• A Na + -independent, facilitative transport system, LAT1, was identified and functionally characterized on rabbit cornea. (arvojournals.org)
  • The LAT1-mediated trans-endothelial transport of LNAAs, however, could not be characterized precisely by available in vitro and in vivo standard methods so far. (frontiersin.org)
  • To circumvent these limitations, we have incorporated published in vivo data of rat brain into a robust computational model of NVU-LNAA homeostasis, allowing us to evaluate hypotheses concerning LAT1-mediated trans-endothelial transport of LNAAs across the blood brain barrier (BBB). (frontiersin.org)
  • Our findings suggest that LAT1 is moderately associated with the transport of 18 F-fluciclovine in local PCa not exposed to hormonal therapy. (springeropen.com)
  • Genetic disruption of the multifunctional CD98/LAT1 complex demonstrates the key role of essential amino acid transport in the control of mTORC1 and tumor growth. (springer.com)
  • Although molecular cloning has recently identified the proteins that mediate Systems ASC and L ( 13 - 17 ), System A has eluded biochemical purification, genetic approaches, and expression cloning in Xenopus oocytes ( 10 , 18 - 20 ). (pnas.org)
  • Bernstein Prof. Is defined by Laplaces law B. Because of this conformational sensitivity, CD is one of the most widely used techniques for characterizing the conformations of proteins, nucleic acids, and carbohydrates, and for monitoring conformational transitions induced by temperature, solvent composition, ligand binding, etc. so I cant even do that. (exclusivebinaryoptions.com)
  • This includes nucleotides for genome replication and ribosomal RNA, lipids for membranes, amino acids for proteins, and other cellular building blocks. (rupress.org)
  • A processing activity referred to as processing peptidase that cleaves the precursor to subunit 9 and other mitochondrial proteins is described and characterized using a cell-free system. (uni-wuerzburg.de)
  • Similarly, supplementation of pregnant sheep with intravenous amino acids for several days at the end of gestation demonstrated adverse fetal effects, including hypoxia and respiratory and metabolic acidosis ( 34 ). (physiology.org)
  • Disruption of normal rates of amino acid transport into the fetus and, thus, abnormal fetal plasma amino acid concentrations could limit fetal protein synthesis and/or lead to abnormal amino acid metabolism, even to the point of producing metabolic acidosis. (physiology.org)
  • Mice lacking the neuronal NOS (nNOS) isoform have a phenotype that could be explained by decreased availability of glutamate, an amino acid that is also an excitatory neurotransmitter. (sciencemag.org)
  • Glutamate is derived from and can be converted to glutamine, and oxidation of glutamate feeds into the energy-providing TCA (tricarboxylic acid) cycle. (sciencemag.org)
  • Multiple hormones increase System A function acutely through changes in the driving force for transport as well as through longer-term changes in gene expression. (pnas.org)
  • rBAT was essential for the cell surface expression of b o,+ AT, but it was not required for reconstituted b o,+ AT transport activity. (embopress.org)
  • The amino acid tyrosine is the precursor for synthesis of the catecholamines dopamine and norepinephrine, while tryptophan is the precursor of serotonin. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Furthermore, prolonged maternal amino acid infusion increased net transport of leucine to the fetus, fetal leucine concentrations, and fetal leucine oxidation rates, indicating that the fetus uses excess amino acids for oxidative metabolism, rather than protein synthesis and accretion ( 34 ). (physiology.org)
  • Important basic anatomic and transport mechanisms are presented, followed by current theories on transport of respiratory gases, macronutrients and micronutrients, and waste products. (glowm.com)
  • 17 18 19 20 A few reports about the presence of carrier-mediated nutrient transport systems on the cornea are available, but most of them are believed to be present on the corneal endothelium. (arvojournals.org)
  • Three inter-related areas, intestinal nutrient transport, intestinal drug transport and epithelial-bacterial pathogen interactions are the focus of current research. (ncl.ac.uk)
  • It is not known whether these observations are specific to the mode of delivery of supplemental amino acids to the fetus (via the mother and placenta vs. a direct fetal infusion) or to the excess amino acids themselves. (physiology.org)
  • Glutamine transport was relatively weakly inhibited by a 50-fold excess of leucine and was not inhibited by phenylalanine or N -methyl aminoisobutyrate. (biochemj.org)
  • Taken together, different classes of NVU-AATs constitute an integrated dynamic system controlling the homeostasis of AAs such as large neutral amino acids (LNAAs: L-tyrosine, L-leucine, L-isoleucine, L-phenylalanine, L-histidine, L-valine, L-tryptophan, and L-methionine) in the brain interstitial fluid (ISF). (frontiersin.org)
  • These functionally defined systems were originally characterized by kinetic and competition studies ( Christensen, 1990 ). (aspetjournals.org)
  • The BBB endothelium together with the astrocytes and neurons are the fundamental elements of the neurovascular unit (NVU) system. (frontiersin.org)
  • Moreover, stimulant agents, such as methylphenidate, amphetamine and atomoxetine, which currently are the most common drugs used for treatment of ADHD, act primarily on the catecholaminergic system. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Amino acids are required for activation of the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) kinase which regulates protein translation, cell growth, and autophagy. (nih.gov)
  • A disturbed transport of tyrosine, as well as other amino acids, has been found in a number of other psychiatric disorders, such as schizophrenia, bipolar disorder and autism, when using the fibroblast cell model. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Therefore, there is no "paracellular" or "between cell" transport pathway. (glowm.com)
  • In this study, we investigated PGB transport in rats, mammalian cell lines, and Xenopus laevis oocytes. (aspetjournals.org)