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  • lipids
  • Identification of the two genes that underlie NPC disease, NPC1 and NPC2, has focused attention on the mechanisms by which lipids, in particular cholesterol, are transported out of the LE/LY compartment. (nih.gov)
  • amyloid precurs
  • We studied whether the previously observed vulnerability in mice overexpressing the 751-amino-acid isoform of human amyloid precursor protein (APP751) is regulated by human apolipoprotein E (apoE) alleles, which determine the relative risk for Alzheimer's disease and the susceptibility to various forms of acute brain damage. (ahajournals.org)
  • highly-acidic
  • As a result of the cellular export of hydrogen ions, the gastric lumen is maintained as a highly-acidic environment. (wikipedia.org)
  • Both the disulfide bonds and calcium coordination are necessary for the structural integrity of the domain during the receptor's repeated trips to the highly acidic interior of the endosome. (wikipedia.org)
  • cleaves
  • As a potent cysteine proteinase, SpeB cleaves multiple streptococcal virulence factors, including M protein ( 3 ), as well as many host factors controlling inflammation ( 18 , 20 ). (asm.org)
  • The papers are a continuation of research by Mangel and his various collaborators that explores how a protease (an enzyme that cleaves other proteins) is involved in the replication of adenoviruses. (eurekalert.org)
  • To elucidate the process, Mangel and his group placed a purified protease and one of the adenovirus proteins it cleaves in a test tube. (eurekalert.org)
  • target proteins
  • Ca2+ binding induces a conformational change in the EF-hand motif, leading to the activation or inactivation of target proteins. (nih.gov)
  • SUMOylation of target proteins has been shown to cause a number of different outcomes including altered localization and binding partners. (wikipedia.org)
  • polypeptide
  • Some proteins and most eukaryotic polypeptide hormones are synthesized as a large precursor polypeptide known as a polyprotein that requires proteolytic cleavage into individual smaller polypeptide chains. (wikipedia.org)
  • Many viruses also produce their proteins initially as a single polypeptide chain that were translated from a polycistronic mRNA. (wikipedia.org)
  • Substrate
  • However, it is also used in other cellular processes, most notably a substrate of enzymes that add or remove chemical groups from proteins, in posttranslational modifications. (wikipedia.org)
  • High-gene expression, increase of active transport, and conservation of redox status are one of the few examples that increase energy and substrate demands. (frontiersin.org)
  • We modified the BTS (in the transit peptide-like region) of the plastid precursor fucoxanthin-chlorophyll a/c binding protein D (FcpD) fused to GFP as model substrate for the characterization of pre-protein import into the secondary plastids of diatoms. (biomedcentral.com)
  • These may have dozens of nuclei, and typically express major osteoclast proteins but have significant differences from cells in living bone because of the not-natural substrate. (wikipedia.org)
  • hydrogen
  • Water is a very minor source of hydrogen ions in comparison to carbonic acid. (wikipedia.org)
  • Hypochlorous acid reacts readily with amino acids that have amino group side-chains, with the chlorine from HClO displacing a hydrogen, resulting in an organic chloramine. (wikipedia.org)
  • Plants synthesize the amino acids that they require, utilizing carbon and oxygen from the air, hydrogen from water, and nitrogen that has been converted to usable form through nitrogen fixation . (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • intracellular
  • This review discusses the role of the NPC2 protein in cholesterol transport, and the potential for concerted action of NPC1 and NPC2 in regulating normal intracellular cholesterol homeostasis. (nih.gov)
  • One can usually match the function of a protein by identifying in an 2D PAGE in simple proteomics because many intracellular somatic pathways are known. (wikipedia.org)
  • organic
  • concluded from their results that most organic chloramines decayed by internal rearrangement and that fewer available NH2 groups promoted attack on the peptide bond, resulting in cleavage of the protein. (wikipedia.org)
  • transporters
  • They are annotated as the SLC6 and SLC7 families of transporters according to phylogenetic proximity to characterized amino acid transporters (HUGO nomenclature). (biomedsearch.com)
  • In addition, roles of various receptors, ATP powered pumps, channels, and transporters in transport of vital molecules in maintenance of homeostasis and normal body functions have been described in detail. (hindawi.com)
  • More specifically, the endothelial cells also possess transporters which show permeability characteristics and allow transport of oxygen and CO 2 across the BBB, bu these selectively prevent other substances from crossing [ 1 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • abnormal
  • It is also important in the regulation of some physiological and cellular processes, as well as preventing the accumulation of unwanted or abnormal proteins in cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • gastric
  • Secretin is stored in this unusable form, and is activated by gastric acid in the lower intestine to neutralize the pH and ensure no damage is done to the small intestine by the aforementioned acid. (wikipedia.org)
  • 3. Gastric juices contain the acid stable proteases of the pepsin family , which produce large peptide fragments and some free amino acids. (gravitywaves.com)
  • disulfide bonds
  • Protein folding occurs in the single-chain Proinsulin form which facilitates formation of the ultimately inter-peptide disulfide bonds, and the ultimately intra-peptide disulfide bond, found in the native structure of insulin. (wikipedia.org)
  • This is because HClO oxidises sulfhydryl groups, leading to the formation of disulfide bonds that can result in crosslinking of proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • Disulfide bonds can also be oxidized by HClO to sulfinic acid. (wikipedia.org)
  • ions
  • In biology, hypochlorous acid is generated in activated neutrophils by myeloperoxidase-mediated peroxidation of chloride ions, and contributes to the destruction of bacteria. (wikipedia.org)
  • molecules
  • One sulfhydryl-containing amino acid can scavenge up to four molecules of HOCl. (wikipedia.org)
  • Consistent with this, it has been proposed that sulfhydryl groups of sulfur-containing amino acids can be oxidized a total of three times by three HClO molecules, with the fourth reacting with the α-amino group. (wikipedia.org)
  • rapidly
  • Typically, only a small fraction of a given protein is SUMOylated and this modification is rapidly reversed by the action of deSUMOylating enzymes. (wikipedia.org)
  • chiral
  • Novel chiral calixarene derivatives bearing amino alcohol moieties at the lower rim have been synthesized from the reaction of p-tert-butylcalixarene diester with various amino alcohols. (biomedsearch.com)
  • dietary
  • 2 Classic PKU is characterized by a Phe concentration higher than 1200 μmol/L (20 mg/dL) while receiving a normal dietary intake of protein. (aappublications.org)
  • The goal of this study was to determine the effect of the changes in gill morphology induced by dietary salt feeding on several aspects of gill function in rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss maintained in fresh water with specific emphasis on Cl(-) uptake (J(IN) Cl(-) ) and acid-base regulation. (biomedsearch.com)
  • sodium
  • It also affects the kidneys including sodium transport, lipid and glucose metabolism, and natriuretic effects. (wikipedia.org)
  • After separating by charge in one direction, sodium dodecyl sulfate is run in the other direction to separate the proteins by size. (wikipedia.org)
  • enzymes
  • Bicarbonate is a base that neutralizes the acid, thus establishing a pH favorable to the action of other digestive enzymes in the small intestine. (wikipedia.org)
  • Protein is three fourths of the dry weight of most cell matter and is involved in structures, hormones, enzymes, muscle contraction, immunologic response, and essential life functions. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Enzymes in turn are composed of amino acids and often non-peptidic cofactors that are essential for enzyme function. (wikipedia.org)
  • receptors
  • Acetylcholine, from parasympathetic activity via the vagus nerve and enteric nervous system, stimulating M3 receptors. (wikipedia.org)
  • secretory
  • It does this through at least three mechanisms: 1) By stimulating release of somatostatin, 2) By inhibiting release of gastrin in the pyloric antrum, and 3) By direct downregulation of the parietal cell acid secretory mechanics. (wikipedia.org)
  • They contain an extensive secretory network (called canaliculi) from which the HCl is secreted by active transport into the stomach. (wikipedia.org)
  • The size of the multinucleated assembled osteoclast allows it to focus the ion transport, protein secretory and vesicular transport capabilities of many macrophages on a localized area of bone. (wikipedia.org)
  • mechanism
  • It has been postulated that the evolutionary advantage of possessing a system of magnetosomes is linked to the ability of efficiently navigating within this zone of sharp chemical gradients by simplifying a potential three-dimensional search for more favourable conditions to a single dimension (see the "Magnetism" subsection below for a description of this mechanism). (wikipedia.org)
  • In addition, we show a self-targeting mechanism, in which the mature protein domain contributes to the transit peptide function. (biomedcentral.com)
  • activation
  • C4 binding protein a complement system regulatory protein that inhibits activation of the classical pathway. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Also just like URP the amino terminus can be modified without any loss in pharmacological activity suggesting that it is not needed for activation of the receptor. (wikipedia.org)
  • While the amino acid isn't necessary for the activation of urotensin II receptor the fact that it is conserved in different species suggests that it has a biological function that has not been discovered. (wikipedia.org)
  • The last step in formation of an infectious adenovirus particle is the activation of the protease and its cleavage-or cutting out-of some of the proteins used to assemble the virus particle," Mangel explained. (eurekalert.org)
  • The complement system of the immune response also involves a complex sequential proteolytic activation and interaction that result in an attack on invading pathogens. (wikipedia.org)
  • receptor
  • The discovery of the angiotensin-converting enzyme ACE2-angiotensin (1-7)-Mas receptor axis that exerts vasodilator, antiproliferative, and antifibrotic actions opposed to those of the ACE-Ang II-AT 1 receptor axis has led to the hypothesis that a decrease in the expression or activity of angiotensin (1-7) renders the systems more susceptible to the pathological actions of Ang II. (hindawi.com)
  • U-II is an agonist for the urotensin-II receptor which is a G protein-coupled receptor that primarily activates the alpha subunit Gαq11. (wikipedia.org)
  • The receptor also recognizes the apoE protein found in chylomicron remnants and VLDL remnants (IDL). (wikipedia.org)
  • Class 2 mutations prevent proper transport to the Golgi body needed for modifications to the receptor. (wikipedia.org)
  • enzymatic
  • protein C a vitamin K-dependent plasma protein that, when activated by thrombin, inhibits the clotting cascade by enzymatic cleavage of factors V and VIII and also enhances fibrinolysis. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • SUMO proteins are similar to ubiquitin, and SUMOylation is directed by an enzymatic cascade analogous to that involved in ubiquitination. (wikipedia.org)
  • cells
  • Additionally, it has been reported that hypoxia promotes an undifferentiated cell state in various stem and precursor cell populations, as well as in cancer stem cells ( 7 - 9 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • Blood brain barrier (BBB) is a vasculature of the central nervous system (CNS) that is formed by capillary endothelial cells. (hindawi.com)
  • These are quite different from other capillaries found in the body as their endothelial wall possesses tight junctions which obstruct transport between cells. (hindawi.com)
  • Plastids rely on protein supply by their host cells. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In a series of four papers published back to back online October 7, 2012, in the Journal of Biological Chemistry under the title "Regulation of a viral proteinase by a peptide and DNA in one-dimensional space," the group, led by Brookhaven biophysicist Walter F. Mangel, has raised the possibility that all proteins in the nucleus of cells interact by sliding on DNA in this fashion. (eurekalert.org)
  • Although all vertebrates require certain amino acids that their cells cannot synthesize, ruminant animals (such as cattle ) carry within one of the stomachs microbes that synthesize the amino acids needed by the animals. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • Small Ubiquitin-like Modifier (or SUMO) proteins are a family of small proteins that are covalently attached to and detached from other proteins in cells to modify their function. (wikipedia.org)
  • citric
  • The objective of this study was to compare the efficacy on smear layer removal of 4 decalcifying agents: 17% ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA), 20% citric acid, BioPure MTAD, and SmearClear. (biomedsearch.com)
  • The reaction can be generalised as such: R1-amino acid + R2-α-ketoacid ⇌ R1-α-ketoacid + R2-amino acid A very common α-keto acid is α-ketoglutarate, an intermediate in the citric acid cycle. (wikipedia.org)
  • Examples are as follows: Alanine + α-ketoglutarate ⇌ pyruvate + glutamate Aspartate + α-ketoglutarate ⇌ oxaloacetate + glutamate Both pyruvate and oxaloacetate are key components of cellular metabolism, contributing as substrates or intermediates in fundamental processes such as glycolysis, gluconeogenesis, and the citric acid cycle. (wikipedia.org)