• The light subunit xCT dimerises with the heavy subunit 4F2hc and the role of the xCT-4F2hc heterodimer, also known as system Xc-, is to couple the release of one molecule of intracellular glutamate to the uptake of one molecule of extracellular cystine (2). (novusbio.com)
  • following uptake the cystine is converted to cysteine, an amino acid that is found only at very low levels in plasma and cerebrospinal fluid. (novusbio.com)
  • In contrast, the chronic phase is associated with an induction of ata2 gene expression as evidenced from the increase in the steady-state levels of ATA2 mRNA, restoration of the intracellular pool of ATA2 protein, and blockade of the induction by cycloheximide and actinomycin D. The increase in system A activity induced by amino acid starvation is blocked specifically by system A substrates, including the non-metabolizable α-(methylamino)isobutyric acid. (elsevier.com)
  • Uptake of PGB was mutually exclusive with leucine, GBP and 2-aminobicyclo(2,2,1)heptane-2-carboxylic acid, the substrates preferential for system L. The preloaded PGB in CHO cells was exchangeable with leucine, but at a lower exchange rate than that of leucine and GBP. (aspetjournals.org)
  • The different isoforms also exhibit different relative affinities for the amino acid substrates. (wikipedia.org)
  • Although molecular cloning has recently identified the proteins that mediate Systems ASC and L ( 13 - 17 ), System A has eluded biochemical purification, genetic approaches, and expression cloning in Xenopus oocytes ( 10 , 18 - 20 ). (pnas.org)
  • The Amino Acid/Auxin Permease (AAAP) Family (TC# 2.A.18) is a family of secondary carrier proteins, a member of the APC Superfamily that includes hundreds of proteins from plants, animals, fungi and lower eukaryotes. (wikipedia.org)
  • The three main purposes of metabolism are the conversion of food/fuel to energy to run cellular processes, the conversion of food/fuel to building blocks for proteins, lipids, nucleic acids, and some carbohydrates, and the elimination of nitrogenous wastes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Metabolism is usually divided into two categories: catabolism, the breaking down of organic matter for example, the breaking down of glucose to pyruvate, by cellular respiration, and anabolism, the building up of components of cells such as proteins and nucleic acids. (wikipedia.org)
  • Proteins are made of amino acids arranged in a linear chain joined together by peptide bonds. (wikipedia.org)
  • Other proteins have structural or mechanical functions, such as those that form the cytoskeleton, a system of scaffolding that maintains the cell shape. (wikipedia.org)
  • Proteins are also important in cell signaling, immune responses, cell adhesion, active transport across membranes, and the cell cycle. (wikipedia.org)
  • Many of these prn mutations can be directly classified according to the gene product(s) affected on the basis of growth phenotype with respect to L-arginine and L-ornithine utilization, proline-dependent resistance to certain toxic amino acid analogues and effect on supplementation of proline auxotrophies. (cambridge.org)
  • Dr Julian Dow Laboratory of Cell Biology, Division of Cellular and Molecular Biology, Institute of Biomedical and Life Sciences, University of Glasgow: Genetic analysis of epithelial transport in Drosophila. (bio.net)
  • For instance, BMAA is a small non-protein amino acid that appears to be synthesized by the entire cyanobacterial phylum [ 5 , 6 ], suggesting that BMAA is a fundamental cellular metabolite in cyanobacteria. (mdpi.com)
  • SNAT1 mediated L-citrulline transport modulates eNOS coupling and thus regulates NO production in hypoxic PAECs from newborn piglets. (gwu.edu)
  • Multiple hormones increase System A function acutely through changes in the driving force for transport as well as through longer-term changes in gene expression. (pnas.org)
  • Their function as exchangers presumably relies on the active accumulation of amino acids through other mechanisms. (pnas.org)
  • When amino acids are scarce Gap1p is sorted to the plasma membrane, whereas when amino acids are abundant Gap1p is sorted from the trans-Golgi through the multivesicular endosome (MVE) and to the vacuole. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Previously we showed that amino acids govern the propensity of Gap1p to recycle from the MVE to the plasma membrane. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Isolation of a mutant yeast strain with altered plasma membrane ATPase activity and the preparation of spheroplasts may serve as possible experimental systems for the study of this model in yeast. (kzoo.edu)
  • These functionally defined systems were originally characterized by kinetic and competition studies ( Christensen, 1990 ). (aspetjournals.org)
  • Among animal AAAP family members are numerous growth regulating System A and System N isoforms, each exhibiting distinctive tissue and subcellular localizations. (wikipedia.org)
  • The word metabolism can also refer to the sum of all chemical reactions that occur in living organisms, including digestion and the transport of substances into and between different cells, in which case the set of reactions within the cells is called intermediary metabolism or intermediate metabolism. (wikipedia.org)
  • We examined whether maternal HF intake causes programmed hypertension and whether aliskiren administration confers protection against the process in a sex-specific manner, with a focus on the transcriptome changes in the kidney using next-generation RNA sequencing (NGS) technology and renin-angiotensin system (RAS). (frontiersin.org)
  • Carbohydrates are the most abundant biological molecules, and fill numerous roles, such as the storage and transport of energy (starch, glycogen) and structural components (cellulose in plants, chitin in animals). (wikipedia.org)
  • For example, the set of carboxylic acids that are best known as the intermediates in the citric acid cycle are present in all known organisms, being found in species as diverse as the unicellular bacterium Escherichia coli and huge multicellular organisms like elephants. (wikipedia.org)
  • Apart from oocytes, no other expression system has been used for transfection of functional rBAT activity. (uzh.ch)
  • Transfection with rBAT antisense, but not with rBAT sense, resulted in the specific reduction of rBAT mRNA expression and b0,(+)-like transport activity. (uzh.ch)
  • The non-neuronal cholinergic system in humans: expression, function and pathophysiology. (springer.com)
  • Exposure of these cells to an amino acid-free medium induces system A activity. (elsevier.com)
  • Much of the change in Gap1p activity in response to amino acid abundance is due to regulated alternative trafficking patterns of Gap1p in the secretory pathway. (biomedsearch.com)