Loading...
  • extracellular
  • System A function also varies inversely with the concentration of extracellular amino acids as part of adaptive regulation and up-regulates with cell proliferation and hypertonic shock, suggesting additional homeostatic roles. (pnas.org)
  • To obtain the necessary exogenous peptides, A. boonei has been shown to have a membrane embedded with peptidases and an arsenal of permeases which help degrade the extracellular components and subsequently transport them into the cell for utilization. (wikipedia.org)
  • membrane
  • The influence of environmental pH on membrane transporter function is discussed, with emphasis on the potential role of a transmembrane proton gradient in active, high affinity transport. (gla.ac.uk)
  • In eukaryotes the organelles of the endomembrane system include: the nuclear membrane, the endoplasmic reticulum, the Golgi apparatus, lysosomes, vesicles, endosomes and the cell membrane, among others. (wikipedia.org)
  • A vesicle is a relatively small, membrane-enclosed sac that stores or transports substances. (wikipedia.org)
  • The organelles of the endomembrane system are related through direct contact or by the transfer of membrane segments as vesicles. (wikipedia.org)
  • There is a prominent low-pH folate transport activity in the cells and/or membrane vesicles derived from these tissues which, in some cases, has been shown to be indicative of a proton-coupled folate transport process. (wikipedia.org)
  • Glycine
  • Amino acids appear in chiral (mirror image) except for glycine where the R = Hydrogen Chirality of amino acids can only be seen in 3D structure The position of amino group on the left or right side of the α-carbon determines the L or D designation. (studymode.com)
  • Fatty Acids
  • Lipids in Blood-brain Barrier Models in Vitro II: Influence of Glial Cells on Lipid Classes and Lipid Fatty Acids In Vitro Cellular & Developmental Biology. (jove.com)
  • Pubmed ID: 12762838 Lipids of brain tissue and brain microvascular endothelial cells contain high proportions of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (long PUFAs). (jove.com)
  • The idea of lipid flow through a continuous system of membranes and vesicles was an alternative to the various membranes being independent entities that are formed from transport of free lipid components, such as fatty acids and sterols, through the cytosol. (wikipedia.org)
  • cytoplasm
  • pH plays a central role in the developmental switch between promastigote and amastigote stages, and amastigotes are metabolically most active when their environment is acidic, although the cytoplasm of the amastigote is regulated at near-neutral pH by an active process of proton extrusion. (gla.ac.uk)
  • The endomembrane system is composed of the different membranes that are suspended in the cytoplasm within a eukaryotic cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • parietal cells
  • Secretin helps regulate the pH of the duodenum by (1) inhibiting the secretion of gastric acid from the parietal cells of the stomach and (2) stimulating the production of bicarbonate from the centroacinar cells and intercalated ducts of the pancreas. (wikipedia.org)
  • The enzyme hydrogen potassium ATPase (H+/K+ ATPase) is unique to the parietal cells and transports the H+ against a concentration gradient of about 3 million to 1, which is the steepest ion gradient formed in the human body. (wikipedia.org)
  • Parietal cells secrete acid in response to three types of stimuli: Histamine, stimulates H2 histamine receptors (most significant contribution). (wikipedia.org)
  • cells
  • Bixel, M.G., Hutson, S.M. and Hamprecht, B., 1997, Cellular distribution of branched-chain amino acid aminotransferase isoenzymes among rat brain glial cells in culture. (springer.com)
  • Pubmed ID: 11390805 Endothelial cells exposed to inductive central nervous system factors differentiate into a blood-brain barrier phenotype. (jove.com)
  • We show here that, in contrast to wild-type cells, stp2Δ mutants occupy an acidic phagosome and are unable to initiate hyphal differentiation. (prolekare.cz)
  • While several of these inducing factors (37°C, elevated CO 2 ) act on phagocytosed cells, an acidic phagosome should inhibit germination and it has been unclear what stimulates this morphological transition. (prolekare.cz)
  • VMAT2 favors expression in a variety of monoaminergic cells of the CNS such as the brain, sympathetic nervous system, mast cells, and cells containing histamine in the gut. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, although it is clear that lipid transport is a central process in organelle biogenesis, the mechanisms by which lipids are transported through cells remain poorly understood. (wikipedia.org)
  • The first proposal that the membranes within cells form a single system that exchanges material between its components was by Morré and Mollenhauer in 1974. (wikipedia.org)
  • Importantly, the transport of lipids through the cytosol and lipid flow through a continuous endomembrane system are not mutually exclusive processes and both may occur in cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • PCFT-mediated transport into cells is optimal at pH 5.5. (wikipedia.org)
  • Blood is a body fluid in humans and other animals that delivers necessary substances such as nutrients and oxygen to the cells and transports metabolic waste products away from those same cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Jawed vertebrates have an adaptive immune system, based largely on white blood cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • hydrogen
  • Water is a very minor source of hydrogen ions in comparison to carbonic acid. (wikipedia.org)
  • As a result of the cellular export of hydrogen ions, the gastric lumen is maintained as a highly-acidic environment. (wikipedia.org)
  • organic
  • Amino acids are group of organic compounds which contain two functional groups. (studymode.com)
  • Growth on these complex organics has revealed the production of small organic acids such as formate and acetate. (wikipedia.org)
  • A variety of organic anions inhibit PCFT-mediated transport at extremely high ratio of inhibitor to folate, the most potent are sulfobromophthalein, p-aminobenzylglutamate, and sulfathalazine. (wikipedia.org)
  • occur
  • Conditions such as these are naturally formed in the vent system by geophysical and geochemical processes that occur beneath the crust and within the benthic fluids that flood the vents. (wikipedia.org)
  • vesicles
  • It acts to transport monoamine neurotransmitters - such as dopamine, serotonin, norepinephrine, epinephrine, and histamine - into the vesicles, which release the neurotransmitters into synapses as chemical messages to postsynaptic neurons. (wikipedia.org)
  • VMAT1 is expressed mainly in large dense-core vesicles (LDCVs) of the peripheral nervous system. (wikipedia.org)
  • VMATs transport monoamines from the cytosol into high-concentration storage vesicles. (wikipedia.org)
  • Transport vesicles are released into the space between neurons, called the synaptic cleft, where they convey a chemical message to the next neuron. (wikipedia.org)
  • molecules
  • In most insects, this "blood" does not contain oxygen-carrying molecules such as hemoglobin because their bodies are small enough for their tracheal system to suffice for supplying oxygen. (wikipedia.org)
  • carboxylic
  • inhibited by d -Leu, d -Phe, and an L-system-specific inhibitor 2-aminobicyclo [2,2,heptane-2-carboxylic acid (BCH), but not inhibited by l -Ala and charged amino acids. (arvojournals.org)
  • In several reactions, including that of pyruvate dehydrogenase, alpha-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase, and transketolase, TPP catalyses the reversible decarboxylation reaction (aka cleavage of a substrate compound at a carbon-carbon bond connecting a carbonyl group to an adjacent reactive group-usually a carboxylic acid or an alcohol). (wikipedia.org)
  • neutralize
  • Nickel is essential for many enzymatic reactions, including ureolysis to produce ammonia which in turn may neutralize acidic pH. (wikipedia.org)
  • Secretin is stored in this unusable form, and is activated by gastric acid in the lower intestine to neutralize the pH and ensure no damage is done to the small intestine by the aforementioned acid. (wikipedia.org)
  • concentrations
  • Pharmacologically inactive metabolites of several NSAID had little or no effect on MeAIB transport at concentrations up to 10 times greater than active parent compounds. (aspetjournals.org)
  • resembles
  • We previously showed that C. albicans rapidly neutralizes acidic, nutrient-poor media that resembles the phagolysosome and that this is deficient in mutants impaired in amino acid import due to a mutation in STP2. (prolekare.cz)
  • nutrient
  • 17 18 19 20 A few reports about the presence of carrier-mediated nutrient transport systems on the cornea are available, but most of them are believed to be present on the corneal endothelium. (arvojournals.org)
  • It was first discovered as an essential nutrient (vitamin) in humans through its link with the peripheral nervous system disease beriberi, which results from a deficiency of thiamine in the diet. (wikipedia.org)
  • Nutrient ions are transported to the center of the root, the stele, in order for the nutrients to reach the conducting tissues, xylem and phloem. (wikipedia.org)
  • affinity
  • the second H+ efflux is coupled with a second large conformational change that leads to amine transport from the cytosolic side into the vesicle, reducing amine-binding affinity. (wikipedia.org)
  • genome
  • Genome analysis shows that the archaeon is auxotrophic for many amino acids, which is evidenced by incomplete biosynthetic pathways in its reconstructed genome. (wikipedia.org)
  • Bicarbonate
  • Bicarbonate is a base that neutralizes the acid, thus establishing a pH favorable to the action of other digestive enzymes in the small intestine. (wikipedia.org)
  • enteric nervou
  • Instead the gut integrates its diverse actions by locally produced chemicals (hormones and paracrines) as well as by the coordinated actions of the enteric nervous system, a subdivision of the autonomic nervous system. (coursera.org)
  • Acetylcholine, from parasympathetic activity via the vagus nerve and enteric nervous system, stimulating M3 receptors. (wikipedia.org)
  • immune system
  • The innate immune system represents a key barrier that fungal pathogens such as Candida albicans must overcome in order to disseminate through the host. (prolekare.cz)
  • In healthy individuals the innate immune system maintains C. albicans as a commensal and, with the exception of vaginitis, C. albicans infections are associated with defects in innate immunity. (prolekare.cz)
  • A variety of factors such as neutropenia, chemotherapy, implanted medical devices, and several genetic disorders have been linked with increased risk for disseminated candidiasis, emphasizing the important role of the immune system, including phagocytes such as macrophages and neutrophils . (prolekare.cz)
  • Phagocytes are an essential component of the host's innate immune system with various antimicrobial defense mechanisms to clear pathogens by oxidative burst, acidificiation of phagosomes, and fusion of the phagosome and lysosome. (wikipedia.org)
  • The smooth LPS also inhibits host cell apoptosis by O-polysaccharides through a TNF-alpha-independent mechanism, which allows for B. suis to avoid the activation of the host immune system. (wikipedia.org)
  • Arthropods, using hemolymph, have hemocytes as part of their immune system. (wikipedia.org)
  • digestion
  • In 1902, William Bayliss and Ernest Starling were studying how the nervous system controls the process of digestion. (wikipedia.org)
  • consists
  • TPP works as a coenzyme in many enzymatic reactions, such as: Pyruvate dehydrogenase complex Pyruvate decarboxylase in ethanol fermentation Alpha-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase complex Branched-chain amino acid dehydrogenase complex 2-hydroxyphytanoyl-CoA lyase Transketolase Chemically, TPP consists of a pyrimidine ring which is connected to a thiazole ring, which is in turn connected to a pyrophosphate (diphosphate) functional group. (wikipedia.org)
  • mechanisms
  • Their function as exchangers presumably relies on the active accumulation of amino acids through other mechanisms. (pnas.org)
  • Tissue culture systems have been developed to reproduce key properties of the intact blood-brain barrier and to allow for testing of mechanisms of transendothelial drug permeation. (jove.com)
  • It does this through at least three mechanisms: 1) By stimulating release of somatostatin, 2) By inhibiting release of gastrin in the pyloric antrum, and 3) By direct downregulation of the parietal cell acid secretory mechanics. (wikipedia.org)
  • vesicle
  • The system is defined more accurately as the set of membranes that form a single functional and developmental unit, either being connected directly, or exchanging material through vesicle transport. (wikipedia.org)
  • utilization
  • These imbalances are caused by the disruption of a variety of major body processes including, as a minimum, the regulation of metabolism by the thyroid, potential liver enlargement, a decrease of oxygen in the circulatory system, the utilization of amino acids important to the body, the oxidation of iron and a potential impact to neural pathways. (carnicominstitute.org)
  • To obtain the necessary exogenous peptides, A. boonei has been shown to have a membrane embedded with peptidases and an arsenal of permeases which help degrade the extracellular components and subsequently transport them into the cell for utilization. (wikipedia.org)
  • oxygen
  • a histidine residue, located adjacent to the heme group, becomes positively charged under acidic conditions (which are caused by dissolved CO2 in working muscles, etc.), releasing oxygen from the heme group. (wikipedia.org)
  • Contrary to common belief, lactic acid accumulation doesn't actually cause the burning sensation we feel when we exhaust our oxygen and oxidative metabolism, but in actuality, lactic acid in presence of oxygen recycles to produce pyruvate in the liver, which is known as the Cori cycle. (wikipedia.org)
  • fatty acid
  • Biological bilayers are usually composed of amphiphilic phospholipids that have a hydrophilic phosphate head and a hydrophobic tail consisting of two fatty acid chains. (wikipedia.org)
  • rapidly
  • Several factors, including glutamate itself, biogenic amines, arachidonic acid, and amyloid β-peptide, were found to rapidly affect glutamate uptake by post-translational modification of glial glutamate transporters (for review, see Gegelashvili and Schousboe, 1998 ). (jneurosci.org)
  • salts
  • Addition of chlorine to water gives both hydrochloric acid (HCl) and hypochlorous acid (HOCl): Cl2 + H2O ⇌ HClO + HCl Cl2 + 4 OH− ⇌ 2 ClO− + 2 H2O + 2 e− Cl2 + 2 e− ⇌ 2 Cl− When acids are added to aqueous salts of hypochlorous acid (such as sodium hypochlorite in commercial bleach solution), the resultant reaction is driven to the left, and chlorine gas is formed. (wikipedia.org)
  • sodium
  • A major step in glutamatergic neurotransmission is the rapid clearance of synaptically released glutamate from the extracellular space by sodium-dependent glutamate transport. (jneurosci.org)
  • Ammonia may be conveniently deodorized by reacting it with either sodium bicarbonate or acetic acid. (wikipedia.org)
  • bacteria
  • Presently, he studies the molecular functions of phosphatidylcholine in bacteria as well as the biosynthesis, transport, and function of sphingolipids in bacteria. (unam.mx)
  • In biology, hypochlorous acid is generated in activated neutrophils by myeloperoxidase-mediated peroxidation of chloride ions, and contributes to the destruction of bacteria. (wikipedia.org)
  • ferritin
  • Overall, this systems approach serves to explain a number of apparent paradoxes of serum ferritin, including (i) why it correlates with biomarkers of cell damage, (ii) why it correlates with biomarkers of hydroxyl radical formation (and oxidative stress) and (iii) therefore why it correlates with the presence and/or severity of numerous diseases. (rsc.org)
  • In mammals (in contrast, for instance, to some functions in insects 1-4 ), ferritin is supposed to be a cellular means of storing iron, 5 not of transporting it, yet serum ferritin levels are widely measured as indicators of iron status. (rsc.org)
  • conditions
  • Conditions such as these are naturally formed in the vent system by geophysical and geochemical processes that occur beneath the crust and within the benthic fluids that flood the vents. (wikipedia.org)
  • biology
  • He was Director of the Manchester Centre for Integrative Systems Biology prior to a 5-year secondment (2008-2013) as Chief Executive of the UK Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council. (rsc.org)
  • Chemical
  • Amino acids are the main source of chemical energy for H. salinarum, particularly arginine and aspartate, though they are able to metabolize other amino acids, as well. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 1998 he joined the University of Texas at El Paso as assistant professor, investigating microbe and chemical transport in groundwater, and microbial interaction in a planetary environment. (wikipedia.org)
  • groups
  • A second major chromatin regulating system is that of the Polycomb/trithorax groups of genes which, respectively, maintain the repressed/activated state of euchromatin. (fsu.edu)
  • The type IV secretion systems (T4SSs) are divided into three groups according to their function. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • Consistent with this, it has been proposed that sulfhydryl groups of sulfur-containing amino acids can be oxidized a total of three times by three HClO molecules, with the fourth reacting with the α-amino group. (wikipedia.org)
  • mechanism
  • Given the existence of various PAC1 receptor isoforms that activate PKA and PKC to different levels, these findings point to a complex mechanism by which PACAP regulates glial glutamate transport and metabolism. (jneurosci.org)
  • mobilize
  • Thus, the constant domain of an immunoglobulin can help mobilize phagocytic cells or the complement system to act on an antigen to which it is bound by via variable domain. (wikipedia.org)
  • group
  • In addition, a unique sulfonamides ion linkage between the sulfur of a methionyl amino-acid residue and the heme 2-vinyl group is formed, giving this enzyme the unique capability of easily oxidizing chloride and bromide ions. (wikipedia.org)
  • important
  • Similar to the type III systems, this apparatus extends beyond the cell surface as a pilus structure important for direct contact and penetration of the recipient cell surface. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • form
  • Glycogen is the intramuscular storage form of glucose, used to generate energy quickly once intramuscular creatine stores are exhausted, producing lactic acid as a metabolic byproduct. (wikipedia.org)
  • human
  • Her interests lie in the ultrastructure and regulation of the human coagulation system, with particular focus on erythrocytes and fibrin networks, the role of iron metabolism and changes to the coagulation system due to inflammation. (rsc.org)
  • The oligosaccharides on mouse and human IgM have been partially characterized by a variety of techniques, including NMR, lectin binding, various chromatographic systems and enzymatic sensitivity (reviewed in). (wikipedia.org)
  • iron
  • We necessarily start by reviewing iron metabolism from a systems point of view ( Fig. 1 ). (rsc.org)
  • certain
  • Asthenia may be limited to certain organs or systems of organs, as in asthenopia, characterized by ready fatiguability. (wikipedia.org)
  • water
  • citation needed] In water treatment, hypochlorous acid is the active sanitizer[citation needed] in hypochlorite-based products (e.g. used in swimming pools). (wikipedia.org)
  • An increase in interactions between hydrophobic molecules (causing clustering of hydrophobic regions) allows water molecules to bond more freely with each other, increasing the entropy of the system. (wikipedia.org)
  • among
  • Among the systems described are a laser-based weapon designed to divert hostile aircraft, an underwater sonic weapon for incapacitating SCUBA divers and a heat-based weapon designed to compel crowds to disperse. (wikipedia.org)