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  • metals and their alloys
  • Every person is familiar with regard to the comparative hardness of these two bodies, but very few are acquainted with the comparative hardness of other bodies, especially metals and their alloys, although a scale of hardness has long been adopted among mineralogists. (scientificamerican.com)
  • Physical properties of the pure metals and their alloys are given and the effects of adding small quantities of alloying elements are shown. (sae.org)
  • Complex Metall
  • Complex metallic alloys (CMAs) of complex intermetallics (CIMs) are intermetallic compounds characterized by the following structural features: large unit cells, comprising some tens up to thousands of atoms, the presence of well-defined atom clusters, frequently of icosahedral point group symmetry, the occurrence of inherent disorder in the ideal structure. (wikipedia.org)
  • 2011). Complex Metallic Alloys: Fundamentals and Applications. (wikipedia.org)
  • Aluminium also forms complex metallic alloys, like β-Al-Mg, ξ'-Al-Pd-Mn, T-Al3Mn AA-8000: used for electrical building wire in the U.S. per the National Electrical Code, replacing AA-1350. (wikipedia.org)
  • brittle
  • This makes the metal harder and more brittle than a single-phase alloy, and also affects the way the metal responds to hardening by hammering and lathing, and greatly restricts the use of mechanised techniques of manufacture. (wikipedia.org)
  • but an alloy of 34-98 copper, and 65-02 tin is very brittle. (scientificamerican.com)
  • On the other hand, an increased quantity of copper-from but one-third to that of the quantity of tin in the bronze, up until it (the copper) is four times the quantity of tin-renders the alloy brittle, a result which would not be expected, judging from the nature of the metals in their simple conditions. (scientificamerican.com)
  • The topic is very challenging, since TiAl alloys are inherently brittle at room temperature, and the rapid solidification conditions during AM can lead to complex phase transformation sequences, pronounced element segregation and cracking. (idw-online.de)
  • nuclear
  • Tube Alloys was a codename of the clandestine research and development programme, authorised by the United Kingdom, with participation from Canada, to develop nuclear weapons during the Second World War. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Tube Alloys programme in Britain and Canada was the first nuclear weapons project. (wikipedia.org)
  • This alloy can also be used in some different applications like piping in nuclear plants. (wikipedia.org)
  • Before the classification of high entropy alloys and multi-component systems, nuclear science had highlighted a system that can now be classified a high entropy alloy: within nuclear fuels Mo-Pd-Rh-Ru-Tc particles form at grain boundaries and at fission gas bubbles. (wikipedia.org)
  • One of the main uses of zirconium alloys is in nuclear technology, as cladding of fuel rods in nuclear reactors, especially water reactors. (wikipedia.org)
  • A typical composition of nuclear-grade zirconium alloys is more than 95 weight percent zirconium and less than 2% of tin, niobium, iron, chromium, nickel and other metals, which are added to improve mechanical properties and corrosion resistance. (wikipedia.org)
  • Nuclear-grade zirconium alloys contain more than 95% Zr, and therefore most of their properties are similar to those of pure zirconium. (wikipedia.org)
  • ductile
  • Ta - 10% W) → also called 'tantaloy 60 metall' uses 9 to 11% of tungsten, this alloy is less ductile than the other alloys, with less plasticity the material can be used in different situations like in aerospace materials and furnaces. (wikipedia.org)
  • Titanium
  • Rolled Alloys has expanded through acquisitions of other companies: Harvey Titanium, Weaver Steel, Super Alloys, SMS London, Clasma Trade, and RA® Materials (formerly Weir Materials and Foundry). (wikipedia.org)
  • The aim of the awarded PhD thesis of Christoph Kenel was to develop a novel titanium aluminide (TiAl) alloy, particularly for use in beam-based additive manufacturing technologies, and to include nano-sized oxide dispersoids to improve their high temperature mechanical properties. (idw-online.de)
  • For this reason, bicycle frames made of aluminium alloys make use of larger tube diameters than steel or titanium in order to yield the desired stiffness and strength. (wikipedia.org)
  • Quenched titanium-ruthenium alloys containing 0.25-4 at % ruthenium have been studied using X-ray diffraction analysis, optical metallography, transmission electron microscopy, and microhardness measurements. (springer.com)
  • A. V. Dobromyslov and V. A. Elkin, "Martensitic transformation and metastable β-phase in binary titanium alloys with d-metals of 4-6 periods," Scr. (springer.com)
  • phase in binary titanium-base alloys with d-Metals of V-VIII Groups," Mater. (springer.com)
  • A. I. Antipov and V. N. Moiseev, "On the coefficient of stablization β of titanium alloys," Metalloved. (springer.com)
  • L. N. Guseva and L. K. Dolinskaya, "Metastable phases in titanium alloys with Group VIII elements quenched from the β field," Izv. (springer.com)
  • L. N. Guseva, N. G. Boriskina, and L. K. Dolinskaya, "Metastable phases in titanium-rich Ti-Ru alloys," Izv. (springer.com)
  • A. V. Dobromyslov, "Phase transformations and structure of titanium alloys," in New promising materials and new technologies , Ed. by N. I. Noskova (UrO RAN, Ekaterinburg, 2001) [in Russian]. (springer.com)
  • M. Enomoto and M. Fujita, "Analysis of the composition of a plates isothermally formed in titanium binary alloys," Metall. (springer.com)
  • E. V. Collins, Physical Metallurgy of Titanium Alloys (Metallurgiya, Moscow, 1988) [in Russian]. (springer.com)
  • atoms
  • As time passes, the atoms of these supersaturated alloys can separate from the crystal lattice, becoming more stable, and form a second phase that serve to reinforce the crystals internally. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the electron-diffraction patterns of alloy containing 4 at % ruthenium, diffuse scattering that indicates the formation of ω-phase-related displacements in the locations of atoms has been observed. (springer.com)
  • phases
  • The multi-component alloys Yeh developed also consisted mostly or entirely of solid solution phases, contrary to what had been expected from earlier work in multi-component systems, primarily in the field of metallic glasses. (wikipedia.org)
  • An alloy may be a solid solution of metal elements (a single phase) or a mixture of metallic phases (two or more solutions). (wikipedia.org)
  • Zintl phases are also sometimes considered alloys depending on bond types (see also: Van Arkel-Ketelaar triangle for information on classifying bonding in binary compounds). (wikipedia.org)
  • room temperature
  • Such an alloy is two-phase at room temperature, like bell metal, and cannot be cold-rolled so the cymbals must be produced by the traditional casting process. (wikipedia.org)
  • Schuh's team showed nickel-tungsten alloys remain stable indefinitely at room temperature and are highly resistant to decomposition when heated. (redorbit.com)
  • Mater
  • H. J. Lee and H. I. Aaronson, "Eutectoid Decomposition Mechanisms in Hypoeutectoid Ti-X Alloys," J. Mater. (springer.com)
  • binary
  • The equilibrium phase diagram of the alloy formed between the two components Tantalum and tungsten is a binary diagram, where the two components are totally soluble on each other. (wikipedia.org)
  • Even among binary alloy systems, there are few common cases of both elements being used in nearly-equal proportions such as Pb-Sn solders. (wikipedia.org)
  • desirable
  • These alloys are currently the focus of significant attention in materials science and engineering because they have potentially desirable properties. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is the combination of all of these properties - antifouling, high strength, and corrosion resistance - that has made copper alloys a desirable material for such marine applications as condenser tubing, water intake screens, ship hulls, offshore structure, and sheathing. (wikipedia.org)
  • temperatures
  • Heat-treating as a means of increasing the strength per unit weight of the alloys is discussed at length, together with the effects of natural aging and artificial aging at elevated temperatures and of quenching in hot and in cold water after heat-treating. (sae.org)
  • Oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) alloys are a class of materials that offer an unmatched combination of deformation-, creep-, coarsening- oxidation- and corrosion resistance at temperatures up to 1,000 °C. (idw-online.de)
  • Since aluminium alloys are susceptible to warping at elevated temperatures, the cooling system of such engines is critical. (wikipedia.org)
  • nickel
  • Meteorites are sometimes made of naturally occurring alloys of iron and nickel, but are not native to the Earth. (wikipedia.org)
  • Originally developed and used by the aerospace industry, HTA alloys are made from a high nickel-content metal with extreme temperature and fatigue cracking resistance. (sae.org)
  • A magnetic alloy is a combination of various metals from the periodic table that contains at least one of the three main magnetic elements: iron (Fe), nickel (Ni), and cobalt (Co). Such an alloy must contain but is not limited to one or more of these metals. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, Schuh and his colleagues have developed a new nickel-tungsten alloy that they say is not only safer than chrome, but also more durable. (redorbit.com)
  • admixture
  • An alloy is a mixture of chemical elements, which forms an impure substance (admixture) that retains the characteristics of a metal. (wikipedia.org)
  • Materials
  • Properties and Selection Nonferrous Alloys and Special-Purpose Materials. (wikipedia.org)
  • Most physical properties of CMAs show distinct differences with respect to the behaviour of normal metallic alloys and therefore these materials possess a high potential for technological application. (wikipedia.org)
  • The industry is now actively deploying copper alloy netting and structural materials in commercial large-scale fish farming operations around the world. (wikipedia.org)
  • Freudenberg-NOK Sealing Technologies provides high-temperature alloy (HTA) metal materials for use in its automotive stamped gaskets product division. (sae.org)
  • composition
  • inexpensive casting metal of non-specific composition The purity of gold alloys is expressed in karats, (UK: carats) which indicates the ratio of the minimum amount of gold (by mass) over 24 parts total. (wikipedia.org)
  • The following table outlines the chemical composition of various grades of copper alloys. (wikipedia.org)
  • The composition and the main applications of common reactor-grade alloys are summarized below. (wikipedia.org)
  • constituents
  • The alloy constituents are usually measured by mass percentage for practical applications, and in atomic fraction for basic science studies. (wikipedia.org)
  • The mechanical properties of alloys will often be quite different from those of its individual constituents. (wikipedia.org)
  • Alloy systems are classified by a number system (ANSI) or by names indicating their main alloying constituents (DIN and ISO). (wikipedia.org)
  • elements
  • The properties of the final alloy are a combination of properties from the two elements: tungsten, the element with the highest melting point in the periodic table, and tantalum which has high corrosion resistance. (wikipedia.org)
  • Some of the main alloying elements are optionally listed after the alloy names. (wikipedia.org)
  • For example, additional elements can be added to iron to improve its properties, thereby creating an iron based alloy. (wikipedia.org)
  • Yeh originally defined HEAs as alloys containing at least 5 elements with concentrations between 5 and 35 atomic percent. (wikipedia.org)
  • Some authors have described 4-component alloys as high-entropy alloys while others have suggested that alloys meeting the other requirements of HEAs, but with only 2-4 elements or a mixing entropy between R and 1.5R should be considered "medium-entropy" alloys. (wikipedia.org)
  • Alloys are made by mixing two or more elements, at least one of which is a metal. (wikipedia.org)
  • Although the elements of an alloy usually must be soluble in the liquid state, they may not always be soluble in the solid state. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, in other alloys, the insoluble elements may not separate until after crystallization occurs. (wikipedia.org)
  • There are about 100 alloys in the Elektron range, containing from 0% to 9.5% of some of the following elements in varying proportions: aluminium ( (wikipedia.org)
  • high
  • Due to the high costs, and the fact that Britain was fighting a war within bombing range of its enemies, Tube Alloys was ultimately subsumed into the Manhattan Project. (wikipedia.org)
  • The tantalum-tungsten alloys are characterized by their high melting point and the tension resistance. (wikipedia.org)
  • Ta - 7.5% W) → also called '61 metal', has between 7 and 8% Tungsten the difference from this alloy to the others is that this alloy represents a high resilience modulus while maintaining refractory properties. (wikipedia.org)
  • The alloys of tantalum-tungsten have high corrosion resistance, and refractory properties. (wikipedia.org)
  • High-entropy alloys (HEAs) are substances that are constructed with equal or nearly equal quantities of five or more metals. (wikipedia.org)
  • Hence, high entropy alloys are a novel material. (wikipedia.org)
  • Yeh also coined the term "high-entropy alloy" when he attributed the high configurational entropy as the mechanism stabilizing the solid solution phase. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cantor, not knowing of Yeh's work, did not describe his alloy as a "high-entropy" alloy, but the base alloy he developed, equiatomic FeCrMnNiCo, has been the subject of considerable work in the field. (wikipedia.org)
  • Research into high-entropy alloys has found that in multi-component systems, these rules tend to be relaxed slightly. (wikipedia.org)
  • Due to its very-high strength, but still substantial toughness, and its ability to be greatly altered by heat treatment, steel is one of the most useful and common alloys in modern use. (wikipedia.org)
  • Aluminium-magnesium alloys are both lighter than other aluminium alloys and much less flammable than alloys that contain a very high percentage of magnesium. (wikipedia.org)
  • A brief historical overview of alloys and manufacturing technologies is given in Ref. Aluminium alloys are used extensively in aircraft due to their high strength-to-weight ratio. (wikipedia.org)
  • made
  • The density of magnesium is very low, so alloys that are made mainly from it are very light. (everything2.com)
  • Carbon steel can be made by varying only the carbon content, producing soft alloys like mild steel or hard alloys like spring steel. (wikipedia.org)
  • The strongest magnetic element is iron, which allows items made out of these alloys to attract to magnets. (wikipedia.org)
  • The British and German incendiary bombs, used extensively during World War II, weighed about 1 kg and consisted of an outer casing made of elektron alloy, which was filled with thermite pellets and fitted with a fuse. (wikipedia.org)
  • In automotive engineering, cars made of aluminium alloys employ space frames made of extruded profiles to ensure rigidity. (wikipedia.org)