field of natural and synthetic alicyclic and heterocyclic hydroxylated β-amino acids and to focus on the main strategies that have been reported for their synthesis. (ingentaconnect.com)
  • Here we report the structural analysis of two synthetic cyclic tetrapeptides cyclo [ L -Tyr(Me)- D -Pro- L -Ala- D -Pro] ( CP Ala ) and cyclo [ L -Tyr(Me)- D -Pro- L -Glu(Me)- D -Pro] ( CP Glu ) in a molecular beam by means of combined IR/UV spectroscopic techniques. (rsc.org)
  • PITTSBURGH-Carnegie Mellon University chemists have created a synthetic form of a cyclic peptide known for its remarkable ability to combat a wide variety of pathogens, including HIV and SARS. (healthcanal.com)
  • Ly and colleagues created a mimic of RTD-1 using the building blocks of natural and synthetic nucleic acids called peptide nucleic acids. (healthcanal.com)
  • Peptides can also be constrained by backbone cyclisation and we are investigating the use of computer aided interpretation of collision induced dissociation mass spectra of cyclic peptides as a tool for characterisation of this class of compound. (cardiff.ac.uk)
  • Computer modeling comparisons reveal that potent antagonists share a common cyclic backbone shape, with affinity-determining side chains of defined volume projecting from the cyclic scaffold. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Gramicidin S (GS) is a 10-residue cyclic β-sheet peptide with lytic activity against the membranes of both microbial and human cells, i.e. it possesses little to no biologic specificity for either cell type. (sahmriresearch.org)
  • Structure-activity studies of de novo-designed 14-residue cyclic peptides based on GS have previously shown that higher specificity against microbial membranes, i.e. a high therapeutic index (TI), can be achieved by the replacement of a single L-amino acid with its corresponding D-enantiomer [Kondejewski, L.H. et al. (sahmriresearch.org)
  • The diastereomer with a D-Lys substituted at position 4 caused the greatest improvement in specificity vs. other L to D substitutions within the cyclic 14-residue peptide GS14, through a combination of decreased peptide amphipathicity and disrupted β-sheet structure in aqueous conditions [McInnes, C. et al. (sahmriresearch.org)
  • Enantiomerically pure and conformationally constrained cyclic β-amino acids have been the subject of a vast amount of research across the chemical, biological, and medicinal disciplines. (eurekaselect.com)
  • Jason A. Miller and SonBinh T. Nguyen, " The Enantioselective Synthesis of Conformationally Constrained Cyclic β- Amino Acids", Mini-Reviews in Organic Chemistry (2005) 2: 39. (eurekaselect.com)
  • A selective inhibitor of LAT, 2-aminobicyclo-(2,2,1)-heptane-2-carboxylic acid (BCH), suppressed cellular uptake of l- C-leucine and cell proliferation in a dose-dependent manner. (bireme.br)
  • Cyclic AMP response element modulator is a basic leucine zipper transcription factor that is regulated by CYCLIC AMP. (curehunter.com)
  • The instant invention concerns a novel process for the preparation of 1-aminomethyl-1-cyclohexaneacetic acid (gabapentin), a known compound useful for treating certain cerebral diseases such as epilepsy and dizziness. (google.com)
  • Gabapentin is a generic term used to identify the chemical compound (1-aminomethyl)-1-cyclohexaneacetic acid ##STR1## It is useful in therapy of certain cerebral disorders such as certain forms of epilepsy, faintness attacks, hypokinesia, and cranial traumas. (google.com)
  • The key component is the complexing agent, which comprises a C3 -C5 aliphatic alcohol a cyclic, bidentate compound. (google.es)
  • The key component is the complexing agent, which comprises a C 3 -C 5 aliphatic alcohol a cyclic, bidentate compound selected from lactams and lactones. (google.es)
  • 4. The catalyst of claim 1 wherein the cyclic, bidentate compound is selected from the group consisting of γ-butyrolactone, N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone, 2-pyrrolidone, 1-ethyl-2-pyrrolidone, δ-valerolactam, ε-caprolactone, ε-caprolactam, methyl-2-oxo-1-pyrrolidineacetate, and 1-(2-hydroxyethyl)-2-pyrrolidone. (google.es)
  • of the cyclic, bidentate compound. (google.es)