• Proteins can only leave the ER after this sequence has been cleaved off. (wikipedia.org)
  • The transportation mechanism of proteins containing the KDEL signal sequence is facilitated by KDEL receptors attached to COPII and COPI vesicles. (wikipedia.org)
  • Homology searches found no identity or close similarity between VPF NH 2 -terminal sequence and database sequences, indicating that VPF is distinct from other proteins for which sequence data are available. (aacrjournals.org)
  • In the database, 29 matches were found for human proteins and 26 matches were found for human viruses with the 6 antigen sequences. (ajtmh.org)
  • Comparison of the sequences of the TM4s of the two ion pump α subunits shows surprisingly little nonhomology, considering that this region can mediate the strikingly different membrane distributions exhibited by these proteins (Fig. 4 A). Of the 28 amino acids that comprise the putative transmembrane domain, only 8 are nonidentical. (nih.gov)
  • New Yeast Cloning System for Producing Proteins with Native Amino Acid,,,Sequences ( One-column protein purification and n. (bio-medicine.org)
  • Amino acid sequences are further limited to those listed in 37 CFR 1.822(b) , which incorporates by reference WIPO Standard ST.25 (1998), Appendix 2, Table 3 (see MPEP § 2422 ), and those L-amino acids that are commonly found in naturally occurring proteins. (bitlaw.com)
  • The simple fact that proteins are built from 20 amino acids while DNA only contains four different bases, means that the 'signal-to-noise ratio' in protein sequence alignments is much better than in alignments of DNA. (dtu.dk)
  • Taken together with the generally higher rate of synonymous mutations over non-synonymous ones, this means that the phylogenetic signal disappears much more rapidly from DNA sequences than from the encoded proteins. (dtu.dk)
  • NA, a type II transmembrane glycoprotein, possesses an enzyme activity that removes sialic acid from host cell glycocongugates as well as newly synthesized viral proteins. (asm.org)
  • In order to extend the results obtained with minimal lattice models to more realistic systems, we study a model where proteins are described as a chain of 20 kinds of structureless amino acids moving in a continuum space and interacting through a contact potential controlled by a 2020 quenched random matrix. (dtu.dk)
  • The goal of the present work is to design and characterize amino acid sequences folding to the SH3 conformation, a 60-residue recognition domain common to many regulatory proteins. (dtu.dk)
  • Predicting the function of newly discovered proteins by simply inspecting their amino acid sequence is one of the major challenges of post-genomic computational biology, especially when done without recourse to experimentation or homology information. (biomedcentral.com)
  • However, a significant number of predicted proteins in each newly sequenced genome have turned out to defy this approach. (biomedcentral.com)
  • It would be very useful if one could obtain at least a general idea of the function of such proteins based on their amino acid sequence alone. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Proteins ( / ˈ p r oʊ ˌ t iː n z / or / ˈ p r oʊ t i . ɪ n z / ) are large biomolecules , or macromolecules , consisting of one or more long chains of amino acid residues . (wikipedia.org)
  • Proteins differ from one another primarily in their sequence of amino acids, which is dictated by the nucleotide sequence of their genes , and which usually results in protein folding into a specific three-dimensional structure that determines its activity. (wikipedia.org)
  • Like other biological macromolecules such as polysaccharides and nucleic acids , proteins are essential parts of organisms and participate in virtually every process within cells . (wikipedia.org)
  • In animals, proteins are needed in the diet to provide the essential amino acids that cannot be synthesized . (wikipedia.org)
  • Most proteins consist of linear polymers built from series of up to 20 different L -α- amino acids . (wikipedia.org)
  • Wrabl, JO & Grishin, NV 2005, ' Grouping of amino acid types and extraction of amino acid properties from multiple sequence alignments using variance maximization ', Proteins: Structure, Function and Genetics , vol. 61, no. 3, pp. 523-534. (elsevier.com)
  • Sequence analysis showed that this protein contains three PSD-95/SAP90, discs-large, ZO-1 (PDZ) domains, a src homology (SH3) domain, and a region similar to guanylate kinase, making it homologous to ZO-1, ZO-2, the discs large tumor suppressor gene product of Drosophila , and other members of the MAGUK family of proteins. (rupress.org)
  • Cloning and sequence analysis of these proteins indicates that they are part of a larger family of proteins potentially involved in tumor suppression and/or signal transduction ( 21 , 44 ). (rupress.org)
  • I have been trying to get my head around the basics for these four (Carbohydrates, Proteins, Amino Acids and Lipids) for about a week and I just don't understand the basic structure, formulas and such. (physicsforums.com)
  • You say amino acids and proteins. (physicsforums.com)
  • Before the proteins are synthesised from aminoacids the aminoacids have to be biosynthesised too. (physicsforums.com)
  • Using monocional antibodies against Escherichia coli produced goldfish cyclin B and the PSTAIR sequence of p34cdc2, we examined the levels of cyclin B and p34cdc2 proteins during goldfish oocyte maturation induced in vitro by 17α,20β‐dihydroxy‐4‐pregnen‐3‐one (17α,20β‐DP), a natural MIH in fish. (elsevier.com)
  • Using human cell lines, the team showed that major histocompatibility complex proteins-important components of the vertebrate immune system-on virus-infected cells present this sequence to KIR2DS2, which then activates NK cells to inhibit viral replication. (the-scientist.com)
  • The nuclear receptor superfamily is a group of ligand-dependent transcriptional regulatory proteins that function by binding to specific DNA sequences named hormone response elements in the promoters of target genes (reviewed in reference 36 ). (asm.org)
  • 12SE1A has been observed to activate transcription through several different response elements, including both sequences in the core promoter and binding sites for specific regulatory proteins. (asm.org)
  • More information about the amino acid sequences, including the protein sizes can be found in this File:ComE and comD proteins.doc . (openwetware.org)
  • One way to ensure that an ASR protein behaves like the true ancestor is to resurrect and test not only the best amino acid sequence generated by the algorithms, but a few proteins with the second-best guesses, or third-best guesses, and so on. (the-scientist.com)
  • The 19 resulting proteins were sequenced, and the data were used to infer the sequences of the node proteins. (the-scientist.com)
  • Ancestral sequences often yield proteins that are highly stable and flexible in function. (the-scientist.com)
  • In the current study, we analyzed the differences between their genome sequences and found 12 amino acid substitutions in the nonstructural proteins. (springer.com)
  • The protein consists of 445 amino acid residues and has a minimum of six positions that are heterogeneous, indicating at least two beta-tubulins in porcine brain. (pnas.org)
  • A region rich in glycyl residues is similar both in sequence and predicted secondary structure to the phosphate binding loop of several nucleotide binding enzymes. (pnas.org)
  • Putative buried, hydrophobic residues are selected through analysis of the protein sequence. (pnas.org)
  • At such sites, a Ts phenotype can typically be generated either by ( i ) substitution of two predicted, buried residues with the 18 remaining amino acids or ( ii ) introduction of Lys, Ser, Ala, and Trp at three to four predicted buried sites. (pnas.org)
  • It was previously shown ( 1 ) that it was possible to accurately predict a subset of buried hydrophobic residues in a protein structure from analysis of the protein sequence. (pnas.org)
  • A synthetic peptide corresponding to amino acid residues 1-24 of the native protein was used to raise rabbit antibodies which bind all of the vessel permeability-increasing activity secreted by guinea pig tumor cells and which stain purified VPF on immunoblots. (aacrjournals.org)
  • In addition, free energy analysis shows polymorphic residues tend to be populated by energetically unfavorable amino acids. (nih.gov)
  • The polymorphic residues and types of amino acids that populate these sites appear to be conserved between two geographically disparate African parasite populations. (nih.gov)
  • The isolation, compositions, and sequences of cyanogen bromide peptides, ranging in size from 3 to 44 residues, have previously been reported (ELZINGA, M. (1971) Biochemistry 10, 224-229, and other papers in the present series). (eurekamag.com)
  • Finally, the position of CB-14 in the actin sequence as residues 120 to 123 was established by isolation of a chymotryptic overlap peptide. (eurekamag.com)
  • The complete sequence of the 374 residues of actin is presented. (eurekamag.com)
  • It was shown that the A-chain contains two additional C-terminal amino acid residues (i.e. a total of 23 residues) and that the B-chain has a deletion in the C-terminal part (i.e. a total of 29 residues). (mysciencework.com)
  • A linear chain of amino acid residues is called a polypeptide . (wikipedia.org)
  • The individual amino acid residues are bonded together by peptide bonds and adjacent amino acid residues. (wikipedia.org)
  • The sequence of amino acid residues in a protein is defined by the sequence of a gene , which is encoded in the genetic code . (wikipedia.org)
  • The right portion shows the deduced amino acid sequences around the amino acid residues corresponding to codons 266 and 268 of the human A/B transferases. (google.com)
  • The sequences are well-conserved, especially those around the 2 amino acid residues. (google.com)
  • It consisted of a single polypeptide with a total of 61 amino acid residues. (elsevier.com)
  • The glutamate receptor (GluR) agonist-binding site consists of amino acid residues in the extracellular S1 and S2 segments in the N-terminal and M3-M4 loop regions, respectively. (jneurosci.org)
  • An amino acid sequence alignment predicted the location of 2B6 substrate recognition site (SRS) residues. (aspetjournals.org)
  • A 285 amino acid segment of the Acetobacter xylinum cellulose synthase containing all the conserved residues in the globular region was subjected to protein modeling using the genetic algorithm. (embl-heidelberg.de)
  • By incorporating new site-directed mutagenesis data and comparative analysis of the conserved aspartic acid residues and the QXXRW motif we deduce a number of functional implications based on the structure. (embl-heidelberg.de)
  • The use of recombinant peptides based upon the repeated amino acid sequences of Plasmodium has been proposed for malaria vaccines. (ajtmh.org)
  • Mass spectrometry has become an indispensable tool for researchers looking to sequence peptides. (shimadzu.com)
  • The isolation of one of the CNBr peptides (CB-14) was complicated by the presence of a Met-Thr bond that was only partially split under standard conditions for cyanogen bromide cleavage in formic acid. (eurekamag.com)
  • CB-14 is a tetrapeptide, Thr-Gln-Ile-Hse, and this sequence completes the characterization of the actin cyanogen bromide peptides. (eurekamag.com)
  • Comparative testing was performed using the prognostic method PASS and two input data types: sets of the MNA descriptors represented peptides as chemical structures and amino acid sequences written using a one-letter code. (msk.ru)
  • While screening for viral peptides that stimulate one receptor, KIR2DS2, hepatologist Salim Khakoo 's group at the University of Southampton, U.K., stumbled across an amino acid sequence that appears highly conserved across multiple flaviviruses, from Zika to Japanese encephalitis. (the-scientist.com)
  • Protease detector peptides (small linear quourum sensing peptide attached to protease recognition sequence) may also get trapped between the cell wall and cell membraine. (openwetware.org)
  • Link to the list of clones constituting the contig, the information on its mapping to the genome mapped to genome sequence and the list of top 10 hits in the results of homology search are provided. (biosciencedbc.jp)
  • It was found that the amino acid sequence of this inhibitor has a high homology of 47 and 43% with those of sea anemone inhibitor 5-II and BPTI, respectively. (elsevier.com)
  • Understanding of amino acid type co-occurrence in trusted multiple sequence alignments is a prerequisite for improved sequence alignment and remote homology detection algorithms. (elsevier.com)
  • Derived from the saliva of the Gila monster lizard, it has 53% amino acid homology with GLP-1 ( Pohl and Wank, 1998 ). (aspetjournals.org)
  • Amino acid sequence and homology of mTFR11. (xenbase.org)
  • A major human epididymis-specific cDNA encodes a protein with sequence homology to extracellular proteinase inhibitors. (embl.de)
  • For the GBGT1 genes, the sequence of the same location is also highly conserved. (google.com)
  • A highly conserved HPPTPLSLPH sequence was predicted to contact the aromatic ring of dihydrokaempferol. (labome.org)
  • Among the influenza A viruses, both the cytoplasmic tail (CT) and transmembrane domain (TMD) amino acid sequences of NA are highly conserved, yet their function(s) in virus biology remains unknown. (asm.org)
  • The short CT contains six highly conserved amino acids ( 7 ) with no known function(s) in virus biology. (asm.org)
  • 300, 575-585] indicated that the whole structure of XBD is very similar to the ricin B chain and the amino acids which form the galactose-binding sites are highly conserved between the XBD and the ricin B chain. (embl-heidelberg.de)
  • To determine the degree of similarity between pituitary and lymphocyte proopiomelanocortin, the lymphocyte mRNA was reverse transcribed, cloned, and sequenced. (uab.edu)
  • Such Ts mutants of Gal4 can be used for conditional expression of a variety of genes by using the well characterized upstream-activating-sequence-Gal4 system. (pnas.org)
  • The US Patent Office often accepts broad-scope detailed claims in reviewing biotechnological patents for gene sequences, cloned genes, or similar DNA-related matters, according to data from a Lexis search of issued patents. (readabstracts.com)
  • Targeted sequencing of 283 genes was performed in 240 women with early-onset breast cancer (≤40 years) or a family history of breast and/or ovarian cancer. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Whole-exome sequencing and targeted gene sequencing have generated an enormous amount of sequence data for coding regions of genes. (aacrjournals.org)
  • In this proof-of-concept study, targeted next-generation sequencing of 283 cancer-associated genes (Supplementary Table S1) was performed for 240 women with a family history of breast and/or ovarian cancer or early-onset breast cancer. (aacrjournals.org)
  • This protein, termed CREG for cellular repressor of E1A-stimulated genes, shares limited sequence similarity with E1A and binds both the general transcription factor TBP and the tumor suppressor pRb in vitro. (asm.org)
  • The individual ComC, ComD and ComE genes, including their flanking sequences can be found in this File:Com operon d and e sequences with scars etc.doc . (openwetware.org)
  • Ab initio annotation of sequences in Human genome draft: (49171 Genes and 282378 exons) The nucleotide sequence of nearly 90% of the Human genome (3 GB) has been determined in worldwide sequencing community. (bio.net)
  • We annotated these sequences predicting genes by one of the most accurate FGENESH program (at http://www.softberry.com/nucleo.html ) and annotated similarity of each exon with the PfamA protein domain database. (bio.net)
  • We generated genome maps using nucleotide and amino acid sequences which allowed protein-coding genes to be sorted into phamilies (phams) using the Phamerator software. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The gene of interest is prepared for PCR amplification and LIC cloning by using primers that include 12- and 13-nucleotide sequences that are complementary to the 5 single-stranded overhangs of the pESP-2 vector. (bio-medicine.org)
  • The limit of four or more amino acids was established for consistency with limits in place for industry database collections whereas the limit of ten or more nucleotides, while lower than certain industry database limits, was established to encompass those nucleotide sequences to which the smallest probe will bind in a stable manner. (bitlaw.com)
  • Nucleotide sequences are further limited to those that can be represented by the symbols set forth in 37 CFR 1.822(b), which incorporates by reference WIPO Standard ST.25 (1998), Appendix 2, Table 1 (see MPEP § 2422 ). (bitlaw.com)
  • Electronic databases can be used in the patent process for amino acid and nucleotide sequences. (readabstracts.com)
  • The circulation of a single genotype, the Juquitiba hantavirus, carried by two rodent species, black-footed pigmy rice rat ( Oligoryzomys nigripes ) and cursor grass mouse ( Akodon cursor ), was shown by analysis of the nucleotide sequences of the S segment. (ajtmh.org)
  • Nucleic acids are better for that. (biology-online.org)
  • Nucleic Acids Res. (labome.org)
  • Nucleic acids research , 31 (13), 3537-3539. (dtu.dk)
  • Wernersson, R & Pedersen, AG 2003, ' RevTrans: multiple alignment of coding DNA from aligned amino acid sequences ', Nucleic acids research , vol. 31, no. 13, pp. 3537-3539. (dtu.dk)
  • The book is very conceptual and elaborate , provides a detail understanding of nucleic acids and their molecular aspects. (google.com)
  • The amino acid sequence shows considerable similarity to that of higher plant plastocyanins. (biochemj.org)
  • In particular, no sequence similarity was found between tumor-secreted VPF and other mediators of increased vessel permeability including plasma and glandular kallikreins. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Primary sequence alignment and evolutionary analysis show high similarity among all calcins (≥78.8% identity). (rupress.org)
  • Although the peptide hormones fulfil such a highly specialised role, there is nothing to distinguish, a priori , their sequences from other polypeptide or protein sequences with different biological functions, or no function at all. (springer.com)
  • Modifying the amino acid sequence of a polypeptide chain can have various consequences including modifying protein structure. (abpischools.org.uk)
  • Proricin is synthesized as a single polypeptide precursor comprising the catalytic A chain and the Gal-binding B chain joined by a 12-amino acid linker propeptide. (embl-heidelberg.de)
  • A coprecipitated polypeptide lacking the antibody target epitope was presumed to contain the sequences necessary for oligomer formation. (elsevier.com)
  • This classification has been implemented in the SWISS-PROT protein sequence data bank. (portlandpress.com)
  • Differences between the predicted protein sequence and the peptide sequences are indicated by dotted underlines. (rupress.org)
  • in fact, the predicted myostatin protein sequence in the active portion of the molecule is identical among most mammalian and avian species that have been examined. (jci.org)
  • The predicted protein sequence shows homologies with the fibronectin type III repeat. (embl.de)
  • The inactivity is also explained by the amino acid substitution of alanine to lysine ( A 268 K ) in the macaque gene. (google.com)
  • To investigate the role of amino acid sequences of the CT and TMD on the virus life cycle, we systematically mutagenized the entire CT and TMD of NA by converting two to five contiguous amino acids to alanine. (asm.org)
  • The Wilbur and Lipman Wordsearch algorithm was used to identify homologous amino acid sequences between tandemly repeated Plasmodium amino acid sequences and the human and human viral sequences compiled in the National Biomedical Research Foundation database. (ajtmh.org)
  • Sequence comparisons revealed that these two clones are highly homologous (95%) and were found to be similar to Xenopus cyclin B1. (elsevier.com)
  • The complete amino acid sequence of this inhibitor was determined and its sequence was compared with those of bovine pancreatic trypsin inhibitor (BPTI) and other Kunitz-type inhibitors. (elsevier.com)
  • In general, mutations towards the ectodomain-proximal sequences of TMD progressively caused reduction in NA enzyme activity, affected lipid raft association, and attenuated virus growth. (asm.org)
  • Silent Mutations are DNA mutations that do not result in a change to the amino acid sequence or a protein. (wikibooks.org)
  • Missense mutations are types of point mutations where a single nucleotide is changed to cause substitution of a different amino acid. (wikibooks.org)
  • Various S2 mutations had effects on the kinetics of desensitization and recovery from desensitization, but no single amino acid substitution was found to block desensitization, as in the L/Y mutant AMPA receptors, or to prevent desensitization to KA. (jneurosci.org)
  • To test our previous hypothesis that the segment between amino acid position 63 to 73 of the H-2D d antigen forms a major allo-antigenic site, mutations were introduced into the H-2L d gene in a sequential fashion, which replaced the codons for amino acid position 63, 65, 66, 70 and 73 of the H-2L d antigen with those of the H-2D d antigen. (springer.com)
  • These mutations can influence the frequency of transcription by altering the affinity of RNA polymerase for the sequence. (abpischools.org.uk)
  • Mutations are identified via DNA sequencing. (abpischools.org.uk)
  • and (iii) building a multiple DNA alignment by 'reverse translation' of the aligned protein sequences. (dtu.dk)
  • Although not intuitive, these amino acid mathematical properties were demonstrated to be robust and to improve local pairwise alignment accuracy, relative to 20 amino acid frequencies alone, for a simple test case. (elsevier.com)
  • Multiple sequence alignment was performed to calculate genome average nucleotide identity using the Kalgin program. (biomedcentral.com)
  • SEQUENCE ALIGNMENT: Scientists collect sequences from databanks of the modern versions of the protein of interest from different organisms. (the-scientist.com)
  • Patenting gene sequences. (readabstracts.com)
  • They may occur in a non-coding region (outside of a gene or within an intron), or they may occur within an exon in a manner that does not alter the final amino acid chain. (wikibooks.org)
  • Intragenic cis-acting art gene-responsive sequences of the human immunodeficiency virus," Proc. (patentgenius.com)
  • In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, phospholipase D (PLD), encoded by the SPO14 gene, catalyzes the hydrolysis of phosphatidylcholine, producing choline and phosphatidic acid. (embl-heidelberg.de)
  • If the mutation occurs in a gene, it can alter the amino acid sequence coded. (abpischools.org.uk)
  • In this study 67 kb of genomic DNA, corresponding to a deletion interval containing at least part of the Kallmann gene, were sequenced. (embl.de)
  • To identify amino acid sequences of gB that contribute to oligomer formation, pairs of mutant plasmids were transfected into Vero cells and superinfected with a gB-null mutant virus to stimulate plasmid-specified gene expression. (elsevier.com)
  • The HA protein, a type I transmembrane protein, is responsible for binding to the cell surface sialic acid (the receptor), eliciting neutralizing antibodies, and mediating virus entry into the cell by fusion of the viral membrane with the endosomal membrane ( 46 ). (asm.org)
  • From these results we conclude that the amino acid sequence encompassing from position 63 to 70 of the H-2D d and H-2L d molecules forms major alto- antigenic epitopes recognized by multiple antibodies and CTLs. (springer.com)
  • Considering the fact that antibodies are important tools in the detection of various pathogens, an anti-intimin IgG2b monoclonal antibody was previously raised in immunized mice with the conserved sequence of the intimin molecule (int 388-667 ). (biomedcentral.com)
  • A further amino acid substitution at position 70 resulted in the gain of additional H-2D d specificities, allowing to localize more than half of all the relevant H-2D d serological epitopes to position 63 to 70. (springer.com)
  • A possible function in sperm maturation as indicated by amino acid similarities to extracellular proteinase inhibitors of genital tract mucous secretions is discussed in the context of its tissue-specific transcription. (embl.de)
  • One-column protein purification and native eukaryotic amino acid se. (bio-medicine.org)
  • The Office does not want to exclude linkages of the type commonly found in naturally occurring nucleotides, e.g., eukaryotic end capped sequences. (bitlaw.com)
  • Furthermore, a chimera incorporating the Na, K-ATPase alpha subunit fourth transmembrane domain is apically targeted when both of its flanking sequences derive from H,K-ATPase sequence. (nih.gov)
  • Seven of the nonconserved amino acids in this segment are found in the portion of the transmembrane domain that is predicted to pass through the outer leaflet of the lipid bilayer (Fig. 4 B). The outer leaflet of the apical plasma membrane of many epithelial cell types is enriched in glycosphingolipids (GSLs). (nih.gov)
  • This letter system was defined by the IUPAC and IUBMB in 1983, and is as follows: K-Lysine D-Aspartic acid E-Glutamic acid L-Leucine Therefore, the KDEL sequence in three letter code is: Lys-Asp-Glu-Leu. (wikipedia.org)
  • The abbreviation HDEL follows the same notation as KDEL: H-Histidine D-Aspartic acid E-Glutamic acid L-Leucine Three letter code is: His-Asp-Glu-Leu. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Cycle 1 results indicate that the N-terminal amino acid residue is D (aspartic acid). (shimadzu.com)
  • Hydrolysis involves usually a catalytic triad consisting of the thiol group of the cysteine, the imidazolium ring of a histidine, and a third residue, usually asparagine or aspartic acid, to orientate and activate the imidazolium ring. (embl.de)
  • This analysis employs the Edman method (sequential cleaving of amino acids from the N-terminal of the protein to determine the amino acid sequence), which is the most reliable method for determining amino acid sequences. (shimadzu.com)
  • The PPSQ-31A/33A Protein Sequencer System automates the Edman reaction, HPLC separation and detection, and data analysis to determine the amino acid sequence from the N-terminal. (shimadzu.com)
  • The scientists conducting that experiment used a computational technique called ancestral sequence reconstruction (ASR) to determine the amino acids that made up the ancient protein, thus allowing them to revive it. (the-scientist.com)
  • Our results offer proof of concept for identifying novel cancer risk loci from next-generation sequencing data, with iterative data analysis from targeted, whole-exome, or whole-genome sequencing a wellspring to identify new SNPs associated with cancer risk. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Here we provide a comparative analysis of the full genome sequences of 142 prophages of Salmonella enterica subsp. (biomedcentral.com)
  • We found that 90 phage genome sequences grouped into 17 distinct clusters while the remaining 52 genomes showed no close relationships with the other phage genomes and are identified as singletons. (biomedcentral.com)
  • For most recently sequenced bacterial genomes about three quarters of open reading frames can be assigned a possible function in this way. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In a previous study, we performed serial brain-to-brain passages of swine Japanese encephalitis virus in mice and sequenced the complete genomes of the F5 and F20 passaged mouse-adapted variants. (springer.com)
  • The group-to-group alignments of CYP2 sequences by Gotoh (1992) proposed the presence of six substrate recognition sites (SRSs) within the P-450 2 family. (aspetjournals.org)
  • A) Northern blot of total Xenopus egg RNA hybridized with a PCR fragment obtained in a reaction with degenerate oligonucleotides designed according to TPX2 peptide sequences. (rupress.org)
  • Peptide sequences obtained by mass spectrometry are underlined. (rupress.org)
  • Rylatt, DB & Cohen, P 1979, ' Amino acid sequence at the site on rabbit skeletal muscle glycogen synthase phosphorylated by the endogenous glycogen synthase kinase-2 activity ', FEBS Letters , vol. 98, no. 1, pp. 71-75. (dundee.ac.uk)
  • These results provide the identification of a defined apical localization signal in a polytopic membrane transport protein, and suggest that this signal functions through conformational interactions between the fourth transmembrane spanning segment and its surrounding sequence domains. (nih.gov)
  • Instead, we identify a 50-amino-acid segment that harbors the recently reported ABBA motif close to a KEN box as being crucial for the role of BUB1 in SAC signaling. (biologists.org)
  • You could fake it if there were 5 or fewer amino acids by recoding them as nucleotides (plus Gap) and using DNAPARS but that seems like cruel and unusual punishment. (bio.net)
  • This definition sets forth limits, in terms of numbers of amino acids and/or numbers of nucleotides, at or above which compliance with the sequence rules is required. (bitlaw.com)
  • Nucleotide and/or amino acid sequences as used in 37 CFR 1.821 through 37 CFR 1.825 are interpreted to mean an unbranched sequence of four or more amino acids or an unbranched sequence of ten or more nucleotides. (bitlaw.com)
  • Sequences with fewer than ten specifically defined nucleotides or four specifically defined amino acids are specifically excluded from this section. (bitlaw.com)
  • A method for locating pattern matches in amino acids by use of various and sequential filters capable of determining inner sample pattern matches, inner group pattern matches, and word matching for purposes of further analysis or data mining. (google.com)
  • Using the information from these parasite populations, structural analysis reveals that polymorphic amino acids within TH2 and TH3 colocalize to one side of the protein, surround, but do not involve, the hydrophobic pocket in CS, and predominately involve charge switches. (nih.gov)
  • Analysis to the 21st residue reveals the sequence from the N-terminal to be: Asp-Val-Val-Met-Thr-Gln-Thr-Pro-Leu-Thr-Leu-Ser-Val-Thr-Ile-Gly-Gln-Pro-Ala-Ser-Ile. (shimadzu.com)
  • The material was reduced and alkylated and the A- and the B-chain were separated by reversed phase chromatography and subjected to Edman degradation and amino acid analysis. (mysciencework.com)
  • The first approach discretely grouped amino acid types, and the second approach extracted orthogonal properties of amino acids using principal components analysis. (elsevier.com)
  • In silico analysis indicated that coding amino acids encoded at these three SNP sites were conserved evolutionarily and associated with decreased protein stability, suggesting a likely impact on protein function. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Here, we provide a comprehensive analysis of the structure-function relationships of the eight calcins known to date, based on their primary sequence, three-dimensional modeling, and functional effects on skeletal RyRs (RyR1). (rupress.org)
  • KDEL is a target peptide sequence in mammals and plants located on the C-terminal end of the amino acid structure of a protein. (wikipedia.org)
  • HDEL is a target peptide sequence in plants and yeasts located on the C-terminal end of the amino acid structure of a protein. (wikipedia.org)
  • Predicted amino acid sequences of exons with PfamA annotation Table 1. (bio.net)
  • Two candidate exons, identified by multiparameter computer programs, were found in a cDNA encoding a protein of 679 amino acids. (embl.de)
  • Traditional Edman sequencing avoids mass dependency and the use of databases by analyzing each amino acid from the N-terminus one at a time in sequence. (shimadzu.com)
  • Unfortunately, Edman has its own limitations in providing high sequence coverage. (shimadzu.com)
  • This technical note investigates the benefits of combining the intact mass and sequencing information from the MALDI-8020 (ISD) with the N- terminal sequence obtained from the PPSQ-50A gradient system (Edman). (shimadzu.com)
  • The PPSQ-51A/53A continues the tradition of providing reliable and sensitive N-terminal protein sequencing to researchers through automated Edman Degradation. (shimadzu.com)
  • Following the single-step purification procedure, the GST affinity tag may be removed by proteolytic cleavage with EK to yield polypeptides with native amino acid sequence. (bio-medicine.org)
  • Such a cleavage is essential for viral infectivity because in the acidic pH of the endosome it exposes a membrane fusion peptide at the amino terminus of the HA2 subunit required for membrane fusion ( 26 ). (asm.org)
  • 1985. Polymorphism of murine major histocompatibility class I antigens: Assignment of putative allodeterminants to distinct positions of the amino acid sequence within the first external domain of the antigen. (springer.com)
  • Palmitoylation of rPLD1 is not necessary for catalytic activity, since N-terminal truncation mutants lacking the first 168 or 319 amino acids exhibit high basal activity although they cannot be stimulated by protein kinase C (PKC). (embl-heidelberg.de)
  • Molecules with the varied properties required for these multifarious functions are built up of a mere 20 units: the protein-constituent amino acids, connected primarily in a single structural mode (a linear sequence) but finally arranged in space in intricate ways to molecules of the required size, shape and properties. (springer.com)
  • These results show that although the sequences of NA CT and TMD per se are not absolutely essential for the virus life cycle, specific amino acid sequences play a critical role in providing structural stability, enzyme activity, and lipid raft association of NA. (asm.org)
  • All proteinogenic amino acids possess common structural features, including an α-carbon to which an amino group, a carboxyl group, and a variable side chain are bonded . (wikipedia.org)
  • 301 glycosyl hydrolases and related enzymes corresponding to 39 EC entries of the I.U.B. classification system have been classified into 35 families on the basis of amino-acid-sequence similarities [Henrissat (1991) Biochem. (portlandpress.com)
  • Trueb B, Schreier T, Winterhalter K, Strehler E. Sequence of a cDNA clone encoding chicken ribosomal protein S17. (labome.org)
  • Purified adenylyl cyclase protein and amino acid sequencing led to the isolation of a cDNA clone encoding AC1 ( 12 ). (physiology.org)
  • Six published repetitive immunogenic amino acid sequences from the circumsporozoite (CS) antigen, ring-infected erythrocyte surface antigen (RESA), soluble (S) antigen, and falciparum interspersed repetitive antigen (FIRA) of P. falciparum, and the CS protein of P. vivax, were analyzed by computer. (ajtmh.org)
  • The amino acid substitutions at position 63, 65, and 66 led to the acquisition of multiple serological H-2D d specificities which were expressed in the mutant H-2L d antigen. (springer.com)
  • An alto CTL epitope of the H-2D d antigen was also localized to this stretch of amino acid sequence, as one of several H-2D d specific CTL clones reacted with the mutant molecule in which amino acids were replaced at position 63 to 70. (springer.com)
  • The similar sequence HDEL performs the same function in yeasts, while plants are known to utilize both KDEL and HDEL signaling sequences. (wikipedia.org)
  • The HDEL sequence prevents a protein from being secreted from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and facilitates its return if it is accidentally exported. (wikipedia.org)
  • We show that a number of sequences can fold, starting from a random conformation, to within a distance root-mean-square deviation between 2.6 and 4.0 Å from the native state. (dtu.dk)
  • Good folders are those sequences displaying in the native conformation an energy lower than a sequence-independent threshold energy. (dtu.dk)
  • Despite good performance, the monoclonal antibody failed to detect some EPEC and EHEC isolates harboring variant amino acids within the 338-667 regions of intimin molecules. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Polypeptides from cotransfections were precipitated with an antibody that recognized amino acid sequences present in only one of the two polypeptides. (elsevier.com)
  • After expression and single-column purification of the GST fusion protein, the purification tag can be removed with enterokinase, which cleaves C-terminal to its recognition site, producing polypeptides with completely native amino acid sequences. (bio-medicine.org)
  • Sequences from Malawi (GenBank Accession numbers: JN634586- JN634642) were accessed from a previously published study from our group. (nih.gov)
  • The Gambian pfcsp sequences (GenBank Accession numbers: JX885511-JX885521) derive from 55 participants in a clinical trial in the year 2000 [20], [21], and were generated by di-deoxy fluorescent capillary sequencing at The London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine (LSHTM). (nih.gov)
  • In addition, 3 overlapping fragments of the cDNA for the alpha-subunit of monkey NAD(+)-ICDH were amplified using oligonucleotide primers derived from the cDNA sequence of a subunit of bovine NAD(+)-ICDH (EMBL accession no: U07980). (mysciencework.com)
  • The nucleotide sequence data reported in this paper is available from EMBL/GenBank/DDBJ under accession number AB034727. (rupress.org)
  • The complete cDNA sequence of Xenopus laevis TPX2 is available from GenBank/EMBL/DDBJ under accession number AF244546. (rupress.org)
  • C) Sequence comparison of a region from TPX2 (corresponding to amino acids 297-356) with the human protein fls353 (amino acids 328-387) and predicted protein sequences from ESTs from mouse, chicken and zebrafish (these data are available from GenBank/EMBL/DDBJ under accession number AI415194, AJ394859, and AI883915). (rupress.org)
  • Our results suggest the existence of a common nucleotide-binding site for the polymerase and terminal transferase activities of pol lambda, as well as distinct roles of the amino acids Tyr505 and Phe506 in these two catalytic functions. (labome.org)
  • The location of the conserved sequences used to design degenerate oligonucleotides for PCR are denoted by arrows. (xenbase.org)
  • A 130-kD protein that coimmunoprecipitates with the tight junction protein ZO-1 was bulk purified from Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells and subjected to partial endopeptidase digestion and amino acid sequencing. (rupress.org)
  • Specifically defined" means those amino acids other than "Xaa" and those nucleotide bases other than "n" defined in accordance with the World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO) Handbook on Industrial Property Information and Documentation, Standard ST.25: Standard for the Presentation of Nucleotide and Amino Acid Sequence Listings in Patent Applications (1998), including Tables 1 through 6 in Appendix 2 (see MPEP § 2422 ). (bitlaw.com)
  • The oxidation of ethanol to acetic acid of this organism takes place in the periplasmic space, and this reaction is catalyzed by two membrane-bound enzymes complexes: the alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) and the aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH). (nih.gov)
  • It has been shown previously that NA is not required for virus replication or budding except in the final step of releasing the virus particles from the cell surface sialic acid receptor as well as preventing aggregation among the progeny virus particles ( 29 ). (asm.org)
  • This task is complicated because the phosphorylation motifs in amino acid sequences are considerably degenerated. (msk.ru)
  • 60% increase in sequence data for glycosyl hydrolases (181 additional enzymes or enzyme domains sequences have since become available) allowed us to update the classification not only by the addition of more members to already identified families, but also by the finding of ten new families. (portlandpress.com)
  • Examination of the deduced amino acid sequence of the monkey subunit and the partial sequence of the pig heart enzyme revealed a high level of sequence conservation. (mysciencework.com)
  • A double click will exit the dialog, and open the sequence editor for features, or the enzyme management dialog for restriction enzymes. (wikibooks.org)
  • Blood and tissue samples were collected from 72 rodents during fieldwork to evaluate the prevalence of hantavirus infection, by using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay IgG, and to characterize the rodent hantavirus reservoir(s), by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and sequencing. (ajtmh.org)
  • Moreover, the enzyme utilizes ethanol as a substrate in a reaction mechanism where this is subjected to a two-step oxidation process to produce acetic acid without releasing the acetaldehyde intermediary to the media. (nih.gov)
  • 1. The assumed specifically active fragment of bovine fibrinopeptide B with the amino acid sequence 15-21 and the fragment 12-21 containing the tripeptide residue Asp 12 -Arg 13 -Pro 14 have been synthesized. (springer.com)
  • The protein contains a single cysteine, and the sequence in the vicinity of this residue is similar to that around the cysteine residue of bacterial azurins. (biochemj.org)
  • In only one family of cysteine peptidases, is the role of the general base assigned to a residue other than a histidine: in peptidases from family C89 (acid ceramidase) an arginine is the general base. (embl.de)