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  • sulfur amino
  • Additionally, decreased sulfur amino acid intake is known to cause oxidative stress. (mdpi.com)
  • Studies were designed to test whether oxidative stress in fructose-sweetened liquid-induced fatty liver is caused by decreased ad libitum solid food intake with associated inadequate sulfur amino acid intake. (mdpi.com)
  • C57BL6 mice were grouped as: control ( ad libitum water), fructose ( ad libitum 30% fructose-sweetened liquid), glucose ( ad libitum 30% glucose-sweetened water) and pair-fed ( ad libitum water and sulfur amino acid intake same as the fructose group). (mdpi.com)
  • however, inadequate sulfur amino acid intake was not the cause of this oxidative stress. (mdpi.com)
  • One-hundred twenty individually fed steer calves were used to evaluate feather meal as a source of sulfur amino acids. (unl.edu)
  • These results indicate feather meal can provide a portion of the sulfur amino acids lacking in meat and bone meal. (unl.edu)
  • Asparagine
  • In 1806, French chemists Louis-Nicolas Vauquelin and Pierre Jean Robiquet isolated a compound in asparagus that was subsequently named asparagine, the first amino acid to be discovered. (wikipedia.org)
  • The conversion of aspartate into either the storage amino acid asparagine or aspartate family amino acids may be subject to a coordinated, reciprocal metabolic control, and this biochemical branch point is a part of a larger, coordinated regulatory mechanism of nitrogen and carbon storage and utilization. (wikipedia.org)
  • Chen H, Pan YX, Dudenhausen EE, Kilberg MS. Amino acid deprivation induces the transcription rate of the human asparagine synthetase gene through a timed program of expression and promoter binding of nutrient-responsive basic region/leucine zipper transcription factors as well as localized histone acetylation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Leucine
  • Leucine may help metabolized to produce energy, as can isoleucine and valine, the other branched-chain amino acids during periods of fasting or starvation. (healthy.net)
  • Membrane transporters Transcription factors from the basic region/leucine zipper (bZIP) superfamily Growth factors Metabolic enzymes PCAF is recruited specifically to the CHOP amino acid response element (AARE) to enhance the ATF4 transcriptional activity. (wikipedia.org)
  • Leucine is an example of a typical amino acid. (wikipedia.org)
  • glutamic acid
  • For example, in the human brain, glutamate (standard glutamic acid) and gamma-amino-butyric acid ("GABA", non-standard gamma-amino acid) are, respectively, the main excitatory and inhibitory neurotransmitters. (wikipedia.org)
  • A well known example in humans is sickle cell anemia, due to a mutation in beta globin where at position 6 glutamic acid (negatively charged) is exchanged with valine (not charged). (wikipedia.org)
  • Pathways
  • Next ketoacid reductisomerase reduces the acetohydroxy acids from the previous step to yield dihydroxyacids in both the valine and isoleucine pathways. (wikipedia.org)
  • Amino acid synthesis is the set of biochemical processes (metabolic pathways) by which the various amino acids are produced from other compounds. (wikipedia.org)
  • The pathways for the synthesis of nonessential amino acids are quite simple. (wikipedia.org)
  • aspartate
  • The metabolic regulation of expression of an Arabidopsis thaliana aspartate kinase/homoserine dehydrogenase (AK/HSD) gene, which encodes two linked key enzymes in the biosynthetic pathway of aspartate family amino acids has been studied. (wikipedia.org)
  • Enzymes
  • The enzymes vary considerably in structure although they all perform the same type of reaction by binding ATP, one specific amino acid and its corresponding tRNA. (wikipedia.org)
  • individual amino
  • When making nutritional recommendations for our everyday diet, health scientists have expressed much more confidence in estimating our total protein needs than in estimating our need for individual amino acids. (whfoods.org)
  • Part of the difficulty in determining our need for individual amino acids involves the interconversion of amino acids that is constantly taking place in our body. (whfoods.org)
  • sequence
  • The manner or sequence in which these amino acids combine to form a protein determines the 3-dimensional structure and function, which is unique to the particular protein. (news-medical.net)
  • The sequence of amino acids in a protein and hence protein function are determined by the genetic code. (everything2.com)
  • aa-tRNA + AMP The amino acid is coupled to the penultimate nucleotide at the 3'-end of the tRNA (the A in the sequence CCA) via an ester bond (roll over in illustration). (wikipedia.org)
  • It also has a unique carbohydrate moiety and a unique repetitive amino acid sequence which give it a high affinity for bonding to adhering proteins resulting in a tightening, anti-wrinkle effect. (wikipedia.org)
  • Amino acid replacement is a change from one amino acid to a different amino acid due to point mutation in DNA sequence. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is caused by nonsynonymous missense mutation which alters the codon sequence to code other amino acid instead of the originals. (wikipedia.org)
  • The magnitude of this process may vary depending on how similar or dissimilar the replaced amino acids are, as well as on their position in the sequence or the structure. (wikipedia.org)
  • racemization
  • When an organism dies, control over the configuration of the amino acids ceases, and the ratio of D to L moves from a value near 0 towards an equilibrium value near 1, a process called racemization. (wikipedia.org)
  • The rate at which racemization proceeds depends on the type of amino acid and on the average temperature, humidity, acidity (pH), and other characteristics of the enclosing matrix. (wikipedia.org)
  • These are important for amino acid dating because racemization occurs much faster in warm, wet conditions compared to cold, dry conditions. (wikipedia.org)
  • Data from the geochronological analysis of amino acid racemization has been building for thirty-five years. (wikipedia.org)
  • Verification of radiocarbon and other dating techniques by amino acid racemization and vice versa has occurred. (wikipedia.org)
  • Amino acid racemization also has a role in tissue and protein degradation studies, particularly useful in developing museum preservation methods. (wikipedia.org)