• The RD114/simian type D retrovirus receptor is a neutral amino acidtransporter.Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1999 Mar 2;96(5):2129-34. (tcdb.org)
  • Zebrafish are an excellent model for studies of the functional organization of neuronal circuits, but little is known regarding the transmitter phenotypes of the neurons in their nervous system. (nih.gov)
  • We examined the distribution in spinal cord and hindbrain of neurons expressing markers of transmitter phenotype, including the vesicular glutamate transporter (VGLUT) genes for glutamatergic neurons, the neuronal glycine transporter (GLYT2) for glycinergic neurons, and glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD65/67) for GABAergic neurons. (nih.gov)
  • To investigate this, time-resolved in vivo data on Phe and competing large neutral amino acid (LNAA) concentrations in neurons are needed, but cannot be acquired readily with current methods. (frontiersin.org)
  • The BBB endothelium together with the astrocytes and neurons are the fundamental elements of the neurovascular unit (NVU) system. (frontiersin.org)
  • In the central nervous system, ApoE is mainly produced by astrocytes, and transports cholesterol to neurons via ApoE receptors, which are members of the low density lipoprotein receptor gene family. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the nervous system, non-neuronal cell types, most notably astroglia and microglia, are the primary producers of APOE, while neurons preferentially express the receptors for APOE. (wikipedia.org)
  • Quinolinic acid activity has been associated with neurodegenerative disorders such as Huntington's disease, the neuroprective abilities of kynurenic acid forming a counterbalance against this process, and the related excitotoxicity and similar damaging effects on neurons. (wikipedia.org)
  • Hill PMM, Young M. Net placental transfer of free amino acids against varying concentrations. (springer.com)
  • We hypothesized that adiponectin regulates placental amino acid transport. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • As a result, fAd inhibits insulin-stimulated amino acid transport, which may have important implications for placental nutrient transport and fetal growth in pregnancy complications associated with altered maternal adiponectin levels. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • however, the primary determinant of fetal growth is nutrient supply, which is dependent on placental nutrient transport. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Obesity in pregnancy ( 9 , 10 ) and gestational diabetes mellitus ( 11 ) are associated with low maternal circulating levels of adiponectin, but the impact of adiponectin on placental nutrient transport functions is unknown. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Before pHi started to recover, l-arginine transport (0-20 or 0-1000 μmol/L, 10 s, 37 °C) in the absence or presence of 200 μmol/L N-ethylmaleimide (NEM) (system y+/CATs inhibitor) or 2 mmol/L l-leucine (systemy+L substrate) was measured. (deepdyve.com)
  • Phenylketonuria (PKU) is an inherited metabolic disease characterized by abnormally high concentrations of the essential amino acid L-phenylalanine (Phe) in blood plasma caused by reduced activity of phenylalanine hydroxylase (PAH). (frontiersin.org)
  • However, although it is clear that lipid transport is a central process in organelle biogenesis, the mechanisms by which lipids are transported through cells remain poorly understood. (wikipedia.org)
  • Importantly, the transport of lipids through the cytosol and lipid flow through a continuous endomembrane system are not mutually exclusive processes and both may occur in cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • One of these kynurenines, aptly named kynurenic acid, serves as a neuroprotectant through its function as an antagonist at both nicotinic and glutamate receptors (responsive to the neurotransmitters nicotine and glutamate, respectively). (wikipedia.org)
  • System A function also varies inversely with the concentration of extracellular amino acids as part of adaptive regulation and up-regulates with cell proliferation and hypertonic shock, suggesting additional homeostatic roles. (pnas.org)
  • GRUNDLING A, Schneewind O. Genes required for glycolipid synthesis and lipoteichoic acid anchoring in Staphylococcus aureus. (labome.org)
  • While the HGNC nomenclature system by definition only includes human genes, the nomenclature system has been informally extended to include rodent species through the use of lowercase letters (e.g. (wikipedia.org)
  • the genes are not called according to the SLC root system. (wikipedia.org)
  • many of these genes are involved in immune system defense against microbial disease (example: granulysin is protective against Mycobacterium tuberculosis ) or are targeted receptors of pathogenic microorganisms (example: Glycophorin C and Plasmodium falciparum). (wikipedia.org)
  • This pattern suggests that one or a few strongly selected genes in the chromosome region may have been preventing the random accumulation of neutral changes in other nearby genes. (wikipedia.org)
  • These subjects have two major abnormalities: (i) severe systemic folate deficiency and (ii) a defect in the transport of folates from blood across the choroid plexus into the CSF with very low CSF folate levels even when the blood folate level is corrected or supranormal. (wikipedia.org)
  • Their function as exchangers presumably relies on the active accumulation of amino acids through other mechanisms. (pnas.org)
  • Numerous solutes move across the NVU cell membranes with various transport mechanisms. (frontiersin.org)
  • One study found that both salt and sour taste mechanisms detect, in different ways, the presence of sodium chloride (salt) in the mouth, however, acids are also detected and perceived as sour. (wikipedia.org)
  • Insulin increased AKT and insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS-1) phosphorylation, system A activity, and SNAT2 expression. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • 2 3 4 Solute transport through a transporter or a receptor is a mechanism of translocating hydrophilic compounds across lipid bilayers. (arvojournals.org)
  • APOE is transcriptionally activated by the liver X receptor (an important regulator of cholesterol, fatty acid, and glucose homeostasis) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ, nuclear receptors that form heterodimers with retinoid X receptors. (wikipedia.org)
  • In patients with niacin deficiency and symptomatic disease, daily supplementation with nicotinic acid or nicotinamide reduces both the number and severity of attacks. (wikipedia.org)
  • It was first discovered as an essential nutrient (vitamin) in humans through its link with the peripheral nervous system disease beriberi, which results from a deficiency of thiamine in the diet. (wikipedia.org)
  • Solutes that are transported by the various SLC group members are extraordinarily diverse and include both charged and uncharged organic molecules as well as inorganic ions and the gas ammonia. (wikipedia.org)
  • Infection of cells with RD114/type D retroviruses results in impaired amino acid transport, suggesting a mechanism for virus toxicity and immunosuppression. (tcdb.org)