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  • uptake
  • The light subunit xCT dimerises with the heavy subunit 4F2hc and the role of the xCT-4F2hc heterodimer, also known as system Xc-, is to couple the release of one molecule of intracellular glutamate to the uptake of one molecule of extracellular cystine (2). (novusbio.com)
  • following uptake the cystine is converted to cysteine, an amino acid that is found only at very low levels in plasma and cerebrospinal fluid. (novusbio.com)
  • Cell Membrane
  • Hormonal signaling involves the following steps: Biosynthesis of a particular hormone in a particular tissue Storage and secretion of the hormone Transport of the hormone to the target cell(s) Recognition of the hormone by an associated cell membrane or intracellular receptor protein Relay and amplification of the received hormonal signal via a signal transduction process: This then leads to a cellular response. (wikipedia.org)
  • glucose
  • However, neurons may also release insulin, and compelling evidence have been provided for a brain-centered glucoregulatory system that work in concert with the islet cells to regulate plasma levels of glucose ( 1 - 3 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • This is usually to accumulate high concentrations of molecules that a cell needs, such as glucose or amino acids. (wikipedia.org)
  • The blood-brain barrier is formed by brain endothelial cells and it allows the passage of water, some gases, and lipid-soluble molecules by passive diffusion, as well as the selective transport of molecules such as glucose and amino acids that are crucial to neural function. (wikipedia.org)
  • concentrations
  • Hill PMM, Young M. Net placental transfer of free amino acids against varying concentrations. (springer.com)
  • This is consistent with the detection of significant changes in plasma glutamine concentrations in newly diagnosed diabetic patients ( 8 ) indicating that dysfunctional amino acid metabolism, signaling, and/or amino acid transporter function may precede and/or augment development of diabetes. (frontiersin.org)
  • transmembrane
  • The differential affinity of PGB and GBP at L-type system leads to more concentrative accumulation of PGB than GBP, which may facilitate PGB transmembrane absorption in vivo. (aspetjournals.org)
  • They are generally composed of two homologous subunits (suggesting they arose as a result of an intragenic tandem duplication event that occurred in the primordial system prior to divergence of the family members) each containing a periplasmic loop adjacent to 12 transmembrane helices. (wikipedia.org)
  • Tryptophan
  • Biochemically derived from tryptophan, serotonin is primarily found in the gastrointestinal tract (GI tract), blood platelets, and the central nervous system (CNS) of animals, including humans. (wikipedia.org)
  • Fatty
  • and chain lengthening or shortening of individual fatty acids. (springer.com)
  • once such ions are dissolved in water they cannot diffuse freely across cell membranes due to the hydrophobic nature of the fatty acid tails of the phospholipids that make up the bilayers. (wikipedia.org)
  • solutes
  • In contrast, a channel can be open to both environments at the same time, allowing the solutes it transports to diffuse without interruption. (wikipedia.org)
  • Furthermore
  • Furthermore, the b0,(+)-like transport activity has not been clearly described in the kidney or intestine. (uzh.ch)
  • Furthermore, it prevents the entry of lipophilic potential neurotoxins by way of an active transport mechanism mediated by P-glycoprotein. (wikipedia.org)
  • Humans
  • Wessler I, Kirkpatrick C J, Racke K. The cholinergic 'pitfall': acetylcholine, a universal cell molecule in biological systems, including humans. (springer.com)
  • The non-neuronal cholinergic system in humans: expression, function and pathophysiology. (springer.com)
  • Wessler I, Kirkpatrick C J, Racke K. Non-neuronal acetylcholine, a locally acting molecule, widely distributed in biological systems: expression and function in humans. (springer.com)