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  • acute
  • age range 20-67 years [median 38 years]) who had serologic evidence for acute or recent RRV infection, as confirmed by indirect immunofluorescence assay and virus neutralization assay ( 2 ) ( Table ). (cdc.gov)
  • Sindbis
  • ii) Most importantly, very low, subprotective doses of IFN-β, which do not induce the antiviral response in uninfected cells, have a very strong stimulatory effect on the cells' ability to express type I IFN and activate interferon-stimulated genes during subsequent infection with Sindbis virus (SINV). (asm.org)
  • clinical
  • An epidemiological survey carried out in Ireland in 2003 indicated that within individual farms there were significant differences in the susceptibility of different strains of farmed Atlantic salmon to infection with SPDV, as measured by levels of clinical disease and mortality. (edu.au)
  • Pre-clinical experiments conducted by researchers at Griffith University's Institute for Glycomics on the Gold Coast have demonstrated world-first results showing that the historic drug, pentosan polysulfate sodium (PPS), can successfully treat both the acute and chronic disease manifestations symptoms of alphavirus infections in the animal model. (medindia.net)
  • The viraemic phase of alphaviruses is 2-8 days, so the success of RT-PCR to detect the virus depends on early presentation and the clinical suspicion of a possible alphavirus infection. (mja.com.au)
  • viral infections
  • Recognition of viral double-strand RNA (dsRNA) molecules by intracellular Toll-like receptors (TLRs) or retinoic acid inducible gene I-like receptors (RLRs) is a central event which entails the early steps of the immune response elicited during viral infections. (frontiersin.org)
  • infectious
  • Treatment of alphavirus-infected primary cultured rat neurons with these monoclonal antibodies to E2 resulted in decreased viral protein synthesis, followed by gradual termination of mature infectious virion production. (sciencemag.org)
  • Within 6 h, infected cells begin virus release, and within 12 to 16 h postinfection they can produce 10 3 to 10 4 infectious virions per cell and they induce a next round of infection. (asm.org)
  • Our study is the first to demonstrate that human chondrocyte cells are permissive to RRV infection, support the production of infectious virus, and produce soluble factors including HPSE, which may contribute to joint degradation and the pathogenesis of disease. (mdpi.com)
  • cellular
  • Humoral immunity is important for protection against viral infection and neutralization of extracellular virus, but clearance of virus from infected tissues is thought to be mediated solely by cellular immunity. (sciencemag.org)
  • Moreover, most of the alphaviruses, if not all of them, have developed very efficient means of interfering with induction of the cellular antiviral response ( 4 , 6 , 15 - 17 ). (asm.org)
  • One of the most efficient means of interference with the innate immune response utilized by alphaviruses is inhibition of cellular transcription. (asm.org)
  • immunity
  • Cell-mediated immunity and neutralizing antibodies contribute to control of human immunodeficiency virus/simian immunodeficiency virus (HIV/SIV) infection, but the role of nonneutralizing antibodies is not defined. (asm.org)
  • skeletal muscle
  • In order to evaluate the infection profile of primary human skeletal muscle and chondrocyte cells to Ross River virus (RRV) in vitro, cells were infected at a multiplicity of infection (MOI) of 1 over a period of two days. (mdpi.com)
  • Both human primary skeletal muscle and chondrocyte cells are able to support productive RRV infection in vitro. (mdpi.com)
  • Atlantic
  • Pancreas disease (PD) of farmed Atlantic salmon Salmo salar L., which is caused by an alphavirus known as salmon pancreas disease virus (SPDV), can have serious economic consequences. (edu.au)
  • These results, obtained using a challenge model, confirm that there are strain differences in the susceptibility to experimental SPDV infection in commercial farmed Atlantic salmon. (edu.au)
  • protein
  • The team has for the first time shown that the protein pentraxin 3 (PTX3) plays a crucial role in promoting alphavirus infection and disease. (eurekalert.org)
  • For the New World alphaviruses, the capsid protein has been found to be a key player in transcription inhibition ( 2 , 15 , 17 ). (asm.org)
  • lethal
  • Despite the successes of highly active antiretroviral therapy in slowing progression to AIDS after human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, thus transforming a lethal disease into a manageable chronic infection ( 14 ), a vaccine able to prevent the transmission of HIV remains the ultimate goal. (asm.org)
  • Delayed Time-to-Treatment of an Antisense Morpholino Oligomer Is Effective against Lethal Marburg Virus Infection in Cynomolgus Macaques. (nih.gov)
  • A single phosphorodiamidate morpholino oligomer targeting VP24 protects rhesus monkeys against lethal Ebola virus infection. (nih.gov)
  • Determine
  • A rewarding diagnostic approach is to determine the extent of the patient's illness and to determine whether central nervous system (CNS) infection is present. (medscape.com)
  • To determine the effect of PKR on SFV infection, we studied the course of infection in wild-type (wt) mice, mice with a genetic deletion of PKR (PKR −/− ) and mouse embryo fibroblasts (MEFs) derived from these mice. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • permissive
  • In cells permissive to viral infection, this leads to robust transcription inhibition within 4 to 6 h postinfection and, thus, prevents activation of antiviral genes. (asm.org)
  • treatment
  • There are very limited vaccines and treatment options available to those infected with alphaviruses, resulting in significant human and animal morbidity and mortality each year. (bsu.edu)
  • The most important findings are as follows: (i) within the first 2 to 4 h postinfection, alphavirus-infected cells become unable to respond to IFN-β, and this occurs before the virus-induced decrease in STAT1 phosphorylation in response to IFN treatment. (asm.org)
  • rapidly
  • Historically, the best vaccine-mediated protection is achieved when administration of the vaccine mimics the natural route of infection, thereby establishing appropriate immunologic memory that can rapidly respond when an actual infection occurs. (asm.org)
  • Compared with other alphavirus infections, EEE progresses more rapidly to both CNS involvement and death. (medscape.com)
  • immune
  • Persons with chronic health conditions, a weakened immune system, infants, and older persons are at risk of developing complications with this infection. (iamat.org)
  • SINV
  • The broad species tropism of SINV allows for infection of insect, avian, and mammalian cells8. (jove.com)
  • chronic
  • The historic drug, pentosan polysulfate sodium (PPS), has been observed to successfully treat both the acute and chronic disease manifestations symptoms of alphavirus infections in the animal model. (medindia.net)